-Detailed Classification of Roads
-Cross section of Road and its Elements
Prepared by-SHUBHAM P.SADH, Civil Engineering-5thsem, H.J.D. Institute, Kera
Highway engineering (Reference-Principles and Practices of Highway Engineering –Dr.L.R.Kadyali, Dr. N.B.Lal)
CLASSIFICATION OF ROADS
TYPE OF CARRIGE WAY
TYPE OF PAVEMENT SURFACESEASONS
2)NON- URBAN/ RURAL
(1)GENERAL:-Universally/Generally, roads are classified in two main categories:
(i) Urban Roads, (ii) Non-Urban/Rural Roads.
(i)Urban Roads:-Roads which are located within cities, towns and other inhabited areas and come under the jurisdiction of municipalities, cantonment boards and Post trusts.
-These roads are further classified into the following classes:
(a) Expressways:-Superior types of roads facilities designed for high speed, high traffic volumes and safety.
(b) Arterial Roads
(c) Sub-arterial Roads
(d) Collector Roads:-Provide access to arterial streets and they collect and distribute traffic from and to local streets.
(e) Local Roads:-Provide access to abutting property.
Arterial and sub-arterial are roads primarily for through traffic on a continuous route.
(ii)Non-Urban/Rural Roads:-Roads which are located in the non- urban areas and connect cities and townsacross the country.
-Rural roads are further classified into five categories: (a) National Highways (NH):-Connect capitals of States, ports, foreign highways, large towns and industrial centers. (b) State Highways (SH):-These are arterial roads of a state connecting up with the national highways of adjacent state, district head quarters and important cities within the state. (c) Major District Roads (MDR):-They are the important roads within a district, serving areas of production and markets and connecting those with each other or with the main highways. (d) Other District Roads (ODR):-Serving rural areas of production and providing them with outlet to market centers, talukahead quarters, district head quarters or other main roads. (e) Village Roads (VR):-Connecting villages or groups of villages with each other to the nearest road of a higher category.
(2)Dependingon use during different seasons:-
(3) Based on the type of the carriage way:-
(4) Based on the type of pavement surface:-
(5) Modified classification of road by third 20-year RoadDevelopmentPlan (1981-2001)
CROSS-SECTION OF ROAD AND ITS ELEMENTS
The various components of highway cross-section are as under:
3.Right of way
KERBS:-The boundaries between pavement and shoulders or footpaths are known as Kerbs.
A Kerbis a vertical or sloping member along the edge of a pavement or shoulder, forming part of gutter, strengthening or protecting the edge and clearly defining the edge to vehicle operators.
•The Functions of Kerbare:
-To facilitate and control drainage
-To strengthen and protect the pavement edge
-To present a more finished appearance
-To assist in the orderly development of the roadside
Functionally they could be of three types:
1.Low or mountable kerbs: These kerbsare indicators between the bundaryof a road shoulder.
2.Semi-barrier kerbs: It prevent encroachment of slow speed or parking vehicles to the foot path.
3.Barrier type kerbs:They are mainly provided to cause obstructions to the vehicles leaving the carriage way under emergency.
Camber:-Camber or Cross slope is the slope provided to the road surface in the transverse direction to drain off the rain water from the road surface.
Camber is provided for the following purpose
-To Remove the rain water from the pavement surface as quickly as possible.
-To prevent entry of water into the bituminous pavement layers.
-To prevent the entry of surface water into the sub grade soil through pavement.
-To make the pavement surface attractive.
The camber can be provided in three ways as shown in figure.
3.Combination of straight and parabolic camber.