Living Organisms and their
that don’t need air, water, food and
sunlight for their existence are known as NonLiving Things.
table, chair ,rocks etc.
things that need air, water, food and
sunlight to survive are known as living things.
plants, animals and human beings.
Characteristics of Living Things
Living things need air, water and food.
They can grow.
They can move on their own.
They can respond to stimuli (changes around them) because they are
They respire (breathe)
They have a definite life-span.
For all living things to exist, they need food and water.
Plants- They make their food by doing the process of photosynthesis.
Animals- They obtain their food from other living organisms like grass and
Humans- Even we feed on other living organisms.
The young ones of living organisms grow or increase in size as time passes
away. Soon they become an adult.
Plants- Their seeds grow up and become a mature plant in the future.
Animals- Their babies grow up to become strong animals like their mom
Humans- Their babies grow up to become strong adults like their mom
All living things move themselves without any external help.
Plants- Lets take the example of a ‘touch me not plant’. If you touch it it
closes its leaves. This shows movement in the plant.
Animals- They move to hunt for food, etc.
Humans- They move to do their occupations like running, walking, driving
4. Respond to Stimuli
All living thing respond to changes around them.
Plants- Lets take the example of a touch-me-not plant. When you touch
that plant, it closes. So it responds to stimuli.
Animals- When a deer feels a scratch on her back, she understands that
something hurt her, so she runs away. So it responds to stimuli.
Humans- When we touch fire, out hand moves away on its own. So we
responds to stimuli.
All living things undergo respiration to obtain energy from food.
Plants- Plants take in carbon dioxide and give out oxygen. They respire.
Animals- Animals take in oxygen and give out carbon dioxide. They
Humans- We take in oxygen and give out carbon dioxide. We respire.
Each living thing breathes through different parts of their body.-
Plants- Stomata(small openings in leaves)
Sea animals like fish- Gills (organs which absorb oxygen mixed in water)
Mammals like humans- Lungs
Animals like earthworms- Moist skin
The process by which all living things give birth to their young ones is
known as reproduction.
This doctor is checking the
Lama’s baby inside the
Animals reproduce through-
Eggs (chickens, etc)
Giving birth to their young ones directly (humans, cows, etc)
Plants reproduce through-
Seeds (fruits like mangoes, plums, etc)
The removal of waste materials from the body is known as excretion.
Plants excrete through-
Taking out carbon dioxide or oxygen depending on day and night.
Storing their waste products in their fruits, leaves, barks, etc.
Secretions (gum, raisin and wax)
Animals excrete through-
Exhaling carbon dioxide
8. Definite Life-Span
All living things start their life and end their life in a specific time. Thus, all
living things have a definite Life-Span.
For example, a turtle has a life-span of more than a 100 years but
average humans have a life-span of only 60-70 years old.
A place or surrounding where a living organism lives is called its habitat.
See the picture of a forest…identify the animals living in this habitat.
Types of Habitats
Terrestrial Habitats- Habitats on land like deserts, rainforests, etc.
Aquatic Habitats- Habitats in water bodies like lakes, seas, etc.
Living things are their habitat’s biotic components.
Example- A desert’s biotic components are camels, cactuses, etc.
A river’s biotic components are fish, crabs, etc.
The Camels are the
biotic components of
The Non-Living things are their habitat’s abiotic components.
Example- A desert’s abiotic components is sand, etc.
A river’s abiotic components is water, etc.
A river’s abiotic
The presence of a specific body features (or certain habits)
which enable a plant or an animal to live in a particular
habitat is called adaptation.
For example- The polar bear is adapted to snow and the
cold weather. But the camel is adapted to the hot sand and
hot weather. So if we bring the polar bear to the desert and
the camel to the North Pole, they both won’t be able to
survive because they are not adapted to have the special
features which they need to survive there.