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Mimebot: Sphere-shaped Mobile Robot Imitating Rotational Movement (MoMM2016 presentation tsuchida)

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Mimebot: Sphere-shaped Mobile Robot Imitating Rotational Movement (MoMM2016 presentation tsuchida)

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When designing a performance involving people and mobile robots, we must consider the required functions and shape of the robot. However, it can be difficult to account for all of the requirements. In this paper, we discuss a mobile robot in the shape of a ball that is used in theatrical performances. Such a spherical robot should be agile and be able to roll like a ball. However, it is difficult to create a robot with all of these characteristics. Instead, we propose a mobile robot that can give the audience the optical illusion of the unique movements of a sphere by mounting a spherical LED display on a high-agility wheeled robot. The results of an experiment using a prototype indicate that this sort of robot can broaden the range of possible performances by giving the optical illusion of being a rolling sphere.

When designing a performance involving people and mobile robots, we must consider the required functions and shape of the robot. However, it can be difficult to account for all of the requirements. In this paper, we discuss a mobile robot in the shape of a ball that is used in theatrical performances. Such a spherical robot should be agile and be able to roll like a ball. However, it is difficult to create a robot with all of these characteristics. Instead, we propose a mobile robot that can give the audience the optical illusion of the unique movements of a sphere by mounting a spherical LED display on a high-agility wheeled robot. The results of an experiment using a prototype indicate that this sort of robot can broaden the range of possible performances by giving the optical illusion of being a rolling sphere.

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Mimebot: Sphere-shaped Mobile Robot Imitating Rotational Movement (MoMM2016 presentation tsuchida)

  1. 1. Mimebot: Sphere-shaped Mobile Robot Imitating Rotational Movement Shuhei Tsuchida†1, Tatsuya Takemori†2, Tsutomu Terada†1†3, Masahiko Tsukamoto†1 †1 Kobe University †2 Kyoto University †3 PRESTO, JST
  2. 2. Demo Movie 2
  3. 3. 1. Background 2. Research Purpose 3. Proposed Method 4. Preliminary Study 5. Improvement of System and Evaluation 6. Testing the ability of the proposed system 7. Summarize
  4. 4. 1. Background 2. Research Purpose 3. Proposed Method 4. Preliminary Study 5. Improvement of System and Evaluation 6. Testing the ability of the proposed system 7. Summarize
  5. 5. 5 A performance involving people and mobile robots Reference: Dance with Drones, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HQLORg5COiU Problem ・Noisy ・Risk of Crash ・Control difficulty Background
  6. 6. 6 Problem ・Posture deviation ・Low agility Background
  7. 7. 7 How to provide a stable system Function ・Failsafe ・Multiplexing For a general system System User Dependability Background
  8. 8. 8 System Performer / Stage director Function Stage effects Audience How to provide a stable system For a stage effect system Background
  9. 9. 9 System Performer / Stage director Function Stage effects Audience How to provide a stable system For a stage effect system Background Dependability
  10. 10. 10 System Performer / Stage director Function Stage effects Audience How to provide a stable system For a stage effect system Background Dependability Appearance Dependability Stabilize the function with the same stage effect
  11. 11. 11 Performance involving objects flying in the air Ex. Background
  12. 12. 12 Performance involving objects flying in the air Ex. Background Wire
  13. 13. 13 Performance involving objects flying in the air Ex. Background Wire
  14. 14. 14 Performance involving objects flying in the air Ex. Background Drone Using Wire Cost High Low Stability Low High Audience Satisfaction ◎ ◎
  15. 15. 15 Construct a alternative mechanism to d stage effects equivalent to real objects. Research Purpose
  16. 16. 1. Background 2. Research Purpose 3. Proposed Method 4. Preliminary Study 5. Improvement of System and Evaluation 6. Testing the ability of the proposed system 7. Summarize
  17. 17. Problem of a rolling robot 17 Expression of rotational movement Agility Accuracy of posture estimation
  18. 18. Problem of a rolling robot 18 Expression of rotational movement Agility Accuracy of posture estimation Cross section Actual appearance
  19. 19. Problem of a rolling robot 19 Expression of rotational movement Agility Accuracy of posture estimation Cannot increase acceleration Cannot make a sudden turn by centrifugal force
  20. 20. Problem of a rolling robot 20 Expression of rotational movement Agility Accuracy of posture estimation Cannot attach a marker for motion capture to the outer surface
  21. 21. Problem of a rolling robot 21 Expression of rotational movement Agility Accuracy of posture estimation High-agility mobile wheeled rob
  22. 22. Problem of a rolling robot 22 Expression of rotational movement Agility Accuracy of posture estimation High-agility mobile wheeled rob Spherical LED display visually reproduces rotational moveme
  23. 23. 1. Background 2. Research Purpose 3. Proposed Method 4. Preliminary Study 5. Improvement of System and Evaluation 6. Testing the ability of the proposed system 7. Summarize
  24. 24. Preliminary Investigation on Rotational Movement Expression of a Sphereical LED Display 24 Purpose Built a mobile robot equipped with a spherical LED display and evaluate its visual effect.
  25. 25. 25 Device miniUSB Multi plug Breadboard Spherical LED display Cover Mobile robot Preliminary Investigation on Rotational Movement Expression of a Sphereical LED Display
  26. 26. 26 Device miniUSB Multi plug Breadboard Spherical LED display Cover Mobile robot Before coating After coating Inside of the sphere Preliminary Investigation on Rotational Movement Expression of a Sphereical LED Display
  27. 27. 27 Device Spherical LED display Mobile robot Diameter Φ350mm Weight 3500g Speed 0.42m/sec Preliminary Investigation on Rotational Movement Expression of a Sphereical LED Display miniUSB Multi plug Breadboard Cover
  28. 28. 28 Device miniUSB Multi plug Breadboard Spherical LED display Cover Mobile robot Preliminary Investigation on Rotational Movement Expression of a Sphereical LED Display
  29. 29. 29 Application 1つ1つがLEDと対応 Preliminary Investigation on Rotational Movement Expression of a Sphereical LED Display
  30. 30. 30 Experiment Preliminary Investigation on Rotational Movement Expression of a Sphereical LED Display
  31. 31. 31 ・The larger the surface area to light the light, the larger the variation of the pattern, the tendency to increase the illusion effect was observed. ・Nine out of the eleven participants noticed that the velocity of the sphere and the rotational speed of the lights were not the same and commented on it. Result Preliminary Investigation on Rotational Movement Expression of a Sphereical LED Display
  32. 32. 1. Background 2. Research Purpose 3. Proposed Method 4. Preliminary Study 5. Improvement of System and Evaluation 6. Testing the ability of the proposed system 7. Summarize
  33. 33. Improvement of System 33 ・Synchronize the rotation of the lights of the spherical LED display with the distance moved by the robot. ・In consideration of an actual stage performance, the driving part should be as low and as small as possible. Improvement point =
  34. 34. 34 System configuration Before Improvement PC Mobile robot Spherical LED display Command Arduino nano 12 Control the lights Lighting Patterns Improvement of System
  35. 35. 35 System configuration PC Mobile robot Spherical LED display Command Arduino nano 12 Control the lights Lighting Patterns Improvement of System mbed x 1 Velocity There is no difference between the movement distance of the mobile robot and the rotation amount of light After Improvement
  36. 36. 36 Motor cover Battery mbed Xbee Cover Spherical LED display Mobile robot Device Disassembled Assembled Improvement of System
  37. 37. 37 Motor cover Battery mbed Xbee Spherical LED display Mobile robot Device Disassembled Improvement of System Previous New device Diamete r 350mm 200mm Height 110mm 60mm Weight 3500g 600g CPU H8/36064 STM32F405 Table: Spec
  38. 38. 38 Acceleration comparison test of spherical mobile robots the arrival times for a distance of 1.0 m ・Sphero 1.39 sec ・Propsed Robot 1.00 sec Improvement of System
  39. 39. Experiment 41 Experiment items 1. Whether participants who did not see the movements of the spherical mobile robot experience the optical illusion of a rolling spheres. 2. The relationship between the velocity of the robot and the perception of the optical illusion. 3. Influence of the deviation between the amount of rotation and the moving distance on the illusion. Participants 12 males (Average age 22.7) →Possibility of alternative mechanism →Allowable range of alternative mechanism →Allowable range of alternative mechanism
  40. 40. 42 Experiment procedure Step 1 → Step 2 → Step 3 → Step 4 4.4 m 2 m 0.5 m 0.23 m View point Experiment 6 m
  41. 41. 43 Experiment procedure Step 1 → Step 2 → Step 3 → Step 4 6 m 4.4 m 2 m 0.5 m 0.23 m Experiment A participant watches a performance involving the mobile robot equipped with a spherical LED display and has no knowledge about how it operates. Performer Par$cipant
  42. 42. 44 Experiment procedure Step 1 → Step 2 → Step 3 → Step 4 6 m 4.4 m 2 m 0.5 m 0.23 m Experiment Performer Participant
  43. 43. 45 Experiment procedure Step 1 → Step 2 → Step 3 → Step 4 6 m 4.4 m 2 m 0.5 m 0.23 m Experiment Performer Par$cipant
  44. 44. 46 Experiment procedure Step 1 → Step 2 → Step 3 → Step 4 Experiment ・a spherical LED display presents the rotation (0.6 m/s). ・After the presentation, an experimenter orally asks the participant two questions:. Q1: Did the sphere appear to be rolling? Q2: What mechanism do you think makes the sphere moves?
  45. 45. 47 Participant Experimenter Experiment procedure Step 1 → Step 2 → Step 3 → Step 4 Experiment
  46. 46. 48 Participant Experimenter Experiment procedure Step 1 → Step 2 → Step 3 → Step 4 Experiment
  47. 47. 49 Participant Experimenter Experiment procedure Step 1 → Step 2 → Step 3 → Step 4 Experiment ・Explain the mechanism of the mobile robot. ・Orally confirms whether or not the participant recognized the mechanism.
  48. 48. 50 Experiment procedure Step 1 → Step 2 → Step 3 → Step 4 Experiment Participant ・Participants confirm the actual LED ball rolling from the same position as in Step 1.
  49. 49. 51 Experiment procedure Step 1 → Step 2 → Step 3 → Step 4 Experiment Participant ・Participants confirm the actual LED ball rolling from the same position as in Step 1. 被験者 Actual LED ball Spherical LED display
  50. 50. 52 ・The LED display shows showed the following 7 visual effect patterns. Velocity: 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2 [m/s] Amount of rotation of lights with respect to the moving distance: 0.5, 1.5, 2.0 (velocity 0.6 m/s) Experiment procedure Step 1 → Step 2 → Step 3 → Step 4 Experiment
  51. 51. 53 Experiment Results and Consideration Step 1 → Step 2 → Step 3 → Step 4
  52. 52. 54 Q1: Did the sphere appear to be rolling? Experiment Step 1 → Step 2 → Step 3 → Step 4 Yes 12 participants 11 Results and Consideration
  53. 53. 55 Experiment Step 1 → Step 2 → Step 3 → Step 4 Results and Consideration Q2: What mechanism do you think makes the sphere moves? 「I thought that the sphere was just rolling. 」 「I thought that the LED ball was rolling by running on electric rails. 」 「I thought there was a driving part inside the LED ball and that the LED ball was rolling because its center of gravity was moving. 」
  54. 54. 56 Experiment Step 1 → Step 2 → Step 3 → Step 4 Results and Consideration Q2: What mechanism do you think makes the sphere moves? 「I thought that the sphere was just rolling. 」 「I thought that the LED ball was rolling by running on electric rails. 」 「I thought there was a driving part inside the LED ball and that the LED ball was rolling because its center of gravity was moving. 」 These answers confirmed that the participants perceived the sphere to be physically rolling.
  55. 55. 57 Experiment Step 1 → Step 2 → Step 3 → Step 4 Results and Consideration Participants didn’t notice ・We explained the mechanism and confirmed whether the participants had noticed the mechanism. 12 participants 12
  56. 56. 58 Experiment Experiment items 1. Whether or not participants who did not see the movements of the spherical mobile robot experience the optical illusion of a rolling spheres. 2. The relationship between the velocity of the robot and the perception of the optical illusion. 3. Influence of the deviation between the amount of rotation and the moving distance on the illusion.
  57. 57. 59 Experiment Experiment items Participants feel the ball is actually rolling. 1. Whether or not participants who did not see the movements of the spherical mobile robot experience the optical illusion of a rolling spheres. 2. The relationship between the velocity of the robot and the perception of the optical illusion. 3. Influence of the deviation between the amount of rotation and the moving distance on the illusion.
  58. 58. 60 ・Participants watch an actual rolling LED ball. (For evaluation criteria). Experiment Step 1 → Step 2 → Step 3 → Step 4 Results and Consideration
  59. 59. 61 ・Participants watches 7 patterns. Experiment Step 1 → Step 2 → Step 3 → Step 4 Results and Consideration
  60. 60. 62 Q: Did the sphere appear to be rolling? ・The relationship between the velocity of the robot and the perception of the optical illusion. Figure: Average value of the evaluation of 12 participants. When the speed was extremely fast / slow, the illusion effect tended to weaken. Experiment Results and Consideration
  61. 61. 63 Experiment Experiment items 1. Whether or not participants who did not see the movements of the spherical mobile robot experience the optical illusion of a rolling spheres. 2. The relationship between the velocity of the robot and the perception of the optical illusion. 3. Influence of the deviation between the amount of rotation and the moving distance on the illusion. Participants feel the ball is actually rolling. When the speed was extremely fast / slow, the illusion effect tended to weaken.
  62. 62. 64 ・Influence of the deviation between the amount of rotation and the moving distance on the illusion. 🦐 🦐 p < .05 Experiment Results and Consideration Q: Did the sphere appear to be rolling? Figure: Average value of the evaluation of 12 participants. The amount of rotation [m] / The moving distance [m]
  63. 63. 65 Experiment Experiment items 1. Whether or not participants who did not see the movements of the spherical mobile robot experience the optical illusion of a rolling spheres. 2. The relationship between the velocity of the robot and the perception of the optical illusion. 3. Influence of the deviation between the amount of rotation and the moving distance on the illusion. Participants feel the ball is actually rolling. When the speed was extremely fast / slow, the illusion effect tended to weaken. The illusion effect diminishes as the rotation amount is increased with respect to the movement distance.
  64. 64. 66 Experiment Experiment summary • Eleven out of twelve participants believed the illusion that the sphere was rolling when they watched the performance, which is surprising. • The improved hardware and software made the illusion possible even when the LED ball moved too slowly or too quickly. • We found that attention needs to be paid to the relationship between rotation and moving distance when setting up a performance.
  65. 65. 1. Background 2. Research Purpose 3. Proposed Method 4. Preliminary Study 5. Improvement of System and Evaluation 6. Testing the ability of the proposed system 7. Summarize
  66. 66. 68 Testing the abilities of the sphere-shaped mobile robot Improvement of the system
  67. 67. 69 Testing the abilities of the sphere-shaped mobile robot Performance
  68. 68. 70 Experiment Comments by Performer • Until being told how the mechanism worked, I was convinced that the sphere was physically rotating on its own. • It looked as if the sphere was attached to the wall, and rolling on it. • It seemed that the camera angle was changing, which was very interesting. • It looked as if the robot was surprised. • It looked as if the video’s playback speed was changing. • In one scene the robot was gentlemanlike. Comments by Audience A spherical robot on a moving stand demonstrated higher power output and mobility than expected. It was able to move very naturally during scenes such as when it pushed against a wall without appearing too burdened.
  69. 69. 1. Background 2. Research Purpose 3. Proposed Method 4. Preliminary Study 5. Improvement of System and Evaluation 6. Testing the ability of the proposed system 7. Summarize
  70. 70. Summarize 72 ・We propose the concept of using pseudo-physical movements in performances with robots. ・We built a robot that visually reproduces the movements of a rolling sphere and is capable of faster movements and easier position estimations in comparison with previous spherical robots. ・We created a performance that included the robot interacting with a professional performer.
  71. 71. 73
  72. 72. 今後の課題 74 超現実表現 坂道を上る 逆⾛ 急加速 急停止
  73. 73. 今後の課題 75 環境の錯視 凸凹な床 壁 つるつるの床
  74. 74. 今後の課題 76 パフォーマンス以外の利⽤ スポーツ 情報提示装置
  75. 75. まとめ 77 ・球状LEDテ ィスフ レ イを搭載した移動ロホ ットを 提案. ・光を用いた視覚効果について調査. ・視覚効果による回転移動の錯視を確認. ・光の回転量に対する移動距離のずれが 錯視効果を弱めることを確認.
  76. 76. まとめ 78 ・球状LEDテ ィスフ レ イを搭載した移動ロホ ットを 提案. ・光を用いた視覚効果について調査. ・視覚効果による回転移動の錯視を確認. ・光の回転量に対する移動距離のずれが 錯視効果を弱めることを確認. インタラクティブ発表するよ! !

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