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PIGMENTS
Dr. Shweta Malik (Assistant Professor)
Shwtmalik1@gmail.com
Home-Science Department
Swami Vivekanand Subharti
University, Meerut
Natural pigments, food compounds, are
responsible for the colour of the products. These
additives can impart, to deepen or renew the
colour of the product, if it has been lost while
processing. They also improve the taste of the
product and facilitate its identification.
 Biological pigments, also known simply as
pigments or bio chromes, are substances
produced by living organisms that have a color
resulting from selective color absorption.
Biological pigments include plant pigments and
flower pigments
Fruits and vegetables contain a variety of nutrients and vitamins and
the different pigments are actually different phytochemicals that are
beneficial to our health.
The red pigments found in fruits like watermelon, red grapes,
tomatoes and strawberries are called lycopene and anthocyanin. These
pigments may reduce the risk of several types of cancers especially
prostate cancer. These pigments are also powerful antioxidants that
keep the heart healthy and protect from cell damage.
Orange and yellow pigments found in fruits and vegetables such as
oranges, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and carrots are colored by
carotenoids. Beta-carotene is the precursor for vitamin A which may
reduce the risk of cancer and heart disease, improve immune function,
and decrease the risk of age related macular degeneration.
Green fruits and vegetables are pigmented by chlorophyll and include
dark leafy greens, green pepper, honey dew melon, green apples, kiwi,
lettuce zucchini, and broccoli.
Dark leafy greens contain folate which is a very important
nutrient for women’s health especially during pregnancy. They
also contain a chemical called lutein which is integral to
healthy eyesight. Blue and purple pigmented fruits and
vegetables contain anthocyanins which are potent antioxidants
that protect the cells from damage, reduce the risk of cancer,
and heart disease. Included in this group are blackberries,
eggplant, figs, purple grapes, raisins, and blueberries.
White fruits and vegetables are colored by pigments called
anthoxanthins. These pigments contain healthy chemicals such
as allicin which may reduce cholesterol and high blood
pressure and reduces the risk of stomach cancer. Included in
this group are bananas, garlic, ginger, onions and mushrooms.
Chlorophyll
 Chlorophyll is the green pigment of leafy
vegetablesandothergreencolouredvegetables like capsicum,
beans, peas and chillies. It is mostly insoluble in water. Two
cholorophylls have been isolated. Cholorophyll-a is intense blue
green in colour and cholorophyll- b is dull yellow green in
colour.
Carotenoids
 Carotenoids are the yellow, orange, red fat soluble pigments
distributed in nature. They are divided into three groups viz.
carotenes present in carrot, green leafy vegetables and other
fruits, lycopenes present in tomatoes and xanthophylls present in
yellow fruits.
 Pigments that contain the phenolic group include anthocyanin,
anthoxanthin, leuco anthoxanthin, catechin,quinones and
betalins. The first four groups are collectively known as
“Flavanoids”.
Anthocyanin
They are a group of reddish water- soluble
pigments occurring in many vegetables and
fruits. Cherries, red apples, pomegranates have
their colour appeal due to anthocyanins.
Anthoxanthins
They are colourless white to yellow pigments
that give colour to cauliflower, onions, spinach
or other leafy vegetables. In green leafy
vegetables the colour is masked by
chlorophyll.

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Pigments

  • 1. PIGMENTS Dr. Shweta Malik (Assistant Professor) Shwtmalik1@gmail.com Home-Science Department Swami Vivekanand Subharti University, Meerut
  • 2. Natural pigments, food compounds, are responsible for the colour of the products. These additives can impart, to deepen or renew the colour of the product, if it has been lost while processing. They also improve the taste of the product and facilitate its identification.  Biological pigments, also known simply as pigments or bio chromes, are substances produced by living organisms that have a color resulting from selective color absorption. Biological pigments include plant pigments and flower pigments
  • 3. Fruits and vegetables contain a variety of nutrients and vitamins and the different pigments are actually different phytochemicals that are beneficial to our health. The red pigments found in fruits like watermelon, red grapes, tomatoes and strawberries are called lycopene and anthocyanin. These pigments may reduce the risk of several types of cancers especially prostate cancer. These pigments are also powerful antioxidants that keep the heart healthy and protect from cell damage. Orange and yellow pigments found in fruits and vegetables such as oranges, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and carrots are colored by carotenoids. Beta-carotene is the precursor for vitamin A which may reduce the risk of cancer and heart disease, improve immune function, and decrease the risk of age related macular degeneration. Green fruits and vegetables are pigmented by chlorophyll and include dark leafy greens, green pepper, honey dew melon, green apples, kiwi, lettuce zucchini, and broccoli.
  • 4.
  • 5. Dark leafy greens contain folate which is a very important nutrient for women’s health especially during pregnancy. They also contain a chemical called lutein which is integral to healthy eyesight. Blue and purple pigmented fruits and vegetables contain anthocyanins which are potent antioxidants that protect the cells from damage, reduce the risk of cancer, and heart disease. Included in this group are blackberries, eggplant, figs, purple grapes, raisins, and blueberries. White fruits and vegetables are colored by pigments called anthoxanthins. These pigments contain healthy chemicals such as allicin which may reduce cholesterol and high blood pressure and reduces the risk of stomach cancer. Included in this group are bananas, garlic, ginger, onions and mushrooms.
  • 6. Chlorophyll  Chlorophyll is the green pigment of leafy vegetablesandothergreencolouredvegetables like capsicum, beans, peas and chillies. It is mostly insoluble in water. Two cholorophylls have been isolated. Cholorophyll-a is intense blue green in colour and cholorophyll- b is dull yellow green in colour. Carotenoids  Carotenoids are the yellow, orange, red fat soluble pigments distributed in nature. They are divided into three groups viz. carotenes present in carrot, green leafy vegetables and other fruits, lycopenes present in tomatoes and xanthophylls present in yellow fruits.  Pigments that contain the phenolic group include anthocyanin, anthoxanthin, leuco anthoxanthin, catechin,quinones and betalins. The first four groups are collectively known as “Flavanoids”.
  • 7. Anthocyanin They are a group of reddish water- soluble pigments occurring in many vegetables and fruits. Cherries, red apples, pomegranates have their colour appeal due to anthocyanins. Anthoxanthins They are colourless white to yellow pigments that give colour to cauliflower, onions, spinach or other leafy vegetables. In green leafy vegetables the colour is masked by chlorophyll.