DISEASES
OF THE
EPITHELIUM
DONE BY: ASLAM, SHUMAYLA
General Features of
Epithelium

1. Closely packed cells with little
extracellular material between them
arranged in sheets...


2 types:
◦ Covering and Lining Epithelium
 Forms the outer covering of the skin and some
internal organs. It also line...
DISEASES OF THE
EPITHELIUM
1. ECZEMA (Atopic
dermatitis)
a form of chronic, itchy
inflammation of the skin
 most often begins in
childhood before ag...
Areas affected


Most commonly
affects:
◦ hands and feet,
◦ in the front of the
bend of the elbow,
◦ Behind the knees,
◦ ...
Signs and symptoms
include:
 Red to brownish-gray
colored patches
 Itching, which may be
severe, especially at night
 S...
Tests and diagnosis


There is no test to definitively
diagnose atopic dermatitis (eczema).
Instead, it's typically diagn...
Treatments and drugs


Medications:
◦ Corticosteroid creams or ointments.
◦ Antibiotics.
◦ Oral antihistamines
 Diphenhy...


Princess Kate Middleton of great Britain
suffered from eczema (atopic dermatitis)
2. PSORIASIS
is a common skin disease
that affects the life cycle of
skin cells.
 is a persistent, long-lasting
(chronic)...
Factors that may trigger
psoriasis include:








Infections, such as strep throat or oral thrush
Injury to the s...
Signs and Symptoms


can vary from person to
person but may include one
or more of the following:
◦ Red patches of skin c...
Tests and diagnosis
diagnosis of psoriasis
is fairly straightforward.
 Physical exam and
medical history
 Skin biopsy

Treatments and drugs
Psoriasis treatments can be divided into three main
types:
 topical treatments











To...


Kim kardashian, a famous celebrity suffered
from psoriasis
3. VITILIGO
is a condition in which
skin loses melanin,
 occurs when the cells that
produce melanin die or
no longer form...
Signs


The main sign of vitiligo is:
◦ Pigment loss that produces milkywhite patches (depigmentation) on
skin



Other ...
Patterns
Vitiligo generally appears in one of three
patterns:
 Generalized.


◦ this most common subtype,
◦ pigment loss...
Tests and diagnosis
A family history of vitiligo or an autoimmune
disease
 A personal history of sun sensitivity or other...
Treatments and drugs
Treatment for vitiligo may take as long as six
to 18 months
 Treatment is given to limit the spread ...
Cosmetic treatment


Michael Jackson suffered from vitiligo
Thank you
Dse of the epithelium by dr.shumayla aslam
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  • Eczema is also known as atopic dermatitis
  • Melanin is the pigment that determines the color of your skin, hair and eyes.
  • Dse of the epithelium by dr.shumayla aslam

    1. 1. DISEASES OF THE EPITHELIUM DONE BY: ASLAM, SHUMAYLA
    2. 2. General Features of Epithelium 1. Closely packed cells with little extracellular material between them arranged in sheets 2. Surfaces: ◦ Apical Surface – exposed to a body cavity, the outside of the body or lining an internal organ ◦ Lateral Surface – Face adjacent cells ◦ Basal Surface – bottom layer attached to a basement membrane 3. Avascular – no blood vessels. Epithelial cells must get their nutrients from underlying connective tissue through diffusion 4. Innervated (have a nerve supply) 5. High mitotic rate – high capacity for cell
    3. 3.  2 types: ◦ Covering and Lining Epithelium  Forms the outer covering of the skin and some internal organs. It also lines body cavities, blood vessels, ducts, and the interiors of many of the body systems. ◦ Glandular Epithelium  Makes the secreting portion of glands
    4. 4. DISEASES OF THE EPITHELIUM
    5. 5. 1. ECZEMA (Atopic dermatitis) a form of chronic, itchy inflammation of the skin  most often begins in childhood before age 5 and may persist into adulthood.  Non contagious CAUSE:  The cause is unknown, but it may result from a combination of inherited tendencies for sensitive skin and malfunction in the body's immune system. 
    6. 6. Areas affected  Most commonly affects: ◦ hands and feet, ◦ in the front of the bend of the elbow, ◦ Behind the knees, ◦ Ankles ◦ Wrists ◦ Face, ◦ Neck ◦ Upper chest.
    7. 7. Signs and symptoms include:  Red to brownish-gray colored patches  Itching, which may be severe, especially at night  Small, raised bumps, which may leak fluid and crust over when scratched  Thickened, cracked or scaly skin  Raw, sensitive skin from scratching
    8. 8. Tests and diagnosis  There is no test to definitively diagnose atopic dermatitis (eczema). Instead, it's typically diagnosed based on an examination of your skin and a review of your medical history.
    9. 9. Treatments and drugs  Medications: ◦ Corticosteroid creams or ointments. ◦ Antibiotics. ◦ Oral antihistamines  Diphenhydramine ◦ Oral or injected corticosteroids. ◦ Immunomodulators  tacrolimus (Protopic) ◦ Moisturizers  Light therapy (phototherapy) ◦ use of artificial ultraviolet A (UVA) or ultraviolet B (UVB)
    10. 10.  Princess Kate Middleton of great Britain suffered from eczema (atopic dermatitis)
    11. 11. 2. PSORIASIS is a common skin disease that affects the life cycle of skin cells.  is a persistent, long-lasting (chronic) disease.  causes cells to build up rapidly on the surface of the skin, forming thick silvery scales and itchy, dry, red patches  Non contagious CAUSE:  The cause of psoriasis isn’t fully known, but it's thought to be related to the immune system and its interaction with the environment in people 
    12. 12. Factors that may trigger psoriasis include:        Infections, such as strep throat or oral thrush Injury to the skin, such as a cut or scrape, bug bite, or a severe sunburn Stress Cold weather Smoking Heavy alcohol consumption Certain medications — including lithium, which is prescribed for bipolar disorder; high blood pressure medications such as beta blockers; antimalarial drugs; and iodides
    13. 13. Signs and Symptoms  can vary from person to person but may include one or more of the following: ◦ Red patches of skin covered with silvery scales ◦ Small scaling spots (commonly seen in children) ◦ Dry, cracked skin that may bleed ◦ Itching, burning or soreness ◦ Thickened, pitted or ridged nails
    14. 14. Tests and diagnosis diagnosis of psoriasis is fairly straightforward.  Physical exam and medical history  Skin biopsy 
    15. 15. Treatments and drugs Psoriasis treatments can be divided into three main types:  topical treatments         Topical corticosteroids Vitamin D analogues. Anthralin Topical retinoids. Salicylic acid Moisturizers light therapy  use of artificial ultraviolet A (UVA) or ultraviolet B (UVB) light  Photochemotherapy, or psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA).  Excimer laser  systemic medications  Retinoids, Methotrexate, Immunomodulator drugs (biologics)
    16. 16.  Kim kardashian, a famous celebrity suffered from psoriasis
    17. 17. 3. VITILIGO is a condition in which skin loses melanin,  occurs when the cells that produce melanin die or no longer form melanin, causing slowly enlarging white patches of irregular shapes to appear on skin.  Vitiligo affects all races, but may be more noticeable in people with darker skin.  There is no cure for 
    18. 18. Signs  The main sign of vitiligo is: ◦ Pigment loss that produces milkywhite patches (depigmentation) on skin  Other less common signs may include: ◦ Premature whitening or graying of the hair on scalp, eyelashes, eyebrows or beard ◦ Loss of color in the tissues that line the inside of mouth (mucous membranes) ◦ Loss of or change in color of the inner layer of eye (retina)
    19. 19. Patterns Vitiligo generally appears in one of three patterns:  Generalized.  ◦ this most common subtype, ◦ pigment loss is widespread across many parts of body, often symmetrically.  Segmental. ◦ Loss of skin color occurs on only one side of body. ◦ This type tends to occur at a younger age, progress for a year or two, then stop.  Focal. ◦ Depigmentation is limited to one or a few areas of your body.
    20. 20. Tests and diagnosis A family history of vitiligo or an autoimmune disease  A personal history of sun sensitivity or other skin conditions  A rash, sunburn or other skin trauma within two to three months of the start of pigment loss  A history of melanoma or multiple, atypical moles  Premature graying of the hair (before age 35)  Stress or physical illness May suggest the diagnosis of vitiligo. Skin biopsy 
    21. 21. Treatments and drugs Treatment for vitiligo may take as long as six to 18 months  Treatment is given to limit the spread the disease  In some cases treatment may not be necessary  Medical therapies   Topical corticosteroid therapy  Topical psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA)  Excimer laser  Surgical therapies  Autologous skin grafts.  Blister grafting  Tattooing (micropigmentation)
    22. 22. Cosmetic treatment
    23. 23.  Michael Jackson suffered from vitiligo
    24. 24. Thank you

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