Genetic engineering


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Genetic engineering

  1. 1. GENETIC ENGINEERING In this lesson you will find out: •About genes and DNA •How scientists use DNA •About the main stages of genetic engineering of human insulin.
  2. 2. THE FIREFLY – a weapon against cancer Fireflies are tiny insects that light up to attract a mate. Scientists have taken the GENE that causes the light and inserted it into cancer cells. The cancer cells then light up. The light triggers a reaction that KILLS the cancer. Healthy cells are unharmed because they have no internal light source.
  3. 3. THE GENETIC CODE • The NUCLEUS of a body contains CHROMOSOMES. • These chromosomes are made of DNA. • The DNA is a code called the GENETIC CODE • Everyone has their own genetic code.
  4. 4. GENETIC ENGINEERING • Scientists have found a way to change the genetic code • They call it GENETIC ENGINEERING To change the genetic code, scientists :• Choose a section of the code called a GENE • Take the chosen gene out of the organism and put it into another organism
  5. 5. QUESTIONS 1. Describe how the genetic code of an organism can be changed. 2. Copy and complete the sentence……………….. Changing the genetic code is called g…………….. e……………………
  6. 6. TRANSGENIC ORGANISMS • Genetic engineering changes the GENETIC CODE of an organism. Scientists can alter the genes of sheep so that they produce milk that contains a special protein called AAT. People who suffer from a lung disease called EMPHYSEMA need ATT.
  7. 7. TRANSGENIC SHEEP • Identify the gene for the protein AAT in human DNA • Remove the gene from human DNA • Cut open the DNA in a bacterium • Add the human DNA to the bacterium’s DNA • Put the bacterium’s DNA into fertilized egg cell of a sheep • Place the fertilized egg into a female sheep so it can develop into a lamb. When the lamb becomes an adult, it produces milk called AAT.
  8. 8. TRANSGENIC SHEEP (summary) engineered A genetically modified organism(GMO) or genetically organism (GEO) is an organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. 1. An embryo is created using in vitrio fertilization alginal (surrogate) 2. DNA gene for drug plus mammary directing injected into the fertilized alginal 3 . Embryo implanted into adult sheep 4. Transgenic offspring produces drug in milk
  9. 9. QUESTIONS 1. What is meant by a ‘transgenic organism’? 2. Which organism is used to carry the human gene into the fertilized sheep egg. DID YOU KNOW? Just 2000 transgenic sheep could provide enough ATT protein for every hospital
  10. 10. QUESTIONS 1. Explain the difference between a ligase enzyme and a restriction enzyme. 2. Suggest ONE reason why scientists need to know the DNA has stuck before they clone the bacteria. 3. Explain what effect an antibiotic has on bacteria without any resistance.
  11. 11. GENETIC ENGINEERING TO PRODUCE HUMAN INSULIN • eImport/modules/genome/fullscreenflashea2 b.cfm?flash=enflash/geneticeng.swf&title=Genetic+engineeri ng+to+produce+insulin&version=6 Ctrl click