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CASE STUDY
BURJ KHALIFA, DUBAI
Location Dubai,United Arab Emirates.
Type Mixed Use.
Architectural style Neo- futurism.
Architect Adrian Smith at SOM.
Developer Emaar Properties.
Cost USD $ 1.5 billion.
Construction period 6 January,2004 – 2December.
Opened 4 January ,2010.
Height 828m, 830m to tip.
Floor count 163 floors above ground,153 --usable
plus 9 maintenance levels, and 2.
below ground parking levels
Floor area 309,473 sq.m (3,331,100 sq ft).
Lift/Elevators 57(55 single deck and 2 double)
Project area 454,249sq.m(112.24acres)
Fig 3.1 View1 of
Burjkhalifa
http://www.burjkhalifa.ae/en/the-
tower/gallery/burj-khalifa.aspx
Fig 3.2 View2 of
Burjkhalifa
http://www.burjkhalifa.ae/en/the-tower/gallery/burj-
khalifa.aspx
Criteria for selection of case study
The Burj Khalifais the tallest skyscraper in the world and is mix use with
residential units, offices, hotel, shopping and residential appartments. It also
utilizes the latest advancements in construction techniques and material
technology. Studying this largest skyscraper can help in understanding how to
merge different land uses at a place and also the spaces more efficiently.
Introduction
• Before the inauguration the Burj Khalifa was known as the Burj Dubai , which
is a megatall skyscraper in Dubai.
• It was opened in 2010, and is a part of Downtown Dubai which is a large
scale mixed land use complex.
• It is designed to be the centerpiece of Downtown Dubai ,500 acre
development including commercial, residential, hotel, entertainment,
shopping and leisure components set in open green spaces dotted with lakes
and other distinct water features.
• It includes 30-acre artificial Burj Khalifa Lake, 30,000 homes, nine hotels
(including The Address Downtown Dubai), 7.4 acres of parkland, at least 19
residential towers, and the Dubai Mall.
• It can accommodate 35,000 people at a time.
• It contains world's highest observation deckat 148th floor which is at 555 m
(1,821 ft).
Fig 3.3 Observation Decks
(http://www.som.com/FILE/14221/burjkhalifa_
1400x800_nickmerrickhb_05jpg.jpg)
• It contains 2.909 stairs from the
ground floor till 160th
floor, and
contains 57 elevators(55 single
deck and 2 double deck)
• The building has three horizontal
tracks which each hold a 1,500 kg
bucket machine to wash the
24,348windows. Above level 109,
and up to tier 27, traditional cradles
from davits are used.
Location Map
Design Inspiration
• The hymenocallisdesert flower was the main source of inspiration for the
architects.
• The tower is composed of three elements arranged around a central core.
• The modular, Y-shaped structure, with setbacks along each of its three wings
provides an inherently stable configuration for the structure and provides good
floor plates for residential.
• Viewed from the base or the air, Burj Dubai is evocative of the onion domes
prevalent in Islamic Architecture.
Fig 3.5 Hymenocallis Flower
http://www.burjkhalifa.ae/en/the-tower/design.aspx
Fig 3.6 Layout of Burj
https://www.slideshare.net/safaamohammed5496/burj
khalifa 48217403?qid=54eecbd0 0e32 49dd 9e91
Fig 3.4 Location Map
(https://www.google.co.in/maps/place/Burj+Khalifa)
Site Plan
Fig 3.7 Site Plan
(https://moreaedesign.files.wordpress.com/2010/09/burj_khalifa-12_floorplan.gif?w=700)
Fig 3.8 Main Entrance
http://www.landezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/Burj-Khalifa-
garden-by-swa-landscape-architecture-02.jpg
1. Burj Khalifa arrival court.
2. Armani hotel entry.
3. Residential entry.
4. Viewing deck.
5. Lake front promenade.
6. Tower garden.
7. Water feature.
8. Children’s play area.
9. Recreation area.
10.Service yard
11.Office entry.
N
Floors Use Floors Use
160 and above Mechanical 73-75 Mechanical
156-159 Communication &
broadcast
44-72 Residential
155 Mechanical 43 Sky lobby
139-154 Corporate suites 40-42 Mechanical
136-138 Mechanical 38-39 Hotel suites
125-135 Corporate suites 19-37 Armani residences
124 At the top oberservatory 17-18 Mechanical
123 Sky lobby 9-16 Armani residences
122 At.mosphere restaurant 1-8 Armani hotel
111-121 Corporate suites Ground Armani hotel
109-110 Mechanical Concourse Armani hotel
77-108 Residential B1 Parking,mechanical
76 Sky lobby B2 Parking,mechanical
Table 3.1 Floors by its use
Source - Author
Floor Plans
Fig 3.9 Podium Level 1 Plan
(http://www.burjkhalifa.ae/en/the-tower/components.aspx)
1. Hotel pavilion.
2. Spa(1350m2
)
3. Hotel prefunction.
4. Hotel
restaurant(950m2
)
5. Ballroom drop off.
6. Office annexe entry.
7. Officetenant(2600m2
)
8. Hotel.
9. Lobby bar(450m2
).
N
Corridors
Cores
Fig 3.10 Composite Ground Floor Plan
(http://www.burjkhalifa.ae/en/the-tower/components.as
Fig 3.11 Armani hotel typical floor plan
(http://www.burjkhalifa.ae/en/the-tower/components.aspx)
Corridors
Cores
N
N
Abbreviation No.of rooms Type Area(in sq.m)
A1 2 1bhk 46.11
A2 2 1bhk 85.20
A3 3 1bhk 98.52
A4 3 1bhk 99.30
A5 3 2bhk 160
A6 1 2bhk 172.12
A7 1 1bhk 87.29
A8 2 1bhk 88.25
A9 2 2bhk 183.45
Table 3.2 Hotel suites(each floor)
(Source – author)
1. Reception.
2. Waiting.
3. Majlis.
4. Executive suite.
5. Private office.
6. Open office.
7. Workstation.
8. Restroom.
9. Pantry.
10. Conference.
11. Breakout zone.
12. File/copy/fax.
13. Closet.
14. Network room.
15. Closet.
16. Executive
secretary.
17. Semi-private
office.
18. Staff break area.
19. Storage.
20. Service Lift.
21. Passenger’s Lift.
22. Terrace.
Reception & waiting = 37.5m2
Majlis = 36m2
Executive suite = 64.8m2
Private office = 23m2
Restroom = 5m2
Conference = 36m2
Pantry = 6m2
Network room = 6.5m2
Storage = 6.5m2
Semi-private office = 20m2
Staff break area = 40m2
Fig 3.12 Level 115 Corporate suites
http://www.caspian-properties.com/floorplans/downtown-dubai/burj-khalifa/corporate-suites/corporate-lvl-115.jpg
Total Area = 1,048.31m2
Fig 3.13 Level 140-141 Corporate suites
http://www.caspian-properties.com/floorplans/downtown-dubai/burj-khalifa/corporate-suites/corporate-lvl-140-141.jpg
Fig 3.14 Level 139 Corporate suites
http://www.caspian-properties.com/floorplans/downtown-dubai/burj-khalifa/corporate-
suites/corporate-lvl-139.jpg
1. Reception.
2. Waiting.
3. Majlis.
4. Executive suite.
5. Private office.
6. Open office.
7. Workstation.
8. Restroom.
9. Pantry.
10. Conference.
11. Breakout zone.
12. File/copy/fax.
13. Closet.
14. Network room.
15. Closet.
16. Executive
secretary.
17. Semi-private
office.
18. Staff break area.
19. Storage.
20. Service Lift.
21. Passenger’s Lift.
22. Terrace.
Reception & waiting = 43.5m2
Executive suite = 66m2
Majlis = 15m2
Private office = 14.5m2
Restroom = 5m2
Conference = 20m2
Pantry = 6m2
Executive sec. = 34.5m2
Total Area = 568.93m2
Total Area = 787.91m2
Reception & waiting = 43.5m2
Executive suite = 66m2
Majlis = 15m2
Private office = 14.5m2
Restroom = 5m2
Conference = 20m2
Pantry = 6m2
Executive sec. = 34.5m2
Terrace area = 255.29m2
Fig 3.15 Typical Residential Floor Plan
Area – 143.62 sq.m Area – 152.26sq.m
1. 2bhk
2. 4bhk
3. 2bhk(with
servant quarter)
Fig 3.16 Type A(2bhk)
http://www.caspian-
properties.com/floorplans/downtown-dubai/burj-
khalifa/tall-tower/tall-tower-2br-type-a.jpg
Fig 3.17 Type B(2bhk)
http://www.worldfloorplans.com/floorplans/BK-
2bedroom-typeB-1639sqft.shtml
Area – 397.53sq.mArea – 368.17sq.m
Area – 159.42sq.mArea – 165.18sq.m
Fig 3.18 Type C(4bhk)
http://www.worldfloorplans.com/floorplans/Burj-
Khalifa-4bed-Type-C.shtml
Fig 3.19 Type D(4bhk)
http://www.caspian-
properties.com/floorplans/downtown-dubai/burj-
khalifa/tall-tower/tall-tower-4br-type-d.jpg
Fig 3.20 Type E(2bhk)
hhttp://www.worldfloorplans.com/floorplans/BK-2bed-
TypeE-1716sqft.shtml
Fig 3.21 Type F(2bhk)
http://www.worldfloorplans.com/floorplans/BK-
2bedroom-typef-1778sqft.shtml
Area – 191.00sq.mArea – 271.55sq.m
Fig 3.24 Basement plan
http://www.worldfloorplans.com/plans/Burj-Khalifa-Basement-Parking.jpg
Fig 3.22 Type G(2bhk)
http://www.worldfloorplans.com/floorplans/BK-Type-G-
2056sqft.shtml
Fig 3.23 Type H(3bhk)
http://www.worldfloorplans.com/floorplans/Burj-
Khalifa-3bed-Type-H.shtml
Foundation
Fig 3.25 Foundation
https://www.slideshare.net/m_vk2/burj-khalifa-
dubai?qid=54eecbd0-0e32-49dd-9e91-
3d9a3ad37043&v=&b=&from_search=3
• The Burj Dubai, which weighs
about
500,000 tonnes, rests on a 3.7m
thicktriangular frame foundation.
• Frame supportedby rounded steel
piles measuring 1.5min diameter
and extending 50m belowthe
ground.
• 194 piles were used to avoid the
sinking of the structure.
Fig 3.22Podium Concourse Plan
http://www.aiesecnigeria.org/image/2018/01/18/burj-al-arab-floor-plans-burj-khalifa_2f9fe6ff8954673f.jpg
Podium
• The Podium provides a base anchoring the tower to the ground, allowing on
grade access from three different sides to three different levels of the building.
• Fully glazed entry pavilions constructed with a suspended cable-net structure
provide separate entries for the corporate suites at B1 and Concourse levels,
the Burj Khalifa residences at ground level and the Armani Hotel at Level 1.
Fig 3.26 Podium
http://www.archinomy.com/case-studies/1892/burj-khalifa
Structural System
• The structural system for the Burj Dubai can be described as a “buttressed-
core” and consists of high-performance concrete wall construction.
• Each of the wings buttress the others via a six-sided central core, or
hexagonal hub. This central core provides the torsional resistance of the
structure, similar to a closed pipe or axle.
• The tower superstructure of Burj Khalifa is designed as an all reinforced
concrete building with high performance concrete from the foundation level to
level 156, and is topped with a structural steel braced frame from level 156
to the highest point of the tower.
• At mechanical floors, outrigger walls are provided to link the perimeter
columns to the interior wall system, allowing the perimeter columns to
participate in the lateral load resistance of the structure; hence, all of the
vertical concrete is utilized to support both gravity and lateral loads.
• As the building spirals in height, the wings set back to provide many different
floor plates.
• The setbacks are organized with the tower’s grid, such that the building
stepping is accomplished by aligning columns above with walls below to
provide a smooth load path. As such, the tower does not contain any
structural transfers.
Bracing the Wind
• Over 40 wind tunnel tests were conducted on Burj Dubai to examine the
effects the wind would have on the tower and its occupants.
• These ranged from initial tests to verify the wind climate of Dubai, to large
structural analysis models and facade pressure tests, to micro-climate
analysis of the effects at terraces and around the tower base.
• Even the temporary conditions during the construction stage were tested with
the tower cranes on the tower to ensure safety at all times.
Fig 3.27 Structural system
https://image.slidesharecdn.com/burjkhalifa-150516084413-lva1-
app6892/95/burj-khalifa-27-638.jpg?cb=1431766190
Fig 3.28Steel frame from lvl 156
http://www.middleeastarchitecture.com/LegacyImages/B/BurjDubai-
A08.jpg
15
• Stack effect or chimney effect is a phenomenon that effects super-tall building
design, and arises from the changes in pressure and temperature with height.
Special studies were carried on Burj Dubai to determine the magnitude of the
changes that would have to be dealt with in the building design
• This type of gradient spiral design hinders the swirling wind.
Fig 3.29 Bracing the wind
https://eyeforengineering.files.wordpress.com/2014/10/post-1-image-11.png
Fire safety under construction
• Temporary standpipe system that fed fire hose reels were installed
throughout the tower to ensure fire safety during construction.
• For water storagepermanent tankswere used in the tower, but all
additionalequipments used in this system such as pumps and pipework were
temporary items that were removed on completion of the construction phase
and changeover to the permanent fire protection systems.
Occupant Evacuation
Any high rise building has the concern of occupant evacutation; however, given
the height of the Burj Dubai, it poses a special challenge. In the event of
mechanical failures residents will need information on the situation, mechanical
assistance to speed the process, and stairwells and safe zones.
- Areas of Refuge
• Pressurized air-conditioned refuge areas, approximately every 20 floors
where they could wait safely or rest on the way down.
• Two-hour fire resistant construction separatesthe areas of refuge from the
main structure of the building by RCC and fire proof sheets.
• The building staff will direct the occupants of the building to evacuate their
area using fire rates exit stairs down to the nearest refuge area.
• The areas of refuge allow for a controlled evacuation of occupants to a pre-
determined location that allows first responders to coordinate the evacuation
strategy of occupants affected by the crises.
• Areas of refuge are:
- Encased in fire resistant concrete.
- Are well ventilated.
- Can be lit by emergency lights.
Fig 3.30 Typical Area of
Refuge Configuration
https://mtbeyerwisc.files.wordpress.com/2012/05/burj-
dubai-report-complete.pdf
Fig 3.31 Section
showing Refuge
areas
http://www.sesam-uae.com
A special supply of oxygen is pumped in every refuge area through fire
resistant pipes. Every room is enclosed with fireproof doors, to ensure that
smoke does not leak in the refuge area which is enclosed and pressurized.
- Elevator-Assistance
• Burj Khalifa contains the world's third-fastest elevator in the world,
however, the Burj Khalifa also offers the world's fastest double-decker
elevators, which enables the passengers to travel the longest distance
currently possible in an elevator.
• Specific lifts are used for elevator-assisted evacuation strategyto move
occupants from pre-determined levels throughout the tower.
• The tower has large “lifeboat” elevators which can accommodate crowds of
people.
• Elevator assisted evacuation lifts contains the following:
1. Shaft visual inspection capabilities.
2. Raised lift door thresholds.
3. Water resistant equipment.
4. Emergency power back up.
• The lifeboat elevators provides the occupants with a fire safeelevator, which
the occupants can use during an event of fire and save
themselves.
-
-
Fig 3.32 Elevator
evacuation
www.sesam- uae.com
• The Dubai Civil Defense can actually control
these elevators through cameras and a
joystick. LED lights are also fitted in cameras
to allow security teams to illuminate and
inspect hoist equipment and elevator
components.
• Engineers of multiple sources have estimated
the time reduction of stairs-only to stairs with
lifeboat assistance to be about 46%.
• These elevators can be reached through a
remote
Communication
• The Burj Dubai is fitted withfire alarms and emergency P.A. system. The
system is designed for notifying specific zones, but can reach the entire
structure.
• Emergency lighting and exit signage make evacuation easier, along with
multiple staircases designed to not isolate any single one.
• The advanced building communication system is also equipped with LCD
units installed in residence halls, hotel rooms, offices and areas of refuge.
Fig 3.33 Fire and Life safety plan
https://www.slideshare.net/safaamohammed5496/burj-khalifa-48217403
• One the most vital components installed within the Burj Dubai’s MEP services
are the fire safety systems
• The primary fire safety systems at the Burj Khalifa building includes fire
alarms, sprinkler systems, stairwell pressurization and smoke
evacuation systems (by high power fans).
Fire And Life Safety Plan System
Pressurization
• To protect the staircase and the lift lobby from the smoke during a fire,they
are pressurized by high powered fans.
Fire Fighting Systems
Automatic Sprinkler System
Standpipe System
Fig 3.36 Sprinkler systems used
http://www.ife.org.uk/write/MediaUploads/2015%20Conference/presentations/Taha_Haniya.pdf
Fig 3.34 Lift
Lobbyhttp://3.bp.blogspot.com/_MJP0UXD31gE
/TVLSRlLYSmI/AAAAAAAAvps/GlxRdgJ34pM/s1600/
Burj%2BKhalifa%2B%252840%2529.JPG
Fig 3.35 Staircase
https://www.google.co.in/search?biw=1359&bih=5
64&tbm=isch&sa=1&ei=A0UEWs_WApSOvQS
• Sprinkler system is provided for the entire Tower including the basement.
• Water Mist sprinklers used in areas where damage from water can be
critical.
• At Different levels isolation valves are located to isolate the system &Flow
Switch(FS) are located at different levels to indicate the flow of the system.
• A Flow switch is the interface between the building's fire suppression system
and the building's fire alarm system. It detects water flowing in the sprinkler
system and causes the fire alarm system to sound the evacuation.
• Sprinklers in Garbage Chute are installed up to level – 108 at every
alternative levels.
• Sprinklers in Linen Chute are installed up to Level – 39, at every alternative
levels.
• Sprinklers used according to different temperatures.
Standpipe System
Table 3.3 Type of Sprinklers Used
(http://www.ife.org.uk/write/MediaUploads/2015%20Conference/presentations/Taha_Haniya.pdf)
Fig 3.37 Standpipe system
http://www.ife.org.uk/write/MediaUploads/2015%20Conference/presentations/Taha_Haniya.pdf
• 25 diaHose Reel Drum with Hose, Lock shield valve, Pressure gauge,
Pressure reducing valve etc.
• 65 diaPressure regulating type landing valve, 30M Hose rack from L34
and above, 40M Hose roll from L7 to L33 & 60M Hose roll from B2 to L6, with
65 dia Nozzle.
•
At each level floor landing FHC’s are provided, as well in Car park, Kitchen
& Loading dock areas.
Fig 3.38 Key Plan
http://www.ife.org.uk/write/MediaUploads/2015%20Conference/presentations/Taha_Haniya.pdf
Fire Pumps and Accessories
Table 3.4 Location of Water Tank, Fire Pump, Protected Zones, Areas
(http://www.ife.org.uk/write/MediaUploads/2015%20Conference/presentations/Taha_Haniya.pdf)
Yard- Hydrant System
Fig 3.39 Fire Pumps And Accessories Used
http://www.ife.org.uk/write/MediaUploads/2015%20Conference/presentations/Taha_Haniya.pdf
Fig 3.40 Hydrant used
http://www.ife.org.uk/write/MediaUploads/2015%20Conference/presentations/Taha_Haniya.pdf
- External Fire Hydrants and Fire Breeching Inlet (Siamese
Connection)
• 11 Nos. of External Fire Hydrants are provided around the Tower.
• 4 Nos. of Fire Breeching Inlet (Siamese Connection ) are provided.
• Equipments in Hydrant System i.e: Hydrant valve, Hydrant Adapter,
Hydrant key etc.
Fig 3.41 Yard hydrant,FBIC& Pump locations
http://www.ife.org.uk/write/MediaUploads/2015%20Conference/presentations/Taha_Haniya.pdf
Fire Extinguishers
Fig 3.42 Type of Extinguishers Used
http://www.ife.org.uk/write/MediaUploads/2015%20Conference/presentations/Taha_Haniya.pdf
Hand held & Ceiling mounted Fire Extinguishers
• Mechanical Rooms - DCP 6 KG
• Electrical Rooms - Co2 5 KG
• Main Kitchens - Wet Chemical 6 KG
FM 200 System
Deluge Foam- Water Sprinkler System
Pre-Action System
Fig 3.43 FM 200 system
http://www.ife.org.uk/write/MediaUploads/2015%20Conference/presentations/Taha_Haniya.pdf
Fig 3.44 Deluge Foam- Water Sprinkler System
http://www.ife.org.uk/write/MediaUploads/2015%20Conference/presentations/Taha_Haniya.pdf
Fire Protection Water Supply
Fig 3.45 Pre-Action System
http://www.ife.org.uk/write/MediaUploads/2015%20Conference/presentations/Taha_Haniya.pdf
Fig 3.46 Fire Protection Water Supply
http://www.ife.org.uk/write/MediaUploads/2015%20Conference/presentations/Taha_Haniya.pdf
Fire Detection System
• Smart multi-alarm smoke, heat and optical sensors found in all rooms
throughout the building.
• Combined smoke alarms combine multiple sensor types (heat detection,
optical smoke detection and carbon monoxide detection) creating rapid acting
and fail-proof multi-sensor smoke detectors to help reduce false alarms
whilst giving the earliest warning of a fire. Combining more than one detection
type within a single unit can reduce the amount of units needed to be
installed.
Materials Used
• Apart from concrete and steel, other major materials used are glass,
silicone, and aluminum, which forms outside façade of the tower.
• Consists of 26,000 reflective glass panels and aluminium and
textured stainless steel spandrel panels with vertical tubular fins.
• Special two-paned windows were designed for use in the Burj Khalifa.
• Gravity Fed Water Supply from Tanks.
• Reliability of Public Water Supply.
• Simplicity and Reliability.
Redundancy.
• There are Multiple Fire Protection Water Supply Risers..
Fig 3.47 Exterior Cladding
(http://www.som.com/FILE/14227/burjkhalifa_1400x800_ )
Fig 3.48Concrete Tower Plan
(https://www.enr.com/ext/resources/archives/images2/2006
/11/061106 30B j )
Environment Friendly Techniques Used
• Water heating
- The burj utilizes solar power
- 378 panels each with an area of 2.7sq.m were installed.
- These panels have the ability to heat 140,000 lit of water when supplied with
just 7hours of day light.
- This is equal to 32,000KW of energy provided.
• Condensate Recovery System
Fig 3.48Solar water heater
https://www.eurostar-solar.com/images/n1.jpg
Fig 3.48Air conditioning
http://static.gulfnews.com/polopoly_fs/1.560153!/image/134
1919078.jpg_gen/derivatives/box_460346/1341919078.jpg
- Collects water condensate from the air conditioning system and diverts it to
the irrigation tank.
-
- It provides about 15 million gallons of water per year.
- This water is used for the irrigation of landscape around the burj.
- Reduces water related expenses.
Fig 3.49 Armani hotel entry
https://exp.cdn-hotels.com/hotels/4000000/3040000/3033100/3033052/3a2516dc_z.jpg
Fig 3.50Burj Khalifa fountain show
http://emilywebster.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/radiance_render_1.jpg
Fig 3.51Burj Khalifa landscaping on site
https://i.pinimg.com/originals/80/34/48/803448e6fc74b6c4a6eb2e9f6ebe5122.jpg
Positive points:
• Separate entries to the building provided with different lobbies so that
different land uses do not conflict.
• This type of gradient spiral design hinders the swirling wind, so the
structure could be made so high.
• Refuge areas provided after every 20-25 floors, for emergency escape.
• Centrally located main core provides easy access in the entire building.
• Rooms on the periphery and with curtain wall system the advantage of
natural light is taken fully.
• Advanced fire safety systems used in the entire building.
• Double decker elevators used and sky lobby concept used for the
elevators.
• The observatory deck of the building is located at a height of 1483 feet or
452.1 meters.
• The Burj Khalifa has a good landscape, using materials and design elements
derived from context—the green oasis, the regal palms, the nature-based
imagery of Islamic tradition.
• Great views from the interior of the the building to the outside from large
curtain walls.
• Strong central buttressed core.
• Entries at different level to the building.
• Condensate recovery system at the top which collects water condensated
from the air conditioning system, used for irrigation purpose hence water
expenses are reduced.
• Water fountains used for the cooling effect as dubai has a hot climate.
• To counter stack effect many air ducts are provided to ventilate the hot air
out from the building.
Negative points:
• Too much of negative space can be seen in the planning due to shape and
accommodating different uses on same grid.
• Too much of floors occupied by mechanical floors.
• Escape Distance on the floors of refuge is 40.5m which is more and not
according to the UAE norms.
• Long corridors in hotel plans.

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Burj khalifa

  • 1. CASE STUDY BURJ KHALIFA, DUBAI Location Dubai,United Arab Emirates. Type Mixed Use. Architectural style Neo- futurism. Architect Adrian Smith at SOM. Developer Emaar Properties. Cost USD $ 1.5 billion. Construction period 6 January,2004 – 2December. Opened 4 January ,2010. Height 828m, 830m to tip. Floor count 163 floors above ground,153 --usable plus 9 maintenance levels, and 2. below ground parking levels Floor area 309,473 sq.m (3,331,100 sq ft). Lift/Elevators 57(55 single deck and 2 double) Project area 454,249sq.m(112.24acres) Fig 3.1 View1 of Burjkhalifa http://www.burjkhalifa.ae/en/the- tower/gallery/burj-khalifa.aspx Fig 3.2 View2 of Burjkhalifa http://www.burjkhalifa.ae/en/the-tower/gallery/burj- khalifa.aspx
  • 2. Criteria for selection of case study The Burj Khalifais the tallest skyscraper in the world and is mix use with residential units, offices, hotel, shopping and residential appartments. It also utilizes the latest advancements in construction techniques and material technology. Studying this largest skyscraper can help in understanding how to merge different land uses at a place and also the spaces more efficiently. Introduction • Before the inauguration the Burj Khalifa was known as the Burj Dubai , which is a megatall skyscraper in Dubai. • It was opened in 2010, and is a part of Downtown Dubai which is a large scale mixed land use complex. • It is designed to be the centerpiece of Downtown Dubai ,500 acre development including commercial, residential, hotel, entertainment, shopping and leisure components set in open green spaces dotted with lakes and other distinct water features. • It includes 30-acre artificial Burj Khalifa Lake, 30,000 homes, nine hotels (including The Address Downtown Dubai), 7.4 acres of parkland, at least 19 residential towers, and the Dubai Mall. • It can accommodate 35,000 people at a time. • It contains world's highest observation deckat 148th floor which is at 555 m (1,821 ft). Fig 3.3 Observation Decks (http://www.som.com/FILE/14221/burjkhalifa_ 1400x800_nickmerrickhb_05jpg.jpg) • It contains 2.909 stairs from the ground floor till 160th floor, and contains 57 elevators(55 single deck and 2 double deck) • The building has three horizontal tracks which each hold a 1,500 kg bucket machine to wash the 24,348windows. Above level 109, and up to tier 27, traditional cradles from davits are used.
  • 3. Location Map Design Inspiration • The hymenocallisdesert flower was the main source of inspiration for the architects. • The tower is composed of three elements arranged around a central core. • The modular, Y-shaped structure, with setbacks along each of its three wings provides an inherently stable configuration for the structure and provides good floor plates for residential. • Viewed from the base or the air, Burj Dubai is evocative of the onion domes prevalent in Islamic Architecture. Fig 3.5 Hymenocallis Flower http://www.burjkhalifa.ae/en/the-tower/design.aspx Fig 3.6 Layout of Burj https://www.slideshare.net/safaamohammed5496/burj khalifa 48217403?qid=54eecbd0 0e32 49dd 9e91 Fig 3.4 Location Map (https://www.google.co.in/maps/place/Burj+Khalifa)
  • 4. Site Plan Fig 3.7 Site Plan (https://moreaedesign.files.wordpress.com/2010/09/burj_khalifa-12_floorplan.gif?w=700) Fig 3.8 Main Entrance http://www.landezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/Burj-Khalifa- garden-by-swa-landscape-architecture-02.jpg 1. Burj Khalifa arrival court. 2. Armani hotel entry. 3. Residential entry. 4. Viewing deck. 5. Lake front promenade. 6. Tower garden. 7. Water feature. 8. Children’s play area. 9. Recreation area. 10.Service yard 11.Office entry. N
  • 5. Floors Use Floors Use 160 and above Mechanical 73-75 Mechanical 156-159 Communication & broadcast 44-72 Residential 155 Mechanical 43 Sky lobby 139-154 Corporate suites 40-42 Mechanical 136-138 Mechanical 38-39 Hotel suites 125-135 Corporate suites 19-37 Armani residences 124 At the top oberservatory 17-18 Mechanical 123 Sky lobby 9-16 Armani residences 122 At.mosphere restaurant 1-8 Armani hotel 111-121 Corporate suites Ground Armani hotel 109-110 Mechanical Concourse Armani hotel 77-108 Residential B1 Parking,mechanical 76 Sky lobby B2 Parking,mechanical Table 3.1 Floors by its use Source - Author Floor Plans Fig 3.9 Podium Level 1 Plan (http://www.burjkhalifa.ae/en/the-tower/components.aspx) 1. Hotel pavilion. 2. Spa(1350m2 ) 3. Hotel prefunction. 4. Hotel restaurant(950m2 ) 5. Ballroom drop off. 6. Office annexe entry. 7. Officetenant(2600m2 ) 8. Hotel. 9. Lobby bar(450m2 ). N Corridors Cores
  • 6. Fig 3.10 Composite Ground Floor Plan (http://www.burjkhalifa.ae/en/the-tower/components.as Fig 3.11 Armani hotel typical floor plan (http://www.burjkhalifa.ae/en/the-tower/components.aspx) Corridors Cores N N
  • 7. Abbreviation No.of rooms Type Area(in sq.m) A1 2 1bhk 46.11 A2 2 1bhk 85.20 A3 3 1bhk 98.52 A4 3 1bhk 99.30 A5 3 2bhk 160 A6 1 2bhk 172.12 A7 1 1bhk 87.29 A8 2 1bhk 88.25 A9 2 2bhk 183.45 Table 3.2 Hotel suites(each floor) (Source – author) 1. Reception. 2. Waiting. 3. Majlis. 4. Executive suite. 5. Private office. 6. Open office. 7. Workstation. 8. Restroom. 9. Pantry. 10. Conference. 11. Breakout zone. 12. File/copy/fax. 13. Closet. 14. Network room. 15. Closet. 16. Executive secretary. 17. Semi-private office. 18. Staff break area. 19. Storage. 20. Service Lift. 21. Passenger’s Lift. 22. Terrace. Reception & waiting = 37.5m2 Majlis = 36m2 Executive suite = 64.8m2 Private office = 23m2 Restroom = 5m2 Conference = 36m2 Pantry = 6m2 Network room = 6.5m2 Storage = 6.5m2 Semi-private office = 20m2 Staff break area = 40m2 Fig 3.12 Level 115 Corporate suites http://www.caspian-properties.com/floorplans/downtown-dubai/burj-khalifa/corporate-suites/corporate-lvl-115.jpg Total Area = 1,048.31m2
  • 8. Fig 3.13 Level 140-141 Corporate suites http://www.caspian-properties.com/floorplans/downtown-dubai/burj-khalifa/corporate-suites/corporate-lvl-140-141.jpg Fig 3.14 Level 139 Corporate suites http://www.caspian-properties.com/floorplans/downtown-dubai/burj-khalifa/corporate- suites/corporate-lvl-139.jpg 1. Reception. 2. Waiting. 3. Majlis. 4. Executive suite. 5. Private office. 6. Open office. 7. Workstation. 8. Restroom. 9. Pantry. 10. Conference. 11. Breakout zone. 12. File/copy/fax. 13. Closet. 14. Network room. 15. Closet. 16. Executive secretary. 17. Semi-private office. 18. Staff break area. 19. Storage. 20. Service Lift. 21. Passenger’s Lift. 22. Terrace. Reception & waiting = 43.5m2 Executive suite = 66m2 Majlis = 15m2 Private office = 14.5m2 Restroom = 5m2 Conference = 20m2 Pantry = 6m2 Executive sec. = 34.5m2 Total Area = 568.93m2 Total Area = 787.91m2 Reception & waiting = 43.5m2 Executive suite = 66m2 Majlis = 15m2 Private office = 14.5m2 Restroom = 5m2 Conference = 20m2 Pantry = 6m2 Executive sec. = 34.5m2 Terrace area = 255.29m2
  • 9. Fig 3.15 Typical Residential Floor Plan Area – 143.62 sq.m Area – 152.26sq.m 1. 2bhk 2. 4bhk 3. 2bhk(with servant quarter) Fig 3.16 Type A(2bhk) http://www.caspian- properties.com/floorplans/downtown-dubai/burj- khalifa/tall-tower/tall-tower-2br-type-a.jpg Fig 3.17 Type B(2bhk) http://www.worldfloorplans.com/floorplans/BK- 2bedroom-typeB-1639sqft.shtml
  • 10. Area – 397.53sq.mArea – 368.17sq.m Area – 159.42sq.mArea – 165.18sq.m Fig 3.18 Type C(4bhk) http://www.worldfloorplans.com/floorplans/Burj- Khalifa-4bed-Type-C.shtml Fig 3.19 Type D(4bhk) http://www.caspian- properties.com/floorplans/downtown-dubai/burj- khalifa/tall-tower/tall-tower-4br-type-d.jpg Fig 3.20 Type E(2bhk) hhttp://www.worldfloorplans.com/floorplans/BK-2bed- TypeE-1716sqft.shtml Fig 3.21 Type F(2bhk) http://www.worldfloorplans.com/floorplans/BK- 2bedroom-typef-1778sqft.shtml
  • 11. Area – 191.00sq.mArea – 271.55sq.m Fig 3.24 Basement plan http://www.worldfloorplans.com/plans/Burj-Khalifa-Basement-Parking.jpg Fig 3.22 Type G(2bhk) http://www.worldfloorplans.com/floorplans/BK-Type-G- 2056sqft.shtml Fig 3.23 Type H(3bhk) http://www.worldfloorplans.com/floorplans/Burj- Khalifa-3bed-Type-H.shtml
  • 12. Foundation Fig 3.25 Foundation https://www.slideshare.net/m_vk2/burj-khalifa- dubai?qid=54eecbd0-0e32-49dd-9e91- 3d9a3ad37043&v=&b=&from_search=3 • The Burj Dubai, which weighs about 500,000 tonnes, rests on a 3.7m thicktriangular frame foundation. • Frame supportedby rounded steel piles measuring 1.5min diameter and extending 50m belowthe ground. • 194 piles were used to avoid the sinking of the structure. Fig 3.22Podium Concourse Plan http://www.aiesecnigeria.org/image/2018/01/18/burj-al-arab-floor-plans-burj-khalifa_2f9fe6ff8954673f.jpg
  • 13. Podium • The Podium provides a base anchoring the tower to the ground, allowing on grade access from three different sides to three different levels of the building. • Fully glazed entry pavilions constructed with a suspended cable-net structure provide separate entries for the corporate suites at B1 and Concourse levels, the Burj Khalifa residences at ground level and the Armani Hotel at Level 1. Fig 3.26 Podium http://www.archinomy.com/case-studies/1892/burj-khalifa Structural System • The structural system for the Burj Dubai can be described as a “buttressed- core” and consists of high-performance concrete wall construction. • Each of the wings buttress the others via a six-sided central core, or hexagonal hub. This central core provides the torsional resistance of the structure, similar to a closed pipe or axle. • The tower superstructure of Burj Khalifa is designed as an all reinforced concrete building with high performance concrete from the foundation level to level 156, and is topped with a structural steel braced frame from level 156 to the highest point of the tower.
  • 14. • At mechanical floors, outrigger walls are provided to link the perimeter columns to the interior wall system, allowing the perimeter columns to participate in the lateral load resistance of the structure; hence, all of the vertical concrete is utilized to support both gravity and lateral loads. • As the building spirals in height, the wings set back to provide many different floor plates. • The setbacks are organized with the tower’s grid, such that the building stepping is accomplished by aligning columns above with walls below to provide a smooth load path. As such, the tower does not contain any structural transfers. Bracing the Wind • Over 40 wind tunnel tests were conducted on Burj Dubai to examine the effects the wind would have on the tower and its occupants. • These ranged from initial tests to verify the wind climate of Dubai, to large structural analysis models and facade pressure tests, to micro-climate analysis of the effects at terraces and around the tower base. • Even the temporary conditions during the construction stage were tested with the tower cranes on the tower to ensure safety at all times. Fig 3.27 Structural system https://image.slidesharecdn.com/burjkhalifa-150516084413-lva1- app6892/95/burj-khalifa-27-638.jpg?cb=1431766190 Fig 3.28Steel frame from lvl 156 http://www.middleeastarchitecture.com/LegacyImages/B/BurjDubai- A08.jpg 15
  • 15. • Stack effect or chimney effect is a phenomenon that effects super-tall building design, and arises from the changes in pressure and temperature with height. Special studies were carried on Burj Dubai to determine the magnitude of the changes that would have to be dealt with in the building design • This type of gradient spiral design hinders the swirling wind. Fig 3.29 Bracing the wind https://eyeforengineering.files.wordpress.com/2014/10/post-1-image-11.png Fire safety under construction • Temporary standpipe system that fed fire hose reels were installed throughout the tower to ensure fire safety during construction. • For water storagepermanent tankswere used in the tower, but all additionalequipments used in this system such as pumps and pipework were temporary items that were removed on completion of the construction phase and changeover to the permanent fire protection systems.
  • 16. Occupant Evacuation Any high rise building has the concern of occupant evacutation; however, given the height of the Burj Dubai, it poses a special challenge. In the event of mechanical failures residents will need information on the situation, mechanical assistance to speed the process, and stairwells and safe zones. - Areas of Refuge • Pressurized air-conditioned refuge areas, approximately every 20 floors where they could wait safely or rest on the way down. • Two-hour fire resistant construction separatesthe areas of refuge from the main structure of the building by RCC and fire proof sheets. • The building staff will direct the occupants of the building to evacuate their area using fire rates exit stairs down to the nearest refuge area. • The areas of refuge allow for a controlled evacuation of occupants to a pre- determined location that allows first responders to coordinate the evacuation strategy of occupants affected by the crises. • Areas of refuge are: - Encased in fire resistant concrete. - Are well ventilated. - Can be lit by emergency lights. Fig 3.30 Typical Area of Refuge Configuration https://mtbeyerwisc.files.wordpress.com/2012/05/burj- dubai-report-complete.pdf Fig 3.31 Section showing Refuge areas http://www.sesam-uae.com
  • 17. A special supply of oxygen is pumped in every refuge area through fire resistant pipes. Every room is enclosed with fireproof doors, to ensure that smoke does not leak in the refuge area which is enclosed and pressurized. - Elevator-Assistance • Burj Khalifa contains the world's third-fastest elevator in the world, however, the Burj Khalifa also offers the world's fastest double-decker elevators, which enables the passengers to travel the longest distance currently possible in an elevator. • Specific lifts are used for elevator-assisted evacuation strategyto move occupants from pre-determined levels throughout the tower. • The tower has large “lifeboat” elevators which can accommodate crowds of people. • Elevator assisted evacuation lifts contains the following: 1. Shaft visual inspection capabilities. 2. Raised lift door thresholds. 3. Water resistant equipment. 4. Emergency power back up. • The lifeboat elevators provides the occupants with a fire safeelevator, which the occupants can use during an event of fire and save themselves. - - Fig 3.32 Elevator evacuation www.sesam- uae.com • The Dubai Civil Defense can actually control these elevators through cameras and a joystick. LED lights are also fitted in cameras to allow security teams to illuminate and inspect hoist equipment and elevator components. • Engineers of multiple sources have estimated the time reduction of stairs-only to stairs with lifeboat assistance to be about 46%. • These elevators can be reached through a remote
  • 18. Communication • The Burj Dubai is fitted withfire alarms and emergency P.A. system. The system is designed for notifying specific zones, but can reach the entire structure. • Emergency lighting and exit signage make evacuation easier, along with multiple staircases designed to not isolate any single one. • The advanced building communication system is also equipped with LCD units installed in residence halls, hotel rooms, offices and areas of refuge. Fig 3.33 Fire and Life safety plan https://www.slideshare.net/safaamohammed5496/burj-khalifa-48217403 • One the most vital components installed within the Burj Dubai’s MEP services are the fire safety systems • The primary fire safety systems at the Burj Khalifa building includes fire alarms, sprinkler systems, stairwell pressurization and smoke evacuation systems (by high power fans). Fire And Life Safety Plan System
  • 19. Pressurization • To protect the staircase and the lift lobby from the smoke during a fire,they are pressurized by high powered fans. Fire Fighting Systems Automatic Sprinkler System Standpipe System Fig 3.36 Sprinkler systems used http://www.ife.org.uk/write/MediaUploads/2015%20Conference/presentations/Taha_Haniya.pdf Fig 3.34 Lift Lobbyhttp://3.bp.blogspot.com/_MJP0UXD31gE /TVLSRlLYSmI/AAAAAAAAvps/GlxRdgJ34pM/s1600/ Burj%2BKhalifa%2B%252840%2529.JPG Fig 3.35 Staircase https://www.google.co.in/search?biw=1359&bih=5 64&tbm=isch&sa=1&ei=A0UEWs_WApSOvQS
  • 20. • Sprinkler system is provided for the entire Tower including the basement. • Water Mist sprinklers used in areas where damage from water can be critical. • At Different levels isolation valves are located to isolate the system &Flow Switch(FS) are located at different levels to indicate the flow of the system. • A Flow switch is the interface between the building's fire suppression system and the building's fire alarm system. It detects water flowing in the sprinkler system and causes the fire alarm system to sound the evacuation. • Sprinklers in Garbage Chute are installed up to level – 108 at every alternative levels. • Sprinklers in Linen Chute are installed up to Level – 39, at every alternative levels. • Sprinklers used according to different temperatures. Standpipe System Table 3.3 Type of Sprinklers Used (http://www.ife.org.uk/write/MediaUploads/2015%20Conference/presentations/Taha_Haniya.pdf)
  • 21. Fig 3.37 Standpipe system http://www.ife.org.uk/write/MediaUploads/2015%20Conference/presentations/Taha_Haniya.pdf • 25 diaHose Reel Drum with Hose, Lock shield valve, Pressure gauge, Pressure reducing valve etc. • 65 diaPressure regulating type landing valve, 30M Hose rack from L34 and above, 40M Hose roll from L7 to L33 & 60M Hose roll from B2 to L6, with 65 dia Nozzle. • At each level floor landing FHC’s are provided, as well in Car park, Kitchen & Loading dock areas. Fig 3.38 Key Plan http://www.ife.org.uk/write/MediaUploads/2015%20Conference/presentations/Taha_Haniya.pdf
  • 22. Fire Pumps and Accessories Table 3.4 Location of Water Tank, Fire Pump, Protected Zones, Areas (http://www.ife.org.uk/write/MediaUploads/2015%20Conference/presentations/Taha_Haniya.pdf) Yard- Hydrant System Fig 3.39 Fire Pumps And Accessories Used http://www.ife.org.uk/write/MediaUploads/2015%20Conference/presentations/Taha_Haniya.pdf
  • 23. Fig 3.40 Hydrant used http://www.ife.org.uk/write/MediaUploads/2015%20Conference/presentations/Taha_Haniya.pdf - External Fire Hydrants and Fire Breeching Inlet (Siamese Connection) • 11 Nos. of External Fire Hydrants are provided around the Tower. • 4 Nos. of Fire Breeching Inlet (Siamese Connection ) are provided. • Equipments in Hydrant System i.e: Hydrant valve, Hydrant Adapter, Hydrant key etc. Fig 3.41 Yard hydrant,FBIC& Pump locations http://www.ife.org.uk/write/MediaUploads/2015%20Conference/presentations/Taha_Haniya.pdf Fire Extinguishers
  • 24. Fig 3.42 Type of Extinguishers Used http://www.ife.org.uk/write/MediaUploads/2015%20Conference/presentations/Taha_Haniya.pdf Hand held & Ceiling mounted Fire Extinguishers • Mechanical Rooms - DCP 6 KG • Electrical Rooms - Co2 5 KG • Main Kitchens - Wet Chemical 6 KG FM 200 System
  • 25. Deluge Foam- Water Sprinkler System Pre-Action System Fig 3.43 FM 200 system http://www.ife.org.uk/write/MediaUploads/2015%20Conference/presentations/Taha_Haniya.pdf Fig 3.44 Deluge Foam- Water Sprinkler System http://www.ife.org.uk/write/MediaUploads/2015%20Conference/presentations/Taha_Haniya.pdf
  • 26. Fire Protection Water Supply Fig 3.45 Pre-Action System http://www.ife.org.uk/write/MediaUploads/2015%20Conference/presentations/Taha_Haniya.pdf Fig 3.46 Fire Protection Water Supply http://www.ife.org.uk/write/MediaUploads/2015%20Conference/presentations/Taha_Haniya.pdf
  • 27. Fire Detection System • Smart multi-alarm smoke, heat and optical sensors found in all rooms throughout the building. • Combined smoke alarms combine multiple sensor types (heat detection, optical smoke detection and carbon monoxide detection) creating rapid acting and fail-proof multi-sensor smoke detectors to help reduce false alarms whilst giving the earliest warning of a fire. Combining more than one detection type within a single unit can reduce the amount of units needed to be installed. Materials Used • Apart from concrete and steel, other major materials used are glass, silicone, and aluminum, which forms outside façade of the tower. • Consists of 26,000 reflective glass panels and aluminium and textured stainless steel spandrel panels with vertical tubular fins. • Special two-paned windows were designed for use in the Burj Khalifa. • Gravity Fed Water Supply from Tanks. • Reliability of Public Water Supply. • Simplicity and Reliability. Redundancy. • There are Multiple Fire Protection Water Supply Risers.. Fig 3.47 Exterior Cladding (http://www.som.com/FILE/14227/burjkhalifa_1400x800_ ) Fig 3.48Concrete Tower Plan (https://www.enr.com/ext/resources/archives/images2/2006 /11/061106 30B j )
  • 28. Environment Friendly Techniques Used • Water heating - The burj utilizes solar power - 378 panels each with an area of 2.7sq.m were installed. - These panels have the ability to heat 140,000 lit of water when supplied with just 7hours of day light. - This is equal to 32,000KW of energy provided. • Condensate Recovery System Fig 3.48Solar water heater https://www.eurostar-solar.com/images/n1.jpg Fig 3.48Air conditioning http://static.gulfnews.com/polopoly_fs/1.560153!/image/134 1919078.jpg_gen/derivatives/box_460346/1341919078.jpg
  • 29. - Collects water condensate from the air conditioning system and diverts it to the irrigation tank. - - It provides about 15 million gallons of water per year. - This water is used for the irrigation of landscape around the burj. - Reduces water related expenses.
  • 30. Fig 3.49 Armani hotel entry https://exp.cdn-hotels.com/hotels/4000000/3040000/3033100/3033052/3a2516dc_z.jpg Fig 3.50Burj Khalifa fountain show http://emilywebster.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/radiance_render_1.jpg Fig 3.51Burj Khalifa landscaping on site https://i.pinimg.com/originals/80/34/48/803448e6fc74b6c4a6eb2e9f6ebe5122.jpg
  • 31. Positive points: • Separate entries to the building provided with different lobbies so that different land uses do not conflict. • This type of gradient spiral design hinders the swirling wind, so the structure could be made so high. • Refuge areas provided after every 20-25 floors, for emergency escape. • Centrally located main core provides easy access in the entire building. • Rooms on the periphery and with curtain wall system the advantage of natural light is taken fully. • Advanced fire safety systems used in the entire building. • Double decker elevators used and sky lobby concept used for the elevators. • The observatory deck of the building is located at a height of 1483 feet or 452.1 meters. • The Burj Khalifa has a good landscape, using materials and design elements derived from context—the green oasis, the regal palms, the nature-based imagery of Islamic tradition. • Great views from the interior of the the building to the outside from large curtain walls. • Strong central buttressed core. • Entries at different level to the building. • Condensate recovery system at the top which collects water condensated from the air conditioning system, used for irrigation purpose hence water expenses are reduced. • Water fountains used for the cooling effect as dubai has a hot climate. • To counter stack effect many air ducts are provided to ventilate the hot air out from the building. Negative points: • Too much of negative space can be seen in the planning due to shape and accommodating different uses on same grid.
  • 32. • Too much of floors occupied by mechanical floors. • Escape Distance on the floors of refuge is 40.5m which is more and not according to the UAE norms. • Long corridors in hotel plans.