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Concept of sociology

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Concept of sociology

  1. 1. Concept of Sociology Shruti Singh
  2. 2. SOCIETY “Society is a group of individuals who have organised themselves and follow a given way of life”  It controls and regulates the behaviour of the individual both by law and customs.  It is dynamic in character.  Public health is an integral part of society
  3. 3. DYNAMICS OF SOCIAL CHANGE Traditional society • Continuity and immutability • Young people fairly sure their life will be similar to their parents’. Transitional society • Better able to cope with changes • Young people simultaneously involved in two cultures Modern society • Best adapted to assimilate rapid changes • Young people can fairly be sure that their life will be substantially different from their parents’.
  4. 4. COMMUNTY “A community is a social group determined by geographical boundaries and/or common values and interests.”  Its members know and interact with each others  It exhibits and create certain norms, values and social institutions.
  5. 5. SOCIAL STRUCTURE “The pattern of inter-relationships between persons. Can be a complex of major institutions, groups, power structure and status hierarchy.”
  6. 6. SOCIAL INSTITUTION “A social institution is an organised complex pattern of behaviour in which a number of persons participate to further interest”
  7. 7. ROLE  Ascribed: When a particular role is “given” by the virtue of sex, age and birth status.  Achieved: When “acquired” by virtue of education or otherwise.  ‘Sick Role’ assumed by a person when he falls ill. He is expected to decrease his normal duties, seek medical aids, and carry out the orders given to him by physician
  8. 8. SOCIALISM “An economic doctrine that favours the use of properties and resources of the country for the public welfare. It is a system of production and distribution based on social ownership for raising the living standard of the working class.”
  9. 9. SOCIALISATION “ Socialisation is the process by which an individual gradually acquires culture and becomes a member of the social group.”
  10. 10. SOCIAL CONTROL MECHANISMS  The laws of enactments of parliament and the norms of behaviour constructed by social pressure are social control mechanisms.  These mechanisms work through rewards and punishment  A study of these mechanisms may help in carrying out health programmes
  11. 11. CUSTOMS  Starting point of all customs are conventions i.e. The practices promoted by convenience of individual or society.  Technically of two types  Folkways: the right ways of doing things in what is regarded as the less vital areas of human conduct  Mores: the more stringent customs
  12. 12. CULTURE  It is the product of human society  Transmitted from one generation to other  Lays down for an individual the norms of behaviour “Culture is learned behaviour which is socially acquired” Influence of culture on the incidence of diseases Personal hygiene Nutrition Immunizat ion Seeking early medical care Family planning Child rearing Disposal of refuse and excreta
  13. 13. ACCULTURATION Acculturation: Trade and commerce Industrialisation Propagation of religion Education Conquest Radio, television, cinema “Acculturation means cultural contact, which is a result of contact between two people with different types of culture, there is a diffusion of culture both ways.”
  14. 14. SOCIAL STRESS Rural to urban migration Exposure to culturally alienated ideas Tourism Higher technological needs Unrealistic aspirations Traditional Society: Young have little control over their destiny Rapid population expansion means more competition Inadequate resources S T R E S S PSYCHOSOCIAL DISEASES
  15. 15. SOCIAL PROBLEMS  Individual problems become social problems when large number of individuals are affected  Many social problems are health problems as alcoholism, venereal diseases, mental illness and narcotic addiction  Some social problems have implication in health as: housing, divorce, population growth, increase number of old people.  SOCIAL PATHOLOGY: describe relation between diseases and social conditions
  16. 16. STUDIES IN SOCIOLOGY SOCIAL SURVEYS CASE STUDY FIELD STUDY •Disclose social pathology •Method of exploring and analysing the life of a social unit •They involve observation of people in situ
  17. 17. COMMUNICATION  Refers to social process-the flow of information, the circulation of knowledge and ideas, and the propagation of thoughts.  Helps motivate people to accept ideas.  Ultimate aim is to bring about change in behaviour  Mass media act as the vehicle of dissemination.
  18. 18. SOCIAL DEFENCE “Social defence is a system developed to defend society against criminality not merely by treating and defending the offended, but also by creating such conditions in the community which are conducive for a healthy and wholesome growth of human life.
  19. 19. Thank You

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