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The Philippine During Martial law years

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The Philippine During Martial law years

  1. 1. The Philippines History- During Martial Law years by: Hanan Edres
  2. 2. The Marcos administration (1965–72) First term  On 1965, Ferdinand Marcos won the Presidential election and became the 10th President of the Philippines.  His first term was marked with increased industrialization and the creation of solid infrastructure nationwide, such as the North Luzon Expressway and the Maharlika Highway.  Marcos also increased the funding of the Armed Forces, to help modernize Philippine capability to defend itself from foreign or internal threats.  He soon mobilized the army to help in construction.  Marcos also established schools and learning institutions nationwide, more than of his predecessors combined.
  3. 3. Second term  In 1969, Marcos ran for a second term (allowable under the 1935 constitution then in effect[1]), and won versus 11 other candidates. Marcos began his second term by creating a personality cult of sorts around himself, mandating that all public institutions must carry a picture of the President, and even replacing some billboards with his propaganda messages. Marcos' second term was marked by economic turmoil brought about by factors both external and internal, a restless student body who demanded educational reforms, a rising crime rate, and a growing Communist insurgency, among other things.  In October 30, 1970 a massive protest in Mendiola, were made by student protesters and communist elements known First Quarter Storm. They became violent, and started to destroy Government properties. They were later successfully quelled by Police forces using batons and fire trucks. This marked a period of student protesting around Metro Manila, especially near the University Belt. At one point, student activists and communist elements took over the Diliman campus of the University of the Philippines and declared it a free commune, which the government gave them time for their right to express themselves before dissolving the rally. Protests continued over the next few years. Criminals took advantage of this situation and started looting, while Communist elements started preaching about the benefits of a Communist Government. Due to the threat of Communism takeover and rising criminality, Martial Law was declared in 1972.
  4. 4. Plaza Miranda bombing  On August 21, 1971, the Liberal Party held a campaign rally at the Plaza Miranda to proclaim their Senatorial bets and their candidate for the Mayoralty of Manila. Two grenades were reportedly tossed on stage, injuring almost everybody present. As a result, Marcos suspended the writ of habeas corpus in order to arrest those behind the attack. He rounded up a list of supposed suspects, Maoists, and other undesirables. In an effort to eliminate rivals in the Liberal Party, Marcos and his allies took an investigation and which it turnout - coming from the opposition .The writ was briefly restored on January 11, 1972 amidst widespread protest. Decades later,the CPP under Jose Ma. Sison admitted that they were responsible for the Plaza Miranda attack, though Marcos got blamed for it presumably to eliminate the Opposition senatorial candidates considering that his own candidates are lagging.
  5. 5. Martial law (1972–1981)  In September 1972, then Defence Minister Juan Ponce Enrile was ambushed while en route home. The assassination attempt, which Enrile claims was real, along with the growing threat of the New People's Army, citizen unrest, a restless student body who demanded educational reforms, a rising crime rate and a growing Communist insurgency. On September 21 President Marcos issued Presidential Proclamation No. 1081, proclaiming a State of martial law in the Philippines.Due to uncontrolled situation of the country
  6. 6. Martial law (1972–1981)  Marcos, who henceforth ruled by decree, curtailed press freedom and other civil liberties, abolished Congress, controlled media establishments, and ordered the arrest of opposition leaders and militant activists, including his staunchest critics Senators Benigno Aquino, Jr. and Jose W. Diokno. Initially, the declaration of martial law was well-received, given the social turmoil of the period.  it was made clear that Martial law was no military take-over of the government, the immediate reaction of some sectors of the nation was of astonishment and dismay, for even if everyone knew that the gravity of the disorder, lawlessness, social injustice, youth and student activism and other disturbing movements had reached a point of peril, they felt that martial law over the whole country was not yet warranted.
  7. 7. Martial law (1972–1981)  Worse, political motivations were ascribed to be behind the proclamation, what with the then constitutionally unextendible term of President Marcos about to expire, and this suspicion became more credible when opposition leaders and outspoken anti- administration media people who did not hesitate to resort even to libel were immediately placed under indefinite detention in military camps and other unusual restrictions were imposed on travel, communication, freedom of speech and of the press, etc. In a word, the martial law regime was anathema to no small portion of the populace.  In other words, the problem was what may be needed for national survival or the restoration of normalcy in the face of a crisis or an emergency should be reconciled with the popular mentality and attitude of the people against martial law.
  8. 8.  recent speech before his fellow alumni of the University of the Philippines College of Law, President Marcos declared his intention to lift martial law by the end of January 1981 December 12, 1980 when the President declared: "We must erase once and for all from the public mind any doubts as to our resolve to bring martial law to an end and to minister to an orderly transition to parliamentary government." December 22, 1980 when the President proclaimed: "A few days ago, following extensive consultations with a broad representation of various sectors of the nation and in keeping with the pledge made a year ago during the seventh anniversary of the New Society, I came to the firm decision that martial law should be lifted before the end of January, 1981, and that only in a few areas where grave problems of public order and national security continue to exist will martial law continue to remain in force."
  9. 9.  Economy During the early years of Martial Law, the Philippine economy grew a significant amount, spurred by heavy borrowing from transnational banking companies and government-to-government loans. By 1980, however, the heavy burden of foreign debt servicing took its toll in the economy, and mismanagement of important industries due to crony capitalism led the economy to a downturn. The assassination of popular opposition leader Benigno Aquino in 1983 led to the pull-out of foreign capital from the country, resulting in negative GDP growth in 1983 and 1984.
  10. 10.  Parliamentary elections The first formal elections since 1969 for an interim Batasang Pambansa (National Assembly) were held on April 7, 1978. Sen. Aquino, then in jail, decided to run as leader of his party, the Lakas ng Bayan party, but they did not win any seats in the Batasan, despite public support and their apparent victory. The night before the elections, supporters of the LABAN party showed their solidarity by setting up a "noise barrage" in Manila, creating noise the whole night until dawn.
  11. 11. Proclamation No. 1081 o Proclamation No 1081 was the declaration of Martial Law in the Philippines by President Ferdinand E. Marcos. It became effective throughout the entire country on 21 September 1972, and was announced to the public two days later. It was formally lifted on 17 January 1981—six months before the first presidential election in the Philippines in twelve years.  Under the pretext of an assassination of then-Defence Secretary (now Senator) Juan Ponce Enrile and an ensuing Communist insurgency, President Marcos enacted the Proclamation that he might be able to rule by military power.  He initially signed the Proclamation on 17 September 1972, but it was postdated to 21 September because of Marcos' superstitions and numerological beliefs. Marcos formally announced the Proclamation in a live television and radio broadcast from Malacañang Palace a further two days later on the evening of 23 September 1972.
  12. 12. Proclamation No. 1081  The following year, President Marcos replaced the 1935 Constitution with a new one that changed the system of government from a presidential to a parliamentary one, with himself remaining in power as both head of state (with the title "President") and head of government (titled "Prime Minister"). President Marcos also manipulated elections and had his political coalition–the Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (KBL; English: New Society Movement)– control the unicameral legislature he created, known as the Batasang Pambansa.  President Marcos formally lifted Martial Law on 17 January 1981, several weeks before the first pastoral visit of Pope John Paul II to the Philippines for the beatification of Lorenzo Ruiz.
  13. 13. General orders  General Order No. 1 - The President proclaimed that he shall direct the entire government, including all its agencies and instrumentalities, and exercise all powers of his office including his role as the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines.  General Order No. 2 – The President directed the Secretary of National Defense to arrest or cause the arrest and take into his custody the individuals named in the attached list and to hold them until otherwise so ordered by the President or by his duly designated representative, as well as to arrest or cause the arrest and take into his custody and to hold them otherwise ordered released by him or by his duly authorized representative such persons who may have committed crimes described in the Order.  General Order No.3 – The President ordered that all executive departments, bureaus, offices, agencies and instrumentalities of the National Government, government owned or controlled corporations, as well all governments of all the provinces, cities, municipalities and barrios should continue to function under their present officers and employees, until otherwise ordered by the President or by his duly designated representatives. The President further ordered that the Judiciary should continue to function in accordance with its present organization and personnel, and should try to decide in accordance with existing laws all criminal and civil cases, except certain cases enumerated in the Order.
  14. 14.  General Order No. 4 – The President ordered that a curfew be maintained and enforced throughout the Philippines from twelve o’clock midnight until four o’clock in the morning.  General Order No. 5 – All rallies, demonstrations and other forms of group actions including strikes and picketing in vital industries such as in companies engaged in manufacture or processing as well as in production or processing of essential commodities or products for exports, and in companies engaged in banking of any kind, as well as in hospitals and in schools and colleges are prohibited.  General Order No. 6 – No person shall keep, possess or carry outside of his residence any firearm unless such person is duly authorized to keep, possess or carry any such Philippines except to those who are being sent abroad in the service of the Philippines.
  15. 15. The Fourth Republic (1981–1986)  The opposition boycotted the June 16, 1981 presidential elections, which pitted Marcos and his Kilusang Bagong Lipunan party against retired Gen. Alejo Santos of the Nacionalista Party. Marcos won by a margin of over 16 million votes, which constitutionally allowed him to have another six-year term. Finance Minister Cesar Virata was elected as Prime Minister by the Batasang Pambansa.  In 1983, opposition leader Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino Jr. was assassinated at Manila International Airport upon his return to the Philippines after a long period of exile in the United States. This coalesced popular dissatisfaction with Marcos and began a series of events, including pressure from the United States, that culminated in a snap presidential election on February 7, 1986.  The election was marred by widespread reports of violence and tampering with results by the Marcos side.
  16. 16.  The official election canvasser, the Commission on Elections (COMELEC), declared Marcos the winner, despite a walk-out staged by disenfranchised computer technicians on February 9. According to the COMELEC's final tally, Marcos won with 10,807,197 votes to Aquino's 9,291,761 votes. By contrast, the final tally of NAMFREL, an accredited poll watcher, said Aquino won with 7,835,070 votes to Marcos's 7,053,068.  However, the complete NAMFREL count done in 1987 revealed that Marcos would still have won with 10,635,458 against Aquino's 9,853,456.  A peaceful civilian-military uprising forced Marcos into exile and installed Corazon Aquino as president on 25 February 1986.
  17. 17. End of the Marcos regime  The fraudulent result was not accepted by Aquino and her supporters. International observers, including a U.S. delegation led by Sen. Richard Lugar , denounced the official results. Gen. Fidel Ramos and Defence Minister Juan Ponce Enrile then withdrew their support for the administration, defecting and barricading themselves within Camp Crame. This resulted in the peaceful 1986 EDSA Revolution that forced Marcos into exile in Hawaii while Corazon Aquino became the 11th President of the Philippines on February 25, 1986. Under Aquino, the Philippines would adopt a new constitution, ending the Fourth Republic and ushering the beginning of the Fifth Republic.

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