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  1. 1. OIL & NATURAL GAS CORPORATION LIMITED A Project Report on “SUMMER TRAINING IN CENTRAL WORKSHOP AT ONGC, VADODARA” Submitted by:- SHWETANK PANDEY Department Of Mechanical Engineering PES INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, BANGALORE
  2. 2. 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am privileged to be among the few students pursuing degree in Mechanical Engineering from BMS College of Engineering, Bangalore. I am grateful that I have been given this opportunity of vocational training from Central Workshop at ONGC, Vadodara. The joy and satisfaction that accompany the successful completion of any task would remain meaningless without the mention of those who made it possible. Foremost, I am highly obliged to Shri. R G Ram, Head-CWS for permitting me to get trained in the Central Workshop. I am very much thankful to Shri. C L Arora, Head-RTI for his help and support during the summer training. I would like to thank Shri. H T Arora, CE(M) from the Regional Training Institute for the training order and his constant help and guidance through the training period. In presenting this project report, I express profound gratitude to my mentor, Shri. O P Gupta, CE(M) for extending help and support in every possible way. The training and project report has been successfully completed with the full cooperation of:- 1. Shri. O P Gupta, CE(M) – I/C BOP Repair Shop 2. Shri. Suresh Babu, SE(E) – I/C QHSE Section 3. Shri. A K Tyagi, CE(M) – I/C Diesel Shop 4. Shri. J C Deka, CE(M) – I/C Assembly Shop 5. Shri. G H Dalal, CE(M) – I/C Machine Shop & Production Shop 6. Shri. G P Chowdhury, CE(M) – I/C PER Shop 7. Shri. Narottam Singh, CE(M) – I/C Rig Repair & Hydraulic Repair Shop 8. Shri. A K Das, DGM(M) – I/C Fabrication Shop I sincerely thank all the shop floor incharge, technicians and workers. It has been a great pleasure to work under their guidance. SHWETANK PANDEY PES INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, Bangalore
  3. 3. 3 CONTENTS S.NO TOPICS PAGE NO. 1. INTRODUCTION 4 2. OVERVIEW ACTIVITY - PROCEDURE OF OIL EXPLORATION 14 3. CENTRAL WORKSHOP, VADODARA 21 4. QHSE SECTION 23 5. BLOW OUT PREVENTER(BOP)SHOP 29 6. DIESEL SHOP 36 7. ASSEMBLY SHOP 47 8. MACHINE SHOP AND PRODUCTIONSHOP 58 9. PRODUCTIONEQUIPMENT REPAIR(PER) SHOP 66 10. RIG REPAIR & HYDRAULIC REPAIR SHOP 69 11. FABRICATION SHOP 75
  4. 4. 4 INTRODUCTION ONGC was setup under the visionary leadership of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. Pandit Nehru reposed faith in Shri Keshav Dev Malviya who laid the foundation of ONGC in the form of Oil and Gas division, under Geological Survey of India, in 1955.A fewmonths later, it was converted into an Oil and Natural Gas Directorate. The Directorate was converted into Commission and christened Oil & Natural Gas Commissionon14thAugust 1956.In1994, Oil and Natural Gas Commission was converted in to a Corporation, and in 1997 it was recognized as one of the Navratnas by the Governmentof India. Subsequently,it has beenconferred with Maharatna status in the year 2010. Over 56 years of its existence ONGC has crossed many a milestone to realize the energy dreams of India. The journey of ONGC, over these years, has beena tale of conviction,courage and commitment.ONGCs’superlative efforts have resulted in converting earlier frontierareas into new hydrocarbon provinces. From a modest beginning, ONGC has grown to be one of the largest E&P companies in the world in terms of reserves and production. ONGC as an integrated Oil & Gas Corporate has developed in-house capability in all aspects of exploration and production business i.e., Acquisition, Processing & Interpretation (API)of Seismic data, drilling, work- over and well stimulation operations,engineering & construction,production, processing, refining, transportation, marketing, applied R&D and training, etc. Since its inception, ONGC has been instrumental in transforming the country's limited upstream sector into a large viable playing field, with its activities spread throughout India and significantly in overseas territories. In
  5. 5. 5 the inland areas, ONGC not only found new resources in Assam but also established new oil province in Cambay basin (Gujarat), while adding new petroliferous areas in the Assam-Arakan Fold Belt and East coast basins (both inland and offshore). ONGC went offshorein early 70's and discovered a giant oil field in the form of Bombay High, now known as Mumbai High. This discovery, along with subsequent discoveries of huge oil and gas fields in Western offshore changed the oil scenario of the country. Subsequently, over 5 billion tonnes of hydrocarbons, which were present in the country, were discovered. The most important contribution of ONGC, however, is its self-reliance and development of core competence in E&P activities at a globally competitive level. Oil & Natural Gas Commissionwas converted to Oil & Natural Gas Corporation Limited in 1993. During March 1999, ONGC, Indian Oil Corporation (IOC) - a downstream giant and Gas Authority of India Limited (GAIL) - the only gas marketing company,agreed to have cross holding in each other's stock.This paved the way for long-term strategic alliances both for the domestic and overseas business opportunities in the energy value chain, amongst themselves. Consequentto this the Government sold off 10 per cent of its share holding in ONGC to IOC and 2.5 per cent to GAIL.Withthis, the Governmentholding in ONGC came down to 84.11 per cent.
  6. 6. 6 COMPANY PROFILE GLOBAL RANKING • Only Indian energy major in Fortune's Most Admired List 2012 under 'Mining, Crude Oil Production' category. • It is ranked 171thin Forbes Global 2000 list of the World's biggest companies for2012 based on Sales (US$ 26.3 billion), Profits (US$ 5 billion), Assets (US$ 51 billion) and Market Capitalization (US$ 46.6 billion). • ONGC has beenranked 39th among the world's 105 largest listed companies in 'transparency in corporate reporting' by Transparency International making it the most transparent company in India. ONGC IS INDIA’S MOST VALUABLE PUBLIC SECTORENTERPRISE • The Company won Petrofed Oil & Gas Industry Awards 2011 in three categories - "Environmental Sustainability: Company of the Year", "Human Resource Management: Company of the Year" and "Innovator of the Year: Team (Won by IOGPT)". • It was bestowed with "Most Attractive Employer" Award in Randstad Awards 2011 • Won "GoldenPeacockAward for Sustainability" for the year 2011 • Awarded with the Gold Trophy of SCOPE Meritorious Award for "Environmental Excellence & Sustainable Development" forthe Year 2010-11 by formerPresidentSmt. Pratibha Devi Singh Patil • Anointed "Outstanding PSU of the Year" at AIMA Managing India Awards 2012 • Awarded the Best overall Performance PCRA Award in the Upstream Sector(Oil & Gas) for 3rd consecutive year • Awarded the "ICSI National Award for Excellence in Corporate Governance for 2011"-Certificate of Recognition • Awarded NIPM National Award for BestHR Practices – 2011 • Adjudged amongst20 Top Companies for Leaders 2011 in Aon Hewitt Awards
  7. 7. 7 • "BestEnterprise Award" for the organization in the Maharatna and Navaratna Category at the 22nd National Meet of Womenin Public Sector(WIPS) • It was bestowed with Safety Innovation Award 2011 in the Oil & Gas sectorfor innovative safety measures • OVL Honoured with SCOPE Excellence Award for Excellence and Outstanding Contribution to the Public SectorManagement ACHIEVEMENTS  ONGC is the only fully–integrated petroleum company in India, operating along the entire hydrocarbon value chain. It has singlehandedly scripted India's hydrocarbon saga. Some key pointers.  ONGC has discovered 6 out of the 7 producing basins in India.  It has 7.59 billion tonnes of In-place hydrocarbon reserves.It has to its credit more than 320 discoveries of oil and gas with Ultimate Reserves of 2.69 Billion Metric tonnes (BMT) of Oil Plus Oil Equivalent Gas (O+OEG)from domestic acreages.  It has cumulatively produced 851 Million Metric Tonnes (MMT) of crude and 532 Billion Cubic Meters (BCM) of Natural Gas, from 111 fields.  ONGC has won 121 out of a total 235 Blocks (more than 50%) in the 8 rounds of bidding,under the New Exploration Licensing Policy (NELP) of the Indian Government.  ONGC's wholly-owned subsidiary ONGC VideshLtd. (OVL) is the biggestIndian multinational, with 30 Oil & Gas projects (9 of them producing)in 15 countries.  Produces over 1.24 million barrels of oil equivalent per day, contributing over 64% of India's domestic production.Of this, over 75% of crude oil produced is Light & Sweet.  The Company holds the largest share of hydrocarbon acreages in India (51% in PEL Areas & 67% in ML Areas).  ONGC possesses aboutone tenth of the total Indian refining capacity.  ONGC has a well-integrated Hydrocarbon Value Chain structure with interests in LNG and product transportation business as well.
  8. 8. 8  A unique organization in world to have all operative offshoreand onshore installations (403) accredited with globally recognized certifications. PERSPECTIVE PLAN 2030 • PP2030 charts the roadmap for ONGC's growth over the next two decades.It aims to double ONGC's production over the plan period with 4-5 per cent growth against the present growth rate of 2 percent. In physical terms the aspirations under Perspective Plan 2030 aims for - • Productionof 130 mmtoe of oil and oil equivalent gas (O + OEG) per year and accretion of over 1,300 mmtoe of proven reserves. • Grow ONGC VideshLimited (OVL) six fold to 60 mmtoe of international O+OEG productionper year by 2030. • More than 20 mmtoe of O+OEG production per year in India coming from new unconventional sources such as shale gas, CBM, deepwaterand HPHT (High Pressure & High Temperature) reservoirs. • Over 6.5 GW power generation from nuclear, solar and wind and 9 MTPA of LNG. • Scaling up refining capacity to over 20 MMTPA and targeted investments to capture downstream integration in petrochemicals. THE ROAD AHEAD ONGC looks forward to become an integrated energy provider, with: • New Discoveriesand fast track development • Equity Oil from Abroad • Downstream Value Additions & Forward Integration • Leveraging state-of-the art technology and global best practices • New Sources of Energy • Productionfrom small and marginal fields • ONGC has taken structured initiatives to tap unconventional energy sources through unconventional gases like Coal Bed Methane(CBM),
  9. 9. 9 Underground Coal Gasification (UCG), Shale Gas and Gas Hydrates, or unconventional energy sources like wind, solar etc. • "ONGC Energy Centre Trust", a dedicated centre created by ONGC for holistic research in non-conventional energy sources,has taken up three projects viz., Thermo-chemicalreactor for Hydrogen, Geobio Reactors and Fuel Cells. ONGC has already commissioneda 50 MW Wind Farm in Gujarat and plan is afoot to set up another 100 MW Wind Farm in Rajasthan. ONGC has also set up 3 Solar Thermal Engines at Solar Energy Centre, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) campus at Gurgaon.
  10. 10. 10 VISION AND MISSION To be global leader in integrated energy business through sustainable growth, knowledge excellence and exemplary governance practices.  Dedicated to excellence by leveraging competitive advantages in R&D and technologywith involved people.  Imbibe high standards of business ethics and organizational values.  Abiding commitmentto safety, health and environment to enrich quality of community life.  Fostera culture of trust, openness and mutual concern to make working a stimulating and challenging experience forour people.  Strive for customerdelight through quality products and services.  Focus on domestic and international oil and gas exploration and productionbusiness opportunities.  Provide value linkages in other sectors of energy business.  Create growth opportunities and maximize shareholder value.  Retain dominant position in Indian petroleum sectorand enhance India's energy availability.
  11. 11. 11 ONGC GROUP OF COMPANIES SUBSIDIARIES OVL – ONGC Videsh Limited MRPL – Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Ltd JOINT VENTURES OTPL – ONGC Tripura Power Company Limited OPaL – ONGC Petro additions Limited MSEZ – Mangalore Special Economic Zone Limited OMPL – ONGC Mangalore Petrochemicals Limited DSL – Dahej SEZ Limited
  12. 12. 12 ONGC VideshLimited (OVL) is a wholly owned subsidiary of Oil and Natural Gas CorporationLimited (ONGC), a Public SectorEnterprise/Undertaking of the Government of India, under the administrative control of the Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas (MoP&NG). OVL was incorporated as Hydrocarbons India Private Limited. Though OVL was incorporated in 1965, the company was functioning in small scale to carry out limited exploration activities in a few countries like Iraq, Yemen, Sri Lanka, Tanzania etc. but overseas acquisitions and exploration activities started from late 1990s. A major breakthrough was achieved by OVL in 1992 in Vietnam with the discovery of two major free gas fields namely Lan Tay and Lan Do in partnership with British Petroleum and Petro Vietnam. ONGC Videsh Limited (OVL) is operating in 15 countries with 30 projects with cumulative investment worth over USD 15 billion, to source equity oil & gas for energy security of the country. Over the years OVL has emerged as the biggestIndian Multinational. • The company now has participation in 30 E&P projects in 15 countries namely Vietnam (1 project), Russia (2 projects),Sudan (2 projects),South Sudan(2 projects),Iraq (1 project), Libya (1 project), Myanmar (2 projects), Syria (2 projects),Cuba (2 projects),Brazil (4 projects),Nigeria (1 project), Colombia(6 projects),Venezuela (2 projects)and Kazakhstan (1 project). Out of 30 projects,ONGC Videshis Operator in 9 projects and Joint Operator in 7 projects. • OVL continued to maintain its robust growth with productionof 6.214 MMT of Crude Oil and 2.539 BCM of Gas during 2011-12.Its proved reserves (1P) as on 1st April 2012 stood at 193.381 MTOE,which next to ONGC, is the second largest holding of proved oil and gas reserves by any Indian Company. OVL's share of total reserves (3P) of oil and oil equivalent gas as on 1st April 2012 was 425.941MTOE. As on 31stMarch, 2012,the Reserves-to-Production(R/P) Ratio considering proved reserves was 22.09. • Consolidated gross revenue of OVL increased from Rs.186.711billion in 2010-11 to Rs.226.314billion in 2011-12,up 21.2% and consolidated net profit from Rs.26.91 billion in 2010-11 to Rs.27.21billion in 2011-12. • OVL was accorded with Mini-Ratna Category-I status by Government of India during July 2011.Recently during September2012,OVL has been upgraded from a Schedule "B" public enterprise to Schedule "A".
  13. 13. 13 • OVL signed agreements with KazMunaiGas (KMG), the national oil company of Kazakhstan foracquisition of 25% participative interest in Satpayev exploration blockin Kazakhstan. The agreement was signed on 16th April 2011 with KazMunaiGas in the presence of Dr. Manmohan Singh, Hon'ble Prime Minister of India and H.E. Nursultan Nazarbayev, Presidentof Kazakhstan. • OVL along with Petronas and Nilepet has signed a Transition Agreement on 13th January 2012 with the Government of RSS for the continuation of its right for petroleum exploration and exploitation in Block 5A. The partners of Block 5A have incorporated a new operating company SUDD Petroleum Operating Co. Ltd. (SPOC)registered in Mauritius on 7th March 2012.The block will now be jointly operated by all partners. • OVL signed definitive agreements during September2012 forthe acquisition of Hess Corporation's 2.7213% participating interest in the Azeri, Chirag and the Deep WaterPortion of Guneshli Fields in the Azerbaijan sectorof the Caspian Sea ('ACG')and 2.36% interest in the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline ('BTC'),for US$ 1 Billion. ACG,which is located in the south Caspian Sea about 95 km off the coast of Azerbaijan, is the largest oil and gas field complexin Azerbaijan and is one of the largest producing oil fields in the world with average daily production from the field around 700,000 bopdof crude oil. • OVL's strategic objective of sourcing 20 million tonnes of equity oil abroad per year is likely to be fulfilled by 2018.As per 'Perspective Plan 2030', OVL is eyeing a six fold increase in productionby 2030;from about 9 MTOE in current fiscal to 60 MTOE per annum by the year 2030.
  14. 14. 14 OVERVIEW ACTIVITY – ProcedureOf Oil Exploration
  15. 15. 15 Finding Oil The task of finding oil is assigned to geologists,whether employed directly by an oil company or under contract from a private firm. Their task is to find the right conditions for an oil trap -- the right source rock, reservoir rock and entrapment. Many years ago, geologistsinterpreted surface features, surface rock and soil types, and perhaps some small core samples obtained by shallow drilling. Modern oil geologistsalso examine surface rocks and terrain, with the additional help of satellite images. However, they also use a variety of other methods to find oil. They can use sensitive gravity meters to measure tiny changes in the Earth's gravitational field that could indicate flowing oil, as well as sensitive magnetometers to measure tiny changes in the Earth's magnetic field caused by flowing oil. They can detectthe smell of hydrocarbons using sensitive electronic noses called sniffers.Finally, and most commonly,they use seismology,creating shock waves that pass through hidden rock layers and interpreting the waves that are reflected back to the surface. In seismic surveys, a shockwave is created by the following: • Compressed-airgun - shoots pulses of air into the water (for exploration over water) • Thumper truck - slams heavy plates into the ground (for exploration over land) • Explosives - drilled into the ground (for exploration over land) or thrown overboard (for exploration over water), and detonated The shock waves travel beneath the surface of the Earth and are reflected back by the various rock layers. The reflections travel at differentspeeds depending upon the type or density of rock layers through which they must pass.The reflections of the shock waves are detected by sensitive microphones or vibration detectors -- hydrophones over water, seismometersover land. The readings are interpreted by seismologists for signs of oil and gas traps. Although modernoil-exploration methods are better than previous ones, they still may have only a 10-percentsuccess rate for finding new oil fields. Once a prospective oil strike is found, the location is marked by GPS coordinates on land or by marker buoys on water.
  16. 16. 16 Preparingto Drill Once the site has beenselected,it must be surveyed to determine its boundaries, and environmental impact studies may be done. Lease agreements,titles and right-of way accesses forthe land must be obtained and evaluated legally. For off-shore sites,legal jurisdiction must be determined. Once the legal issues have been settled, the crew goes about preparing the land: 1. The land is cleared and leveled, and access roads may be built. 2. Because water is used in drilling, there must be a source of water nearby. If there is no natural source,they drill a water well. 3. They dig a reserve pit, which is used to dispose ofrock cuttings and drilling mud during the drilling process,and line it with plastic to protectthe environment. If the site is an ecologicallysensitive area, such as a marsh or wilderness, then the cuttings and mud must be disposedoffsite -- trucked away instead of placed in a pit. Once the land has been prepared,several holes must be dug to make way for the rig and the main hole. A rectangular pit, called a cellar, is dug around the location of the actual drilling hole. The cellar provides a work space around the hole, for the workers and drilling accessories.The crew then begins drilling the main hole, often with a small drill truck rather than the main rig. The first part of the hole is larger and shallower than the main portion, and is lined with a large-diameter conductorpipe.Additional holes are dug off to the side to temporarily store equipment -- when these holes are finished, the rig equipmentcan be brought in and set up. Setting up the Rig Depending upon the remoteness of the drill site and its access,equipment may be transported to the site by truck, helicopteror barge. Some rigs are built on ships or barges for work on inland water where there is no foundation to support a rig (as in marshes or lakes). Once the equipmentis at the site, the rig is set up. Here are the major systems of a land oil rig: • Power system o large dieselengines - burn diesel-fueloil to provide the main source of power
  17. 17. 17 o electrical generators - powered by the dieselengines to provide electrical power • Mechanical system - driven by electric motors o hoisting system - used for lifting heavy loads; consists of a mechanical winch (drawworks) with a large steelcable spool,a block-and-tackle pulley and a receiving storage reel for the cable o turntable - part of the drilling apparatus • Rotating equipment- used for rotary drilling o swivel - large handle that holds the weight of the drill string; allows the string to rotate and makes a pressure-tightseal on the hole o kelly - four- or six-sided pipe that transfers rotary motion to the turntable and drill string o turntable or rotary table - drives the rotating motion using power from electric motors o drill string - consists of drill pipe (connected sections of about 30 ft / 10 m) and drill collars (larger diameter, heavier pipe that fits around the drill pipe and places weight on the drill bit) o drill bit(s) - end of the drill that actually cuts up the rock; comes in many shapes and materials (tungsten carbide steel, diamond) that are specialized forvarious drilling tasks and rock formations • Casing - large-diameterconcrete pipe that lines the drill hole, prevents the hole from collapsing, and allows drilling mud to circulate. • Circulation system - pumps drilling mud(mixture of water, clay, weighting material and chemicals,used to lift rock cuttings from the drill bit to the surface) under pressure through the kelly, rotary table, drill pipes and drill collars o pump - sucks mud from the mud pits and pumps it to the drilling apparatus o pipes and hoses - connects pump to drilling apparatus o mud- return line - returns mud from hole o shale shaker - shaker/sieve that separates rock cuttings from the mud o shale slide - conveys cuttings to the reserve pit o reserve pit - collects rock cuttings separated from the mud o mud pits -
  18. 18. 18 where drilling mud is mixed and recycled o mud-mixing hopper - where new mud is mixed and then sent to the mud pits • Derrick - supportstructure that holds the drilling apparatus; tall enough to allow new sections of drill pipe to be added to the drilling apparatus as drilling progresses • Blowout preventer - high-pressure valves (located under the land rig or on the sea floor) that seal the high-pressure drill lines and relieve pressure when necessaryto prevent a blowout (uncontrolled gush of gas or oil to the surface, oftenassociated with fire) Drilling The crew sets up the rig and starts the drilling operations. First, from the starter hole, they drill a surface hole down to a pre-set depth, which is somewhere above where they think the oil trap is located. There are five basic steps to drilling the surface hole: 1. Place the drill bit, collar and drill pipe in the hole. 2. Attach the kelly and turntable and begin drilling. 3. As drilling progresses,circulate mud through the pipe and out of the bit to float the rock cuttings out of the hole. 4. Add new sections (joints) of drill pipes as the hole gets deeper. 5. Remove (trip out) the drill pipe, collar and bit when the pre-setdepth (anywhere from a few hundred to a couple-thousand feet) is reached. Once they reach the pre-set depth, they must run and cement the casing -- place casing-pipe sections into the hole to prevent it from collapsing in on itself. The casing pipe has spacers around the outside to keep it centered in the hole. The casing crew puts the casing pipe in the hole. The cement crew pumps cementdown the casing pipe using a bottom plug, a cementslurry, a top plug and drill mud. The pressure from the drill mud causes the cementslurry to move through the casing and fill the space between the outside of the casing and the hole. Finally, the cementis allowed to harden and then tested for such properties as hardness, alignment and a properseal. Drilling continues in stages: They drill, then run and cementnew casings, then drill again. When the rock cuttings from the mud reveal the oil sand
  19. 19. 19 from the reservoir rock, they may have reached the final depth. At this point, they remove the drilling apparatus from the hole and perform several tests to confirm this finding: • Well logging - lowering electrical and gas sensors into the hole to take measurements of the rock formations there • Drill-stem testing - lowering a device into the hole to measure the pressures,which will reveal whether reservoir rock has beenreached • Core samples - taking samples of rock to look for characteristics of reservoir rock Once they have reached the final depth, the crew completesthe well to allow oil to flow into the casing in a controlled manner. First, they lower a perforating gun into the well to the productiondepth. The gun has explosive charges to create holes in the casing through which oil can flow. Afterthe casing has been perforated,they run a small-diameter pipe (tubing) into the hole as a conduit for oil and gas to flow up the well. A device called a packer is run down the outside of the tubing. When the packer is set at the productionlevel, it is expanded to form a seal around the outside of the tubing. Finally, they connecta multi-valved structure called a Christmas tree to the top of the tubing and cementit to the top of the casing. The Christmas tree allows them to control the flow of oil from the well. Once the well is completed,they must start the flow of oil into the well. For limestone reservoir rock, acid is pumped down the well and out the perforations.The acid dissolves channels in the limestone that lead oil into the well. For sandstone reservoir rock, a specially blended fluid containing proppants (sand, walnut shells, aluminum pellets)is pumped down the well and out the perforations.The pressure from this fluid makes small fractures in the sandstone that allow oil to flow into the well, while the proppants hold these fractures open. Once the oil is flowing, the oil rig is removed from the site and production equipmentis set up to extract the oil from the well. Extracting the Oil After the Rig is removed,a pump is placed on the well head. In the pump system, an electric motor drives a gear box that moves a lever. The lever pushes and pulls a polishing rod up and down. The polishing rod is attached
  20. 20. 20 to a sucker rod, which is attached to a pump. This system forces the pump up and down, creating a suction that draws oil up through the well. In some cases,the oil may be too heavy to flow. A second hole is then drilled into the reservoir and steam is injected under pressure.The heat from the steam thins the oil in the reservoir, and the pressure helps push it up the well. This process is called enhanced oil recovery.
  21. 21. 21 CENTRAL WORKSHOP, VADODARA VISION To be a competitive & qualitative repairing/overhauling/manufacturing Agencyfor Oil Field Equipment to supplementthe core activities of ONGC. MISSION  Add Economics valve by setting high standards of productivity and total quality.  Adaption of state of art technology to facilities sustained excellence, competitivenessproficiencyin operation.  Create a knowledge pool to future challenges. QUALITY POLICY Commitmentof CWS,Baroda is to maximize customersatisfactionthrough costeffective quality products and services with adherence to schedules, empowered by a culture of caring and sharing. ROLE OF CWS  To ensure the readiness of equipments and when required.  To reduce the down time.  To ensure the safety of the personnel using these equipments.  To extend the useful life of equipments.  To reduce the maintenance cost. OPERATIONS CARRIED OUT  Fabrication of pressure vessels like heater treater, IDBH and nonpressure vessels like mud tanks and acid tanks.  Repairing of drill masts and understructures.  Capital overhaul or drilling and work over rigs, cementing and hydraulic units, BOPs,mud pumps and down-hole motors.  Overhaul maintenance, repair and testing of dieselengines.  To provide backup/after repair services to fields through deputation of teams.
  22. 22. 22 DIVISIONS OF CENTRAL WORKSHOP 1. SECTORI i. BOP Repair Shop ii. Tubular Machine Shop 2. SECTORII i. AssemblyShop ii. DieselShop iii. ProductionEquipment Repair (PER) Shop iv. Machine Shop v. Productionand Plant Maintenance Shop 3. SECTORIII i. Electrical EquipmentRepair Shop ii. Instrumentation Shop 4. SECTORIV i. Cementing and Hydraulic Unit Repair Shop ii. Rig Repair Shop 5. SECTORV i. Fabrication Shop I, II, III & IV QHSE SECTION QUALITY – HEALTH – SAFETY – ENVIRONMENT QHSE POLICY “WE, AT CENTRALWORKSHOP VADODARA,ARE COMMITTED TO PROVIDE QUALITY PRODUCTSAND SERVICES TO CUSTOMER’S SATISFACTION,FOLLOWSAFE WORK PRACTICES,COMPLYWITH ALL APPLICABLE LEGAL AND OTHER REQUIREMENTSRELATED TO OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH,SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT,
  23. 23. 23 PREVENTINJURY & ILLNESS,PREVENT POLLUTION AND STRIVE FOR CONTINUAL IMPROVEMENT.” - Head Central Workshop, Vadodara CWS VADODARA CERTIFICATION• ISO 9001: 2008 – Quality Management System • ISO 14001:2004 – EnvironmentManagementsystem • OHSAS 18001:2007 – OccupationalHealth & Safety ManagementSystem DEFINITIONS  Accident – an unexpected,unplanned and uncontrolled event results in personal injury or the probably there of.  Incident – undesired event that could or does downgrade efficiencyof business operation.  Injury – harmful condition result of accident.  Hazard – condition in a work situation with a potential of causing an injury.  Danger – relative exposure to hazard.  Risk – expressionof possible loss or a chance of a loss. STATUTORY COMPLIANCE In carrying out its operations and safety requirements, ONGC abides by laws pertaining to oil and gas exploration and productionin India, particularly the Directorate General of Mines Safety (DGMS) and Oil
  24. 24. 24 Industry Safety Directorate (OISD). All statutory consents are obtained under section21 of Air Act, under section 25 of Water Act and Authorization under Rule 3(C) & 5(5) of the Hazardous Waste (Management and Handling) Rules for meeting operational requirements.All the stipulations are monitored and timely reported to the respective regulatory agencies. JOBS INVOLVING RISK • Lifting tackles like Cranes, wire ropes slings etc, • Pressure vessels,Air compressors and High pressure air lines. • Electrical equipments • High pressure water jet • Rotating equipments • Welding transformers • Gas cylinders • Hydraulic press • LPG heating system • Work at height • Portal Crane/Gantry Crane • Petrol Pump • Oil drums • Bearing heater RISKS INVOLVED • Any bodily injury • Burn injury • Slip and fall • Electrical shock • Cold burn • Eye injury/irritation • High noise • High temperature and humid condition • Respiratory problems
  25. 25. 25 METHODS OF PREVENTION • Follow Safety Rules • Follow Safe Operating Procedure • Use Personal Protective Equipments • Adoptbestsafe working practice • Avoid un authorized operation/handling • Avoid use of Mobile while working • Never smoke inside workshop • Do not attempt to repair /pamper electrical gadgets • Concentrate while working • Obtain relevant work Permits before starting PERSONAL PROTECTIVEEQUIPMENTS (PPE) • Safety Helmet – To safe guard your head • Safety Goggles – To safe guard your eyes • Dust mask – To safe guard your Lungs
  26. 26. • • 26 Ear Plugs - To safe guard your ears Ear Muff - To safe guard your ears • Hand Gloves - To safe guard your Hands • Safety Shoes - To safe guard your Legs. • Harness equipment – To Workat Height • Machinist Goggle-To safe guard your eyes • Overall/Dungaree – To safe guard your body • Welding Shield – To safe guard your eyes and lungs ELECTRICAL SAFETY • Don’t operate any electricalgadgets with out properknowledge. • Never attempt to open/repair electrical gadgets. • Ensure three pin plug top is intact. • Ensure/checkfor any open /loose joints in the cable • Avoid watering the electrical gadgets • Ensure earthling of the equipment. • Ensure Rubber mats while working on electrical items. • Never switch on the equipment if caution boards like ‘ Do not operate/underrepair etc, are placed. • Switch off the mains before attempting to undertake repair. • Learn to identify the mains switch of the equipment to shut in case of emergency. • Inform the floor supervisor/safetyofficer/electricalmain Personnelabout the breakage/faulty/unsafe / in operative equipmentfor repair.
  27. 27. • • 27 GAS CYLINDERSAFETY • Oxygen, Acetylene,LPG & Nitrogen gas cylinders are in use at CWS. • Always keep the empty and filled gas cylinders separately. Never keep filled Oxygen & Acetylene gas cylinders at one place. Always keep the cylinders erect and chain it properly to avoid falling. • Ensure the valves are functioning properly. • Ensure the regulators and rubber hoses are intact. • Handle the cylinders properly with hand gloves. FIRE SAFETY • In case of fire follow the emergencyresponse plan • Inform the safety officer/shop I/c/Fire brigade • Learn to use Fire extinguishers • Try to cut off the electrical supply • Try to close the gas cylinder if possible • Try to remove the objectunder fire. • Apply sand/water depending upon the nature of fire. • Apply Co2 gas for electrical/electronic fire. • Ensure good housekeeping and avoid oil spillage • Ensure “No Smoking” inside the working area. • Do not throw lighted matches/cigars anywhere. SAFETY IN MATERIAL HANDLING • Always use Hand gloves, Safety Helmets, Shoes etc, • Do not operate the cranes/ trolley /fork lift with out proper knowledge.
  28. 28. • • 28 • Check the wire rope slings for its condition before using it. • Never come under the load which is under transportation/handled by crane. • Learn the signaling procedure while handling materials • Never try to lift the heavy material manually. • Adoptproperposture while lifting the loads. Keep the wire rope slings in properplace after use. Always use the tested slings for lifting. GENERAL SAFETY • Always enter the shop floorwith safety shoes. • Never operate the machine, which you are not authorized. • Never work with loose fit clothes near rotating equipment. • Handle the measuring equipments safely. • Ensure the machine main switch is put off before leaving the shop. • Never leave the machine while running. • Never use mobile while working. • Never bring unauthorized personinside the shop. • Safely secure your personal belongings,tools and safety kits etc, • Always handover the finished product/measuring instruments or remaining raw materials to shop floorincharge. SAFETY RULES AND REGULATIONS 1. The environment protection rules, 1986. 2. Indian electricity rules, 1956 and subsequentamendments 1986,1987. 3. Gas cylinder rules, 1981.
  29. 29. • • 29 4. The static and mobile pressure vessel(unified) rules, 1981. 5. The petroleum act, 1934. 6. The petroleum rules, 1976. 7. The Indian boiler’s act, 1923.
  30. 30. 30 BLOW OUT PREVENTER (BOP) SHOP CWS , Baroda started repairing job of BOPs for the first time in 1988 by a team of experienced engineers and technocrats to cater BOP repair requirement of CMT. Today BOP repair shop is having all required modern set ups and adding new & sophisticated facilities on regular basis to make this shop a world class repair shop. This shop is engaged in repairing of BOPs and other drilling equipment such as DSA Flanges and drilling spool etc.
  31. 31. 31 MAJOR TASK ACTIVITY NEEDED FOR REPAIR OF BOP 1 DIS-ASSY. & STAMPING OF BOP. 2 COMPLETE CLEAN-UP OF EQUIPMENT & ITS COMPONENTS 3 STAMPING OF PARTS, INSPECTION & QC CHECK. 4 ROUGH OUT FOR WELDING / CLADDING JOB ( PRE-CUT MACHINING ) 5 COMPLETE WELDING AS PER THE PROCEDURE 6 STRESS RELIEVING AS PER THE PROCEDURE 7 FINAL MACHINING AS PER THE DRAWINGS. 8 COMPLETE ASSEMBLY OF BOP 9 TESTING OF BOP 10 THIRD PARTY INSPECTION & CERTIFICATION 11 METAL BLAST CLEANING, FINISHING & PAINTING BEFORE DISPATCH
  32. 32. 32 BOP MOUNTING ACTUAL CONDITION DURING DRILLING
  33. 33. 33 WHAT IS A BLOW OUT PREVENTER? A blowout preventer is a large, specialized valve used to seal, control and monitor oil and gas wells. Blowout preventers were developed to cope with extreme erratic pressures and uncontrolled flow (formation kick) emanating from a well reservoir during drilling. Kicks can lead to a potentially catastrophic event known as a blowout. In addition to controlling the downhole (occurring in the drilled hole) pressure and the flow of oil and gas, blowout preventers are intended to prevent tubing (e.g. drill pipe and well casing), tools and drilling fluid from being blown out of the wellbore (also known as bore hole, the hole leading to the reservoir) when a blowout threaten. Blowout preventers are critical to the safety of crew, rig and environment, and to the monitoring and maintenance of well integrity; thus blowout preventers are intended to be fail-safe devices. Blowout preventers are used at land and offshore rigs, and subsea. Land and subsea BOPs are secured to the top of the wellbore,known as the wellhead. BOPs on offshore rigs are mounted below the rig deck. Subsea BOPs are connected to the offshore rig above by a drilling riser that provides a continuous pathway for the drill string and fluids emanating from the wellbore. In effect,a riser extends the wellbore to the rig. Single ram and double ram BOPs are commonlyavailable. The names refer to the quantity of ram cavities (equivalent to the effective quantity of valves) contained in the unit. A double ram BOP is more compactand lighter than a stack of two single ram BOPs while providing the same functionality, and is thus desirable in many applications. Triple ram BOPs are also manufactured, but not as common. Blow Out at Deepwater Horizon
  34. 34. 34 FUNCTIONS • Confine well fluid to the wellbore; • Provide means to add fluid to the wellbore; • Allow controlled volumes of fluid to be withdrawn from the wellbore. • Regulate and monitor wellbore pressure; • Center and hang off the drill string in the wellbore; • Shut in the well (e.g. seal the void, annulus, between drill pipe and casing); • “Kill” the well (prevent the flow of formation fluid, influx, from the reservoir into the wellbore) ; • Seal the wellhead (close off the wellbore); • Sever the casing or drill pipe (in case of emergencies). BOPs are vital Wellcontrol Equipments.They need to be operated in case of emergencysuch as Wellactivity or kick. BOPs are also used during injectivity testing, squeezing jobs & packer testing etc.Blow out preventers are very important safety equipments.Wheneverthe formation pressure becomes more than the mud pressure,a phenomenonknown as ‘kick’ is observed and if this kick is not controlled properly, this culminates into blow out. Blow out is one of the most dangerous phenomenonin the E & P business,which not only destroys the propertyof crores but also proves fatal. So to save the huge amount of property and most valuable life, the BOP is installed as per the rules and regulations. Blow out preventer is installed on the wellhead-drilling pipe passing through it, so that it can grip the pipe, shear it or blind the pipe as per the requirements. COMPANIES WHICH MANUFATURE THE BOPs • Cameron • NL Shaffer( presently taken over by NOV) • Hydril • Guiberson • Koomey • Upetron • Superior • T3
  35. 35. 35 HYDRAULIC FLUIDS The Hydraulic fluid used for operating BOP may be light petroleum oil or water with water soluble oil added. In cold climates, anti-freeze is added. But Synthetic fluids or fuel oil should not be used as serious seal damage may result.. Generally, the most important criterion of selecting BOP stack is determination of maximum anticipated surface pressure.Rated Working Pressure of blow out preventer equipmentshould be equal to or more than the maximum anticipated surface pressure due to formation pressure at the next casing shoe depth. The same criteria are also applicable for selecting the well head pressure rating. STANDARD SIZES OF BOP Size refers to - ID of BOP (Nominal Diameter, through bore ) : 7 -1/16”,9” , 11” , 13 5/8” , 16 ¾” , 18 ¾” , 21 ¼”, 26 ¾”, 28”,29 -1/2”, 30”.Mostly used sizes in ONGC are: 7 -1/16 and 13 -5/8” PRESSURE RATING RWP: 2M, 3M, 5M, 10M, 15M, 20M ( M = 1000 PSI ) RWP: The maximum pressure that the equipment can withstand (contain) and control. BOP CONTROL UNIT CONSISTS OF • Reservoirwith a hydraulic control fluid. • High pressure pumps. • Accumulator bottles to store pressurized fluid. • Pressure regulators & operating manifold of valves to operate the BOP stack. • Remote control panels TYPESOF BOP • ANNULAR TYPE BOP • RAM TYPE BOP
  36. 36. 36 ANNULAR TYPEBOP RAM TYPE BOP
  37. 37. 37 DIESEL SHOP (ISO – 9002 Accredited) • The shop carries out the repair and maintenance of the Diesel engines of various models of CAT & CUMMINS, used as power pack for the oil field equipments. • Apart from this, shop can repair the Allison Transmissionand Cementing unit. INFRASTRUCTURE & FACILITIES • Crank shaft grinder • Pedestalgrinder • Lathe machine • Emery grinding machine • Connecting Rod bend twisting m/c • Two EOT cranes - 10 & 5 Ton capacity • Electrically operated trolley for the shop floor transportation • Chemical bath yard for cleaning and de-greasing of the dismantled parts • Gas & Arc welding machine • Air Compressorfor cleaning • Fuel injection lab • Two test houses WORKING PRINCIPLE OF DIESEL ENGINE In a dieselengine, air is drawn/sucked into the cylinders and compressed to very high pressure. Due to high compression the air gets heated to a very high temperature.When the fuel is injected in the atomized form over the hot air ignition occurs.The combustiontakes place in the combustionchamber. The expansion of the combustionproducts imparts power to the system. The four Basic Processin each cycles of the dieselengine - • Suction Stroke • CompressionStroke • Expansion/Power stroke
  38. 38. 38 • Exhaust Stroke ENGINES BEING PREPARED CAT ENGINES D-399 : 16 cylinders, V-type Engine, 1000 rpm, 1000 h.p D-398 : 12 cylinders, V-type Engine, 1000 rpm, 800 h.p D-379 : 8 cylinders, V-type Engine CAT-3406:6 cylinders, In-line Engine, 1800 rpm, 400 h.p CAT-3412:12 cylinders, V-type Engine, 2100 rpm, 575 h.p CUMMINS ENGINES N/NT/NTA-495 : 4-cylinders, Inline Engine N/NT/NTA-743 : 6-cylinders, Inline Engine N/NT/NTA-855 : 6-cylinders, Inline Engine K/KT/KTA-1150G/C/P : 6-cylinders,Inline Engine KTA-3067 : 16 cylinders, V-type Engine K/KT/KTA-2300G V/VT/VTA-1710 G CUMMINS NOMENCLATURE N---4 valve under one cylinder head T---Turbocharged, A--- After cooler N, K & V---Engine series, G---For Genset Application, C---For Carrier Application, P---For Pump Application NOTE: The numeric in each model of Cummins engine is the cumulative displacement/swept volume of cylinders in cubic inches
  39. 39. 39 BASIC CYCLES OF THE ENGINE • Air Cycle • Fuel Cycle • Water Cycle
  40. 40. 40 • Lubrication Cycle AIR CYCLE • The atmospheric air is sucked into the filter, during suction stroke, and goes to the turbocharger. • Turbocharger compressesthe air so it gets heated and goes to aftercooler. • In after-coolerthe air again cools down due to which the density of air increased. • From the after-coolerthe air goes to intake manifold and then goes to each cylinder. • After combustionthe combustionproduct, passes through the turbocharger and after giving the part of its energy goes to atmosphere again
  41. 41. 41 TO ATMOSPHERE WATER CYCLE • Before starting the engine, the radiator is primed. • When the engine is started, the water pump sucks the water from radiator and sends to oil cooler. • After the oil coolerwater goes to flywheel housing. • From here, part of the water goes to after coolerand returns back after cooling the air, and the rest of water goes to engine block to cool the cylinder liner and goes to cylinder head • After cooling the cylinder head, water goes to water manifold and then to thermostat head. • At the thermostat head, if the temperature of the water is less than the a set value (generally 80 to 85o C) the thermostat remains closed and the water goes to oil coolerand the cycle is continue until the temperature reaches nearly 80o C. When the temp is more than 85o C (a set value), the thermostat valve gets open and water flows to the radiator and becomes cooland goes to oil cooler. ATMOSPHERIC AIR CYLINDER INTAKE MANIFOLDTURBO CHARGER AIR FILTER EXHAUST MANIFOLD
  42. 42. 42 FUEL CYCLE • From fuel tank the fuel goes to the fuel transfer pump, then to filter. • After filtering it goes to each injection pump, which is separate for each cylinder. • The injector injects the fuel into each cylinder in atomized form. THERMOSTAT ASSEMBLY WATER MANIFOLD CYLINDER HEAD R A D IA T O R ENGINE BLOCK WATER PUMP AFTER COOLER OIL COOLER FUEL TANK JUNCTION FUEL TRANSFER PUMP FUEL FILTER ASSEMBLYFUEL INJECTOR PUMPINJECTOR
  43. 43. 43 LUBRICATION CYCLE • The oil pump sucks the oil from the sump and sends it to the pressure regulator valve and then to oil cooler. • After giving the heat to water in the oil cooler,the oil goes to oil filter assemblyand then it goes to main oil gallery. • Oil gallery acts as a temporary storage, from here; the oil is distributed in various accessories. TESTING OF THE ENGINES There are two test houses under the dieselshop-  First Test House For the small engines like, NTA-495,NTA-743,NTA-850.  Second TestHouse For the big engines like KTA-1150,KTA-3067,CAT D-399,CAT D-398, CAT-3412. PRESSURE REGULATOR VALVE OIL COOLER OIL PUMPOIL SUMP MAIN OIL GALLERY OIL FILTER ASSEMBLY DISTRIBUTION TO VARIOUS PARTS
  44. 44. 44 ALLISON TRANSMISSION Allison Transmissionis an American manufacturer of commercialduty automatic transmissions and hybrid propulsionsystems. Allison products are specified by over 250 of the world’s leading vehicle manufacturers and are used in many market sectors including bus, refuse, fire, construction, distribution, military and specialty applications. A hydraulic automatic transmission consists of the following parts: Torque converter: A type of fluid coupling, hydraulically connecting the engine to the transmission. It takes the place of a mechanical clutch, allowing the transmission to stay in gear and the engine to remain running while the vehicle is stationary, without stalling. A torque converter differs from a fluid coupling, in that it provides a variable amount of torque multiplication at low engine speeds, increasing breakaway acceleration. This is accomplished with a third member in the coupling assembly known as the stator, and by altering the shapes of the vanes inside the coupling in such a way as to curve the fluid's path into the stator. The stator captures the kinetic energy of the transmission fluid, in effect using the leftover force of it to enhance torque multiplication. Pump not to be confused with the impeller inside the torque
  45. 45. 45 converter, is typically a gear pump mounted between the torque converter and the planetary gear set. It draws transmission fluid from a sump and pressurizes it, which is needed fortransmissioncomponents to operate.The input for the pump is connected to the torque converter housing, which in turn is bolted to the engine's flywheel, so the pump provides pressure whenever the engine is running and there is enough transmission fluid. Planetarygear set: A compound epicycle planetary gear set, whose bands and clutches are actuated by hydraulic servos controlled by the valve body, providing two or more gear ratios. Clutches and bands: To effectgear changes, one of two types of clutches or bands are used to hold a particular memberof the planetary gear set motionless,while allowing another memberto rotate, thereby transmitting torque and producing gear reductions or overdrive ratios. These clutches are actuated by the valve body (see below), their sequence controlled by the transmission's internal programming. Principally, a type of device known as a sprag or roller clutch is used for routine up shifts/downshifts.Operating much as a ratchet, it transmits torque only in one direction, free-wheeling or "overrunning" in the other. The advantage of this type of clutch is that it eliminates the sensitivity of timing a simultaneous clutch release/applyon two planetary, simply "taking up" the drive train load when actuated, and releasing automatically when the next gear's sprag clutch assumes the torque transfer. The bands come into play for manually selected gears, such as low range or reverse,and operate on the planetary drum's circumference.Bands are not applied when drive/overdrive range is selected,the torque being transmitted by the sprag clutches instead. Valve body: Hydraulic control center that receives pressurized fluid from the main pump operated by the fluid coupling/torque converter. The pressure coming from this pump is regulated and used to run a network of spring-loaded valves, check balls and servo pistons.The valves use the pump pressure and the pressure from a centrifugal governor on the output side (as well as hydraulic signals from the range selectorvalves and the throttle valve or
  46. 46. 46 modulator) to control which ratio is selectedon the gear set; as the vehicle and engine change speed,the difference betweenthe pressures changes, causing differentsets of valves to open and close.The hydraulic pressure controlled by these valves drives the various clutch and brake band actuators, thereby controlling the operation of the planetary gear set to selectthe optimum gear ratio for the current operating conditions.However, in many modernautomatic transmissions, the valves are controlled by electro-mechanicalservos which are controlled by the electronic engine control unit (ECU) or a separate transmission control unit (TCU). Hydraulic & lubricating oil also called automatic transmission fluid (ATF), this componentof the transmission provides lubrication, corrosion prevention, and a hydraulic medium to convey mechanical power (for the operation of the transmission). Primarily made from refined petroleum,and processedto provide properties that promote smoothpower transmission and increase service life, the ATF is one of the few parts of the automatic transmission that needs routine service as the vehicle ages. FUEL LAB This shop has a well-equipped fuel lab to test the performance of the injectors and PT-pump used in the dieselengines.We were fortunate to
  47. 47. 47 see a calibration process of an injector of KTA modelof Cummins engine at 480 strokes at a pressure of 120 lb/in2. The lab has three fuel testing machines two for TATA engine pump and one for CUMMINIS .Actually by these machines we can determine the fuel discharge quantity of an injector at particular number of strokes at pump pressure. ImportantFacts  Speed of the turbocharger is almost 70 times the speed of the engine which is driven by the exhaust.  By providing, turbocharger, 18% BHP can be increased.  By providing the after-cooler,almost 10% of engine BHP can be increased. ASSEMBLY SHOP Assemblyshop is one of the mostimportant shops of Central Workshop
  48. 48. 48 Baroda. This shop is also called ‘Heavy Equipment Repair Shop’, since many heavy oil field equipments are being repaired and refurbished in this shop, so this shop may be regarded as heart of Central Workshop. EQUIPMENTS BEING REPAIRED • Draw Works • Mud Pumps • E C Brakes • Hydromantic Brake of mobile Rig • Crown Blocks • Traveling-Block & Hooks • Swivels • Rotary Table • Pile hammers INFRASTRUCTURE & FACILITIES • Horizontal Press - 500 Ton Capacity • Vertical Press - 300 & 250 Ton capacity • Two EOT cranes - 20 Ton capacity • Hydraulic Puller • Mechanical Puller • Induction Heater • Conventional heater (Oil Bath Heater) • PedestalGrinder • Hand Grinder (Electrically Operated) • Hand Grinder (Pneumatically Operated) • Air Compressor-2stage, 175 psi capacity • Welding Generator • Welding Rectifier • Welding Machine
  49. 49. 49 DRAW WORK Draw work is considered as the heart of the Rig. It drives the hoisting system and rotary table which ultimately rotates the drilling string. Apart from this draw work also run-in and pullout system. Following are the main modelof the draw work being repaired and refurbished here. STATIONARY RIGS BHEL MAKE: E-760,E-1400,E-2000 ROMANIAN RIG:F-3050,F-6100 MOBILE RIGS BHEL/IR : M-120, M-450, M-750,M-900 CARDWELL RIGS : CW-50,CW-100,CW-700 RUSSIANRIGS : A-50y, CFD, URB
  50. 50. 50 DRAW WORK OF MOBILE RIG 1. Air Rotary Seal 11. Roller Chain 21. Bearing Housing 2. Water Stuffing Box 12. Inner Bearing (high) 22. Low Transmission Sprocket 3. Low Drum Clutch 13. High Drum Drives 23. TransmissionClutch Hub 4. Outer Bearing (low) 14. Outer Bearing (high) 24. Spline Clutch 5. Low Drum Sprocket 15. High Drum Clutch 25. High Transmission Sprocket 6. Inner Bearing (low) 16. Auxiliary Brake Drive 26. Intermediate Shaft 7. Drum Shaft Bearing 17. Low Drive Sprocket 27. Bearing 8. Drum Shaft 18. Bearing Housing 28. Bearing Housing 9. Brake Rim 19. Bearing 29. High Drive Sprocket 10. Lebus Grooving 20. Bearing 30. Auxiliary Brake Shifter
  51. 51. 51 WORKING OF DRAW WORKS The motor gives power to input shaft through chain drive and input shaft drive output shaft. Now, this output shaft gives power to main drum shaft, which in turn drive the sand reel drum shaft and rotary counter shaft. Rotary counter shaft drives the rotary table. There are two sides in the main drum shaft- Low-clutch side High-clutch side In low-clutch side sprocketis big so when high power is required at low speed,output shaft gives power to the low-clutch side. For the rotation of rotary table this clutch is used. When less power is required at high speed,output shaft is engaged with high clutch side. During running-in and pulling-out this clutch is used. MUD PUMPS Mud pump used in the drilling rig to pump the mud in well bore.It is reciprocating type. Generally, single acting triplex pump is used in oil field. In fact, the mud-pump is the part of a system, which consistmany tanks and few more equipment, the whole set-up is called the mud circulation system. BASIC FUNCTIONS OF THE MUD 1. To balance the formation pressure 2. To cool& lubricate the drill bit 3. To take out the cutting particle 4.To rotate the drill bit during directional drilling
  52. 52. 52 MUD CIRCULATION SYSTEM Models ofMud pump BPCL MAKE: A-600PT,A-850PT,A-1100PT,A-1400PT UPETROM MAKE: 3PN 1000 GARDNER DENVER MAKE: PZ-9”,PZ-11” Operationof Mud pump Power is given to the pinion shaft by external source like Electric motor & Dieselengine. Pinion shaft drive the crankshaft through gear drive, there is small gear attached with a bull gear, which is mounted on the crankshaft, to drive the jackshaft, which is used for lubrication purpose.
  53. 53. 53 MUD PUMP 1. Upper Main Bearing Race 12. Cross Head Guide 24. Valve Seat 2. Main Bearing 13. Mud Baffle 25. Valve Plug 3. Eccentric Bearing 14. Piston Rod Clamp 26. Suction Module 4. Bearing Retainer 15. Piston Rod 27. Suction Manifold 5. Pinion Shaft 16. Liner 28. Module Seal 6. Pinion Bearing 17. Discharge 29. Liner Wash Tank 7. Connecting Rod 19. Valve Plug 30. Wear Ring 8. Cross Head 20. Plug Retainer 31. Liner Seal 9. Cross Head Bearing 21. Discharge Module 32. Piston 10. Cross Head Guide 22. Valve Plug Packing 33. Liner Retainer 11. Stripper Box 23. Valve Guide 34. Skid 35. Bull Gear
  54. 54. 54 EDDY CURRENT BRAKE Eddy current is fitted with the main drum shaft of the draw work to decelerate the main drum shaft speed before applying the brake. This brake is operated on the principal of Electro-magnetic effectof the current and is water cooled and grease lubricated. It has mainly three parts: 1. Rotor Drum with main shaft 2. Housing 3. Coils Following companies manufacture the EC Brake:  Baylor Co. USA  Elmaco Co. USA Models: 5032,6032 CROWN BLOCK The fixed set of pulleys (called sheaves) located at the top of the derrick or mast, over which the drilling line is threaded. The companion blocks to these pulleys are the traveling blocks. By using two sets of blocks in this fashion, great mechanical advantage is gained, enabling the use of relatively small drilling line (3/4 to 1 1/2 in. diameter steelcable) to hoist loads many times heavier than the cable could support as a single strand.
  55. 55. 55 TRAVELLING BLOCK AND HOOK The traveling block holds the drilling line and a hook, the wire rope passes through the pulleys and this unit used to raise and lower the drilling strings. The hook holds the swivel during operation. There is a spring in the hook to maintain tension. Accordinglythe hook of required tonnage capacity can be used to withstand the load it supports. Hook is the high-capacity J-shaped equipmentused to hang various other equipment, particularly the swivel and Kelly, elevator bails or top drive units. The hook is attached to the bottom of the traveling block and provides a way to pick up heavy loads with the traveling block. The hook is either locked (the normal condition) or frees to rotate, so that it may be mated or decoupledwith items positioned around the rig floor, not limited to a single direction. TRAVELLING BLOCK 1. Sheave shaft. 2. Sheave bearing. 3. Tie bolt. 4. Sheave. 5. Sheave guard. 6. Lower bail pin. 7. Bearing seal
  56. 56. 56 HOOK 1. Swivel Lock Assembly 13. Lock Nut 25. Index Ring Pin 2. Cam and Screw Set 14. Latch Pin Actuator 26. Main Load Bearing 3. Cam and LockPin 15. Roll Pin 27. Swivel Lock Ring 4.LockSpring 16. Latch Pin 28. Hook Shank Stem 5. Stainless SteelBall 17. Latch Pin Spring 29. Inner Spring 6. LockOperator 18. Retainer Screw 30. Plunger & Cap Housing 7. Roller PositionerPin 19. Retainer Plate 31. Plunger Valve 8. Roller Positioner 20. Hook Bill Pin 32. Plunger Valve Screw 9. Cam Positioner 21. Grease Fitting 33. Plunger Seal 10. Ball Lock Pin 22. Hook Load Pin 34. Seal Retainer Ring 11. Bail Retainer Link 23. Index Ring Nut 35. Spring Seat 12. Lock Washer 24. Index Ring 36. Outer Spring
  57. 57. 57 SWIVEL A mechanical device that must simultaneously suspend the weight of the drill string, provide for rotation of the drill string beneath it while keeping the upper portion stationary, and permit high-volume flow of high-pressure drilling mud from the fixed portion to the rotating portion without leaking. 1. Upper wash pipe seal 2. Wash pipe 3. Wash pipe packing 4. Upper bearing housing 5. Bail pin 6. Lower align bearing 7. Lower seal housing 8. Lower seal 9. Lower seal race 10. Goose Neck 11. Upper housing seal 12. Packing housing 13. Bonnet 14. Upper oil seal 15. Upper align bearing 16. Main bearing 17. Lower retainer 18. Swivel stem 19. Adapter sub
  58. 58. 58 ROTARY TABLE Rotary table is the revolving or spinning section of the drill floorthat provides power to turn the drill string in a clockwise direction(as viewed from above). The rotary motion and power are transmitted through the Kelly bushing and the Kelly to the drill string. When the drill string is rotating, the drilling crew commonlydescribesthe operation as simply, "rotating to the right," "turning to the right," or, "rotating on bottom." Almostall rigs today have a rotary table, either as primary or backup system for rotating the drill string. Top drive technology, which allows continuous rotation of the drill string, has replaced the rotary table in certain operations. A few rigs are being built today with top drive systems only, and lack the traditional Kelly system. MACHINE SHOP AND PRODUCTION SHOP
  59. 59. 59 This Shop manufactures and modifies equipments used in Rigs and production. It has all the machines used for cutting, shaping, grinding, boring, for press,making key way, spline, drilling etc... MACHINES AVAILABLE IN MACHINE SHOP 1. Radial drilling machine 2. Grinding machine 3. Horizontal boring machine 347 4. Milling machine M-3H 5. Milling machine M-3U 6. Lathe machine 2349 &4453 (Russian) 7. Lathe machine 14178 (engine machine) 8. Lathe machine 10278,10280,5183,5045 & 3934 (Hmt) 9. Lathe machine 3926,3022,5816 & 5185 (NH-26) 10. Horizontal boring machine 347 (Hmt- AZ11) 11. Vertical boring machine 12. Slotter machine 13. Shaper machine 14. Multicut machine tools LATHE MACHINE A lathe is a machine tool which spins the work piece to perform various operations such as cutting, sanding, knurling, drilling, or deformationwith tools that are applied to the work piece to create an objectwhich has symmetry about an axis of rotation
  60. 60. 60 VERTICAL MILLING MACHINE In the vertical mill the spindle axis is vertically oriented. Milling cutters are held in the spindle and rotate on its axis. The spindle can generally be
  61. 61. 61 extended (or the table can be raised/lowered,giving the same effect), allowing plunge cuts and drilling. There are two subcategories of vertical mills: the bed mill and the turret mill. • A turret mill has a stationary spindle and the table is moved both perpendicularand parallel to the spindle axis to accomplishcutting. The most commonexample of this type is the Bridgeport,described below. Turret mills oftenhave a quill which allows the milling cutter to be raised and lowered in a manner similar to a drill press. This type of machine provides two methods of cutting in the vertical (Z) direction: by raising or lowering the quill, and by moving the knee. • In the bed mill, however, the table moves only perpendicularto the spindle's axis, while the spindle itself moves parallel to its own axis. Turret mills are generally consideredby some to be more versatile of the two designs.However, turret mills are only practical as long as the machine remains relatively small. As machine size increases, moving the knee up and down requires considerable effort.Therefore, larger milling machines are usually of the bed type. HORIZONTAL BORING MACHINE • A Horizontal Boring Machine or Horizontal Boring Mill is a machine tool which bores holes in a horizontal direction. There are three main types — table, planer and floor.
  62. 62. 62 • The table type is the most commonand, as it is the mostversatile, it is also known as the universal type. • A horizontal boring machine has its work spindle parallel to the ground and work table. • Typically there are 3 linear axes in which the tool head and part move. Convention dictates that the main axis that drives the part towards the work spindle is the Z axis, with a cross-traversing X axis and a vertically-traversing Y axis. The work spindle is referred to as the C axis and, if a rotary table is incorporated,its centre line is the B axis. SHAPER MACHINE • A Shaperis a type of machine tool that uses linear relative motion between the work piece and a single-point cutting tool to machine a linear tool path.
  63. 63. 63 • Its cut is analogous to that of a lathe, except that it is linear instead of helical. • A shaper is analogous to a planer, but smaller, and with the cutter riding a ram that moves above a stationary work piece,rather than the entire work piece moving beneath the cutter. The ram is moved back and forth typically by a crank inside the column; hydraulically actuated shapers also exist. RADIAL DRILL A Radial Arm Drill Press is a large geared head drill press in which the head can be moved along an arm that radiates from the machine's column. • As it is possible to swing the arm relative to the machine's base, a radial arm drill press is able to operate over a large area without
  64. 64. 64 having to repositionthe work piece.The size of work that can be handled may be considerable,as the arm can swing out of the way of the table, allowing an overhead crane or derrick to place a bulky piece on the table or base. • A vice may be used with a radial arm drill press,but more oftenthe work piece is secured directly to the table or base,or is held in a fixture. • Power spindle feed is nearly universal with these machines and coolant systems are common. • The biggest radial arm drill presses are able to drill holes as large as four inches (101.6 millimetres)in diameter. SLOTTERMACHINE The slotting machine is a reciprocating machine tool in which, the ram holding the tool reciprocates in a vertical axis and the cutting action of the tool is only during the downward stroke.
  65. 65. 65 CNC MACHINE Numerical control (NC) is the automation of machine tools that are operated by abstractly programmed commands encodedon a storage medium, as opposed to controlled manually via hand wheels or levers, or mechanically automated via cams alone. Most NC today is computer
  66. 66. 66 numerical control (CNC), in which computers play an integral part of the control. CNC-like systems are now used for any process that can be described as a series of movements and operations.These include laser cutting, welding, friction stir welding, ultrasonic welding, flame and plasma cutting, bending, spinning, hole-punching, pinning, gluing, fabric cutting, sewing, tape and fiber placement,routing, picking and placing (PnP), and sawing. PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT REPAIR (PER) SHOP Product equipmentrepair shop is one of the busiestshops in the CWS Vadodara. Rigs are being assembledand manufactured here. RIGS ASSEMBLED  Work over rigs  Cardwell rigs
  67. 67. 67  BHEL rigs  Russian rigs INFRASTRUCTURE & FACILITIES  Two EOT cranes - 20 Ton capacity  Induction heater  Hand grinder (electrically operated)  Hand grinder (pneumatically operated)  Welding Generator  Welding Rectifier  Welding Machine WORKING OF A WORK-OVER RIG The main engine is used to deliver power for all the operations of the rig. The compressoris attached to the engine. It gets its drive from the crank shaft by the means of belts. The compressoris used to produce the compressed air for several pneumatic systems.The system is controlled by the means of pneumatic control panel. The pneumatic system includes clutch, brakes, gears etc. Power produced by the engine is divided in the power divider (PTO) in two parts. One part is given below the chassis to run the mobile while the other is provided above the chassis to give drive to the draw works. Below the chassis, the power from the PTO is transmitted to the differentialfrom which the wheels and the dead axle run. However, before PTO gear box is provided which is used to control the motion. Single gear box is provided forboth the operations taking place below and above the chassis. Only one unit will operate at a time. From the PTO it will go the transmitter shaft. Transmitter shaft will transmit the power to the selen drum. Selen drum gives the drive to the jack shaft. The jack shaft gives drive to three units. First it gives the drive to the drum shaft through the chain drive. It also gives drive to the hydromantic brake which is used to decrease the speed of the travelling block which are often heavy and gain large momentum and so in order to decrease the speed,hydromantic brakes are used. It also gives drive to the rotary through the shaft. For the operation of the hydraulic system like steering ram, tilting jack, telescope, leveling ram etc. hydraulic oil of 10W is used. There is a separate tank and motor for steering and other systems.Water tanks are used for cooling purposes.Drum shaft gets hot when it is subjected to brakes so in order to
  68. 68. 68 coolit water is circulated inside the drum and the water goes back to the radiator to give away heat. B.H.E.L. RIG
  69. 69. 69 CARDWELL RIG
  70. 70. 70 RIG REPAIR AND HYDRAULIC REPAIR SHOP This shop repairs and refurbishes various makes and models of mobile rigs deployed in the field and work over many operations.In this shop, the mobile rig is dismantled and the various parts are sent to the respective shops,but if the rig is small, the draw works and swivels are repaired here. Then the hydraulic and pneumatic lines are repaired here. Afterreceiving the various equipments,they assembledand tested. The shop overhauls the following models of rigs: • Cardwell : M-50, M-700, M-100 • BHEL/INGERSOLRAND (IR) : M-120, M-450, M-900 • Russian rig : A-50
  71. 71. 71 INFRASTRUCTURE • EOT crane • Hydraulic press • Hydraulic grinder • Lathe machine • Air compressor • Grinding machine DRILLING RIG A drilling rig is a machine which creates holes in the ground. Drilling rigs can be massive structures housing equipmentused to drill water wells, oil wells, or natural gas extraction wells, or they can be small enough to be moved manually by one person and are called auger. They sample subsurface mineral deposits,testrock, soil and groundwater physical properties,and also can be used to install sub-surface fabrications, such as underground utilities, instrumentation, tunnels or wells. Drilling rigs can be mobile equipment mounted on trucks, tracks or trailers, or more permanent land or marine-based structures (such as oil platforms, commonlycalled 'offshore oil rigs' even if they don't contain a drilling rig). The term "rig" therefore generally refers to the complexof equipment that is used to penetrate the surface of the Earth's crust. MOBILE DRILLING RIG In early oil exploration, drilling rigs were semi-permanentin nature and the derricks were often built on site and left in place after the completionof the well. In more recent times drilling rigs are expensive custom-built machines that can be moved from well to well. Some light duty drilling rigs are like a mobile crane and are more usually used to drill water wells. Larger land
  72. 72. 72 rigs must be broken apart into sections and loads to move to a new place, a processwhich can often take weeks.Small mobile drilling rigs are also used to drill or bore piles. Rigs can range from 100 ton continuous flight auger (CFA) rigs to small air powered rigs used to drill holes in quarries, etc.
  73. 73. 73 WORKING PROCEDURE 1. Dismantling • At first the mast of rig is dismounted at yard and then the rig is brought inside the shop. • In the shop floor,the pneumatic and hydraulic lines are removed first and then the other equipments like engine and draw works are dismounted from their position and sent to their respective shops.
  74. 74. 74 • Then, the panel board, tilting ram, telescopic ram,hydraulic jack and jerk line cylinders are dismantled. 2. Inspection • After dismantling, inspection is carried out. • and the deficiencylist is raised. 3. Cleaning • The parts cleaned thoroughly after the inspectionwith the help of washing unit and kept in the tray. 4. Assembly • The hydraulic and pneumatic lines are repaired and then the other parts are assembledlike panel board one-by-one. • then the big equipmentlike the engine, mud pump and draw works are mounted on their respective positions. 5. Testing • During assembly,each equipment is tested after its mounting, so that one could notice the malfunctioning (if any) at the very beginning. • After the assemblyis completed,the rig is tested outside the shop along the mast. CEMENTING AND HYDRAULIC REPAIR SHOP This shop carries out the refurbishmentand repairing of cementing unit & hydraulic parts of rig structure. CEMENTING UNIT PARTS 1. Torque Converter: T.C.UNIT is used for apply &increasing the torque between mud pump & CAT Model no:245 for small rig, 300 for big rig 2. Guarder pump: Which is used to draw mud from mud pump through pressure by using engine power
  75. 75. 75 HYDRAULIC UNIT PARTS 1) Hydraulic Jack: Used for rig to up and down the mast. 2) Hydraulic Rams: i. Tilting Ram - Used for tilting the mast at a 90° ii. TelescopeRam - Used for pulling the mast upper side iii. Leveling Ram - Used for leveling the rig 3) Hydraulic Torque Machine: Which is used for to openand close the joint of connectionpipe. 4) Jerk Line: Used for pipe to tight and loose connection.
  76. 76. 76 FABRICATION SHOP This shop fabricates the various pressure and non-pressure vessels.In addition, it also repairs/fabricates structures like Rig mast, Rig foundation, Derrick floor, Monkey Board, Skid of various equipments and test beds. INFRASTRUCTURE • Welding Generator • Welding Rectifier • TIG welding machine • Submerged Arc-welding machine • Job Rotator • Radial drilling machine • Pedestalgrinder • Plate Bending machine • Hydraulic jack • Pneumatic Hammer • Air Compressor • EOT cranes of differentcapacity • Portal crane for material handling in the yard • Welding Transformer EQUIPMENTS BEING MANUFACTURED AND REPAIRED PRESSURE VESSELS • Heater Treater • Oil & Gas Separator • IDBH • Fire Tube of Heater Treater • 45 CU.M. Tank • Air receiver tank STRUCTURES • Monkey board • Mast of the rig • Skid • Test bed • Derrick floor
  77. 77. 77 NON-PRESSURE VESSELS • Trip Tank • Brake Water Cooling Tank • Water Tank • WSS Tank (mud tank) • 40M3 Tank • 37M3 Tank 26M3 Tank HEATER TREATER A "Heater Treater" is used in the Oil and gas production processand is used to remove water and gas from the produced oil - and to improve its quality for sale into a crude oil pipeline or for other transport. A heater- Treatertropical combines the following components inside the heater Treater: a heater, free-water knockout, and oil and gas separator. Heater Treater, which is very vital equipment for productioninstallation gives thermal, electrostatic and chemicaltreatment to the crude emulsion to separate the water content. The processof eliminating water from the emulsion is completed in two stages.About 80% of the water from emulsion is separated in the heating chamber and in the second stage remaining water is separated from the emulsion in the electrostatic chamber by subjecting it to the electrostatic field, at 23 KV and due to dehydrating chemicals.The control valves remove the separated water automatically. The separated gas is used for the burner and the various pneumatically controlled instruments.
  78. 78. 78 INDIRECT BATH HEATER Indirectbath heaters are mainly used in the oil and gas industry to heat process fluids. The mechanism takes place indirectly through a bath (utility bath) as opposed to heating directly by flame or furnace (direct fire-tube heaters). The use of a bath promotes uniform heating and reduces the chance of hotspots.Hotspots often occur in direct fire-tube heaters as a result of carbon build up on the fire side of the tubes. If left unchecked this build up can be a source of process fluid degradation and may lead to ruptures, explosions and leaks (Green and Perry 2007).Due to the indirect nature of bath heaters the safety risks are much lower (combustible streams isolated)compared to direct fire-tube heaters, they can therefore be used in hazardous areas where safety is a concern.
  79. 79. 79 APPLICATIONS Preheating of crude oil, heating of gas/crude at the well head (prevents cooling effectof gasses expanding), heating of high viscosity fluids to reduce pumping pressures,heating fuel gas at power generation sites, heating at compressorstations, fuel gas dew point used to prevent coke formation on the control, heating high pressure hydrocarbongas streams, vaporization of processfluids,reboiler heating. SEPARATOR An API oil-water separator is a device designed to separate gross amounts of oil and suspended solidsfrom the wastewater effluents of oil refineries, petrochemicalplants, chemical plants, natural gas processing plants and other industrial sources.The name is derived from the fact that such separators are designed according to standards published by the American Petroleum Institute (API).
  80. 80. 80 PRIMARY FUNCTIONS OF OIL AND GAS SEPARATORS • Separation of oil from gas may begin as the fluid flows through the producing formation into the wellbore and may progressivelyincrease through the tubing, flow lines, and surface handling equipment. • Under certain conditions, the fluid may be completelyseparated into liquid and gas before it reaches the oil and gas separator. In such cases,the separator vessel affords only an “enlargement” to permit gas to ascend to one outlet and liquid to descend to another. REMOVAL OF OIL FROM GAS • Differencein density of the liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons may accomplishacceptable separation in an oil and gas separator.
  81. 81. 81 • However, in some instances, it is necessaryto use mechanical devices commonlyreferred to as “mist extractors” to remove liquid mist from the gas before it is discharged from the separator. • Also, it may be desirable or necessary to use some means to remove non solution gas from the oil before the oil is discharged from the separator. REMOVAL OF GAS FROM OIL • The physical and chemical characteristics of the oil and its conditions of pressure and temperature determine the amount of gas it will contain in solution. • The rate at which the gas is liberated from a given oil is a function of change in pressure and temperature. • The volume of gas that an oil and gas separator will remove from crude oil is dependenton (1) physical and chemical characteristics of the crude, (2) operating pressure,(3) operating temperature, (4) rate of throughput, (5) size and configuration of the separator, and (6) other factors. • Gas can be removed from the top of the drum by virtue of being gas. • Oil and water are separated by a baffle at the end of the separator, which is set at a height close to the oil-water contact, allowing oil to spill over onto the other side, while trapping water on the near side. • The two fluids can then be piped out of the separator from their respective sides of the baffle. The produced water is then injected back into the oil reservoir, disposed of or treated. The bulk level (gas -
  82. 82. 82 liquid interface) and the oil water interfaced are determined using instrumentation fixed to the vessel. • Valves on the oil and water outlets are controlled to ensure the interfaces are kept at their optimum levels for separation to occur. • The Separator will only achieve bulk separation. The smaller droplets of water will not settle by gravity and will remain in the oil stream. Normally the oil from the separator is routed to a coalescer to further reduce the water content. SEPARATION OF WATER FROM OIL • The water can be separated from the oil in a three-phase separator by use of chemicals and gravity separation. • If the three-phase separator is not large enough to separate the water adequately, it can be separated in a free-water knockout vessel installed upstream or downstream of the separators. Effective oil-gas separation is important not only to ensure that the required export quality is achieved but also to prevent problems in downstream process equipment and compressors. Once the bulk liquid has been knocked out, which can be achieved in many ways, the remaining liquid droplets are separated from by a demisting device. METHOD USED TO REMOVE OIL FROM GAS IN SEPARATORS DENSITY DIFFERENCE (GRAVITY SEPARATION) • Natural gas is lighter than liquid hydrocarbon. • Minute particles of liquid hydrocarbon that are temporarily suspended in a stream of natural gas will, by density difference or force of
  83. 83. 83 gravity, settle out of the stream of gas if the velocity of the gas is sufficientlyslow. • The larger droplets of hydrocarbon will quickly settle out of the gas, but the smaller ones will take longer. • At standard conditions of pressure and temperature, the droplets of liquid hydrocarbon may have a density 400 to 1,600 times that of natural gas. However, as the operating pressure and temperature increase, the differencein density decreases. • At an operating pressure of 800 psig,the liquid hydrocarbon may be only 6 to 10 times as dense as the gas. • Thus, operating pressure materially affects the size of the separator and the size and type of mist extractor required to separate adequately the liquid and gas. The fact that the liquid droplets may have a density 6 to 10 times that of the gas may indicate that droplets of liquid would quickly settle out of and separate from the gas. However, this may not occur because the particles of liquid may be so small that they tend to “float” in the gas and may not settle out of the gas stream in the short period of time the gas is in the oil and gas separator. TESTS CONDUCTED AFTER WELDING Afterseam welding, the material has to be tested.Differentmethods may be employed forthis:- (1) Dye - Penetrate Test The surface to be tested is cleaned.The red dye is sprayed over the surface. The dye gets penetrated in the cracks if any. Afterdrying the dye the surface is cleaned. When the developer is applied, the cracks and flaws are visible naked eye as red dots over white surface.
  84. 84. 84 (2) Hydro Test All the orifices excepttwo are sealed. In one a manometeris fixed and from another stream of water is pushed, the test pressure being indicated by the manometer. (3) Radiography X-rays are made to penetrate the sample and defectslike porosity,pin holes, fractures etc. are detected and tolerance limit is checked. (4) Leakage Test This test is done only on non-pressure vessels.Wateris filled in these and then these are inspected forleakage.

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