congestive heart failure


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congestive heart failure

  2. 2. • Heart failure (HF) also known as CHF • clinical syndrome in which an abnormality of cardiac structure or function is responsible for the inability of the heart to eject or fill with blood at a rate commensurate with the requirements of the metabolizing tissues. • It is frequent end point of many of the conditions.
  3. 3. Classification • Functional classification generally relies on the New York Heart Association Functional Classification (NYHA). The classes (I-IV) are: Class I: no limitation is experienced in any activities; there are no symptoms from ordinary activities. Class II: slight, mild limitation of activity; the patient is comfortable at rest or with mild exertion. Class III: marked limitation of any activity; the patient is comfortable only at rest. Class IV: any physical activity brings on discomfort and symptoms occur at rest.
  4. 4. • the American College of Cardiology ( ACC)/American Heart Association working group introduced four stages of heart failure: • Stage A: Patients at high risk for developing HF in the future but no functional or structural heart disorder; • Stage B: a structural heart disorder but no symptoms at any stage; • Stage C: previous or current symptoms of heart failure in the context of an underlying structural heart problem, but managed with medical treatment; • Stage D: advanced disease requiring hospital-based support, a heart transplant or palliative care.
  5. 5. • Stage A encompasses "pre-heart failure" - a stage where intervention with treatment can presumably prevent progression to overt symptoms. • ACC stage A does not have a corresponding NYHA class. • ACC Stage B would correspond to NYHA Class I. • ACC Stage C corresponds to NYHA Class II and III, • ACC Stage D overlaps with NYHA Class IV.
  6. 6. Types of heart failure Type of heart failure Left-sided heart failure Description Most common form of heart failure. Fluid may back up in your lungs, causing shortness of breath. Right-sided heart failure Often occurs with left-sided heart failure. Fluid may back up into your abdomen, legs and feet, causing swelling. Systolic heart failure The left ventricle can't contract vigorously, indicating a pumping problem. Diastolic heart failure The left ventricle can't relax or fill fully, indicating a filling problem.
  7. 7. Epidemiology • is the leading cause of hospitalization in people older than 65 • In developing countries, two to three percent of the population suffers from heart failure. • heart failure increase with age. • Both men and women have similar incidence of HF
  8. 8. • However, there are distinct differences between the two genders. ▫ Women generally develop heart failure after menopause. ▫ Women tend to become more depressed than men. ▫ Women have similar symptoms but the intensity is more pronounced. ▫ Women usually survive a lot longer with heart failure than men.
  9. 9. Causes • Population Attributable Risk score: ▫ Ischaemic heart disease 62% ▫ Cigarette smoking 16% ▫ Hypertension (high blood pressure)10% ▫ Obesity 8% ▫ Diabetes 3% ▫ Valvular heart disease 2% (much higher in older populations)
  10. 10. • Rarer causes of heart failure include: ▫ Viral myocarditis (an infection of the heart muscle) ▫ Infiltrations of the muscle such as amyloidosis ▫ HIV cardiomyopathy (caused by human immunodeficiency virus) ▫ Connective tissue diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus ▫ Abuse of drugs such as alcohol and cocaine ▫ Pharmaceutical drugs such as chemotherapeutic agents ▫ Arrhythmias
  11. 11. • Obstructive sleep apnea a condition of sleep disordered breathing overlaps with obesity, hypertension, and diabetes and is regarded as an independent cause of heart failure. • Acute decompensated heart failure
  13. 13. Signs and symptoms Left-sided failure Right-sided failure • Tachypnea • pulmonary edema • Cyanosis • apex beat • gallop rhythm • Heart murmurs • pitting peripheral edema, • ascites, and • hepatomegaly • Jugular vein distension ▫ aortic stenosis ▫ mitral regurgitation
  14. 14. Jugular vein distension
  15. 15. • Backward failure of the left ventricle causes • congestion of the pulmonary vasculature, • subdivided into  failure of the left atrium,  the left ventricle or  both within the left circuit. • • • • • Dyspnea Orthopnea paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea Easy fatigueability and exercise intolerance "Cardiac asthma" or wheezing may occur.
  16. 16. • • • • • • • Backward failure of the right ventricle leads to congestion of systemic capillaries. peripheral edema or anasarca Nocturia Ascites Hepatomegaly coagulopathy
  17. 17. Diagnosis • • • • • Imaging Chest X-rays Electrophysiology Blood tests Angiography
  18. 18. Algorithms • Framingham criteria • presence of at least 2 of the following major criteria or 1 major criterion in conjunction with 2 of the following minor criteria:
  19. 19. Major criteria: • • • • • • Cardiomegaly on chest radiography S3 gallop (a third heart sound) Acute pulmonary edema Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea Crackles on lung auscultation Central venous pressure of more than 16 cm H2O at the right atrium • Jugular vein distension • Positive abdominojugular test • Weight loss of more than 4.5 kg in 5 days in response to treatment (sometimes classified as a minor criterium)
  20. 20. Minor criteria: • • • • • Tachycardia of more than 120 beats per minute Nocturnal cough Dyspnea on ordinary exertion Pleural effusion Decrease in vital capacity by one third from maximum recorded • Hepatomegaly • Bilateral ankle edema
  21. 21. Treatments and drugs Surgery and medical devices • Coronary bypass surgery • Heart valve repair or replacement • Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). • Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) or biventricular pacing • Heart pumps (left ventricular assist devices, or LVADs). • Heart transplant
  22. 22. Prevention • Lifestyle changes you can make to help prevent heart failure include: • Not smoking • Controlling certain conditions, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes • Staying physically active • Eating healthy foods • Maintaining a healthy weight • Reducing and managing stress