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DATA COLLECTION
SHRUTIKUMARI
DATA COLLECTION
Data Collection is the process of gathering and measuring
and formation of targeted variables is an established
systematic fashion ,which then enables one to answer to
relevant questions and evaluate outcomes.
Process of systematic gathering of data for a particular
purpose for various sources that has been systematically
observed ,recorded ,organised.
PRIMARY DATA COLLECTION
• Data collected by investigator from person experimental studies
for a specific research coal is called primary data.
• The data collected specially for a research project.
• Used when secondary data are unavailable and inappropridata .
• Data are to be unique, original ,reliable and accurate in nature
• Primary data have not been changed or altered by human beings ,
therefore its validity is greater than secondary data.
SURVEY
• Survey methods of obtaining information is based on the
questioning of respondents. Respondents are asked a
variety of question regarding their behaviour, intension
,attitudes ,awareness ,motivation and demographic and
Lifestyle characteristics. This question may be asked
verbally in writing, or via computer,and response may
be obtained in any of these forms.
OBSERVATIONS
• Observation methods involve recording the behavioral pattern of
people, object and event in a systematic manner to obtain
information about the phenomena of interest. The observer does
not question or communicate with the people being observed.
• This is another type of widely used method for primary data
collection . however ,it is used as a complementary to survey
method .it is used to finish , revise or complement data collected
through the survey.
Survey
1. Survey gather information by asking
others.
2. Survey can find out things that are not
visible to the eye.
3. Survey is completed by other people, not
by the observer. A survey is usually given
to many people to get an overall picture of
a situation.
4. A survey might not be filled out honestly
for fear of being identified or fear of
repercussions if a negative picture is
painted.
5. Survey generally done on paper or online,it
is possible and affordable to get a large
number of participants to take part in the
study
Observation
1. Observation gather information through the
perceptions of the person doing the
observing.
2. Observation cannot.
3. An observation is done by a small number
of people. Oftentimes ,one person does an
observation.
4. A person doing an observation will record
that what he or she sees when doing the
observation.
5. By observing what people do and how they
interact with each other the researcher can
acquire a lot of qualitative data.
Usually the least
expensive , assuming
adequate return rate.
Moderately expensive
, assuming reasonable
completion rate.
Most expensive
because of
interviewer’s time and
travel expenses
Little , since self
administered format
must be short and
simple
Some , since
interviewer can probe
and elaborate on
questions
Much ,since
interviewer can show
visuals ,probe,
establish rapport
None , since form is
completed without
interviewer
Some , because of
voice inflection of
interviewer
Significant, because of
voice and facial
expressions of
interviewer.
Basic of
comparison
Cost per
completed survey
Ability to probr
and ask complex
questions
Opportunity for
interviewer to bias
results
Anonymity given
respondent
Complete , since no
signature is needed
Some , because of
telephone contact
Little, because of face to
face contact
Mail ,internet , and fax
surveys
Telephone surveys Personal and mail
intercept surveys
Comparison of self administered, telephone , mail
EMAIL TECHNIQUES
• Email service are defined as a data collection method used to collect
quantitative data using survey or questionnaire that are sent to
targeted respondents via emails.
• Respondents can then answer these surveys directly in embedded
questions or respond over email.depending on the survey delivery
method chosen by the researcher.
• Email surveys have been in the matket for a very long time.
• Email is perhaps thr oldest method of computer – based communication
and is widely available in one form or another.
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
• Qualitative research involves collecting and analyzing non – numerical data eg.
Text ,video , audio etc to understand the concept , opinions, experiences.
• It can be used to gather in – depth insights into a problem or generate new ideas
for research.
• Qualitative research is the opposite of quantitative research, which involves
collecting and analyzing numerical data for statistical analysis.
• Qualitative research is commonly used in the humanities and social sciences, in
subjects such as anthropology , sociology , education , health sciences , history ,etc.
• It is defined as a market research method that focuses on obtaining data through
open – ended and conversational communication.
QualitativeresearchProcedures
Direct (non
disguised)
Indirect ( disguised)
Depth
interviewsFocus groups
Projective techniques
Association
techniques
Completion
techniques
Construction
techniques
Expressive
techniques
FOCUS GROUP
• Focus Group have received little attention from Sociologist, although they are commonly
used qualitative technique in market research.
• The data collected in Focus Group Sessions typically consists of tape recorded group
discussion among four to ten participants who share their thoughts and experience on a
set of topic selected by the researcher.
• A Focus Group is best defined as a small group of carefully selected participants to
contribute to open discussions for research.
• The hosting organisation carefully selects participants for the study to represent the larger
population they are attempting to target.
• The group might look at new products feature updates or other topics of interest to
general ise their entire population reaction.
• Focus Group research includes a moderator. Their job is ensure legitimate results and
reduce bias in the discussions.
ADVANTAGES OF FOCUS GROUPS
1. Synergism :- putting a group of people together will produce a wider range of information,
insight and ideas that will individual responses secured privately.
2. Snowballing :- one person’s comment triggers a chain reaction from the other participants.
3. Stimulation :- usually after a brief introductory period, the respondents want to express their
ideas and expose their feeling as a General level of excitement over the topic increases in the
group.
4. Security :- because the participant’s feeling are similar to those of the other group members
,they feel comfortable and are therefore willing to express their ideas and feelings.
5. Spontaneity :- because respondents are not required to answer specific questions, their
responses can be spontaneous and should therefore provide an accurate idea of their views.
6. Serendipity :- ideas are more likely to arise out in a group than in an individual interview.
7. Specialization :- because a number of participants are involved Simultaneously, use of high
tarined interviewer .
8. Structure :-The group Interview allows for flexibility in the topic covered and the analysis.
DEPTH INTERVIEW
• Qualitative Data Collection method, in depth interviews offer the opportunity to capture
rich, descriptive data about how people think and behave and unfolding complex
processes. They can be used as a standalone research method or as part of a multi method
design , depending on the need of the research.
• In-depth interviews are normally carried out face to face so that a report can be created
with respondents.
• Body language is also used at the high level of understanding to the answers.
• The generally used small samples and also conduct direct one to one personal interviews.
• Detect long time therefore length and observation are involved.
• A detailed background is provided by the respondents and elaborate data concerning the
respondents opinion, values ,motivation ,expression, feeling extra are obtained.
ADVANTAGES OF DEPTH INTERVIEW
• Interviewers can establish report with participant to make them feel more comfortable
,which can generate more insightful responses – especially regarding sensitive topics.
• Interviewers have greater opportunity to ask follow up questions ,probe for additional
information and circle back to key questions later on the interview to generate a Rich
understanding of attitudes , perception, motivations , etc.
• Interview ask and monitor changes in tone and word choice to gain a deeper
understanding . ( note :- ia the in- depth interview is face to face , researchers can also
focus on body language).
• There is a higher quality of Sampling compared to some other Data Collection methods.
• Researchers need fewer participants to glean and relevant insights.
• There are none of the potential distractions or peer pressure dynamics That can
sometimes important focus groups.
• Because In – depth interviews can potentially be so insightful ,it is possible to identify
highly valuable findings quickly.
PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES
• Projective techniques are in direct and unstructured methods of Investigation
which have been developed by the psychologist and use projection of
respondent for inferring about underline motives or just urges Or intentions
which cannot be secured through direct questioning as the respondent there
is enough to reveal them or is unable to figure out himself.
• These techniques are useful in giving respondents opportunities to express
their attitudes without personal embarrassment.
• This technique helps the respondents to project his own attitude and feelings
unconsciously on the subject under study. Thus projective techniques play an
important role in motivational researches Or in attitude surveys.
IMPORTANT PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES
• 1.word association test
• 2 .completion Test
• 3.construction techniques.
• 4.expression techniques.
WORD ASSOCIATION TEST
• An individual is given a clue or hint and asked to respond to the first thing
that comes to mind.
• The association can take the shape of a picture or a word.
• There can be many interpretation of the same thing. A list of words is
given and you don’t know in which what they are most interested.
• The interviewer records the responses which reveal the inner feeling of
the respondents.
• The frequency with which any word is given a response and the amount
of time that Elapses before the responses is given are important for the
researcher.
COMPLETION TEST :-
• In this the respondents are asked to complete an incomplete
sentence or story.
• The completion will reflect their attitide and state of mind.
• A variation of sentence completion is paragraph completion
in which the respondent completes a paragraph beginning
with the stimulus Phrases.
• In a story completion respondents are given part of a story
enough to direct on tension to a particular topic but not to
hint at the ending. They are required to give the conclusion in
their own words.
CONSTRUCTION TEST
• This is more or less like completion test. They can give you a picture and you
are asked to write a story about it.
• The initial structure is limited and not detailed light decomposition test.
• With a picture Response, the respondents are asked to describr a series of
pictures of ordinary as well ad unusual events. The respondents interpretation
of the pictures gives indications of that individual’s personality.
• In cartoon tests, cartoon characters are shown in a specific situation related to
the problem .the respondents are asked to indicate what one cartoon
character might say in response to the comments of another character. Cartoon
tests are simplet to administer and analyze than picture responsr techniques.
EXPRESSIVE TECHNIQUES
• In expressive techniques , respondents are presented with a verbal or
visual situation and asked to relate the feelings and attitudes of other
people to the situation.
• Role playing , respondents are asked to play the role or assume the
behavior of someone else.
• Third person techniques, the respondents is presented with a verbal or
visual situation and the respondents is asked to relate thr beliefs and
attitudes of a third person rather than directly expressing personal
beliefs and attitudes .this third person may be a Friend ,neighbor ,
colleagues or a” typical” person.
ADVANTAGES OF PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES
• They may elicit responses that subjects would be unwilling or unable
to give if they knew the purpose of the study.
• Helpful when the issues to be addressed are personal , sensitive , or
subject to strobg social norms.
• Helpful when underlying motivations , beliefs , and attitudes are
operating at a subconscious level.
MEASUREMENT
• It is defined as a process of associating numbers or symbols to observations
obtained in a research study.
• Measurement means assigning numbers or others symbols to characteristics of
objects according to certain prespecified rules.
• The rules for assigning numbers should be standardized and applied uniformly.
• One to one correspondence between the numbers and the characteristics being
measured .
SCALING
• The generation of a continuum upon which measured objects are located
.
• Is process of placing the respondent on continuum with respect to their
attitude toward department store.
• Consider an attitude scale from 1 to 100. Each respondent is assigned a
number from 1 to 100,with 1 = extremely unfavorable , and 100=
extremely favorable. Measurement is the actual assignment of a number
from 1 to 100 to each respondent. Scaling is the process of placing the
respondents on a continuum with respect to their attitude toward
department stores.
SCALE CHARACTERISTICS
• Descriptive :- unique labels that are used to designate each value of the
scale. All scales possess description.
• Order :- the relative sizes or positions of the descriptors. Order is denoted
by descriptors such as “ greater than” , “less than” and “ equal to”
• Distance :- the characteristics of distance means that absolute differences
between the scale descriptors are known and may be expressed in units.
• Origin :- the origin Characteristics means that the scales has unique or fixed
beginning.
PRIMARY SCALE OF MEASUREMENT :-
1. Nominal scale
2. Ordinal scale
3. Interval scale
4. Ratio scale
NOMINAL SCALE
• A scale whose numbers serve only as labels or tags for identitying and classifying objects.
• When its used for purposes of identification , there is a strict one to one correspondence between the
numbers and the objects.
• Do not reflect the amount of the characteristics
• Counting is the only permissible operation.
• Limited number of statistics based on frequency counts
Ex :- different types of blood : A, AB , O ,B
1= A , 2 = O. , 3 = B , 4 = AB
Male = 0 and female = 1, ‘sex’ is measured on a nominal scale.
ORDINAL SCALE
• Record information about the rank order of scores.
• Ordinal measurements describe order
• But not relative siz3 or degree of different between the items measured.
• In this scale type , the numbers assigned to objects or evnets represent the rank order ( 1st
,2nd , 3rd etc) of the entities assessed.
• Ordinal varibales do not tell us anything about the absolute magnitude of the difference
between 1st and 2nd or between 2nd and 3rd . That is, we know 1st was before 2nd , and 2nd was
before 3rd , but we do not know how close 3rd was to 2nd or how close 2nd was to 1st. The
limit’s of ordinal data are most apparent when one looks at the distance between the third
and the fourth place finishers.
INTERVAL SCALE
• Interval scales tell us about the order of data points , and the size of the intervals in
between data points.
• Quantitative attributes are all measurable on interval scales.
• The Location of the zero point is not fixed. And negative values can be used.
• And example of an interval scale is the farenheit scale of temperature. In the farenheit scale
of temperature . In the fareheit temperature scale , the distance between 20 degrees and 40
degrees is the same as the distance between 75 degrees and 95 degrees.
RATIO SCALE
• A ratio scale is an interval scale with true zero point.
• Possesses all the properties of the nominal , ordinal , and interval scales
• Meaningful to compute ratios of scale values
• All statistical techniques can be applied.
• Most measurement in the physical sciences and engineering is done on ratio scales such as mass ,
length ,time , angle ,energy.
• The klvine temperature scale has a non – arbitrary zero point of absolute zero , which is denoted
ok and is equal to – 273.15 degrees celsius.

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Data collection

  • 2. DATA COLLECTION Data Collection is the process of gathering and measuring and formation of targeted variables is an established systematic fashion ,which then enables one to answer to relevant questions and evaluate outcomes. Process of systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose for various sources that has been systematically observed ,recorded ,organised.
  • 3. PRIMARY DATA COLLECTION • Data collected by investigator from person experimental studies for a specific research coal is called primary data. • The data collected specially for a research project. • Used when secondary data are unavailable and inappropridata . • Data are to be unique, original ,reliable and accurate in nature • Primary data have not been changed or altered by human beings , therefore its validity is greater than secondary data.
  • 4. SURVEY • Survey methods of obtaining information is based on the questioning of respondents. Respondents are asked a variety of question regarding their behaviour, intension ,attitudes ,awareness ,motivation and demographic and Lifestyle characteristics. This question may be asked verbally in writing, or via computer,and response may be obtained in any of these forms.
  • 5. OBSERVATIONS • Observation methods involve recording the behavioral pattern of people, object and event in a systematic manner to obtain information about the phenomena of interest. The observer does not question or communicate with the people being observed. • This is another type of widely used method for primary data collection . however ,it is used as a complementary to survey method .it is used to finish , revise or complement data collected through the survey.
  • 6. Survey 1. Survey gather information by asking others. 2. Survey can find out things that are not visible to the eye. 3. Survey is completed by other people, not by the observer. A survey is usually given to many people to get an overall picture of a situation. 4. A survey might not be filled out honestly for fear of being identified or fear of repercussions if a negative picture is painted. 5. Survey generally done on paper or online,it is possible and affordable to get a large number of participants to take part in the study Observation 1. Observation gather information through the perceptions of the person doing the observing. 2. Observation cannot. 3. An observation is done by a small number of people. Oftentimes ,one person does an observation. 4. A person doing an observation will record that what he or she sees when doing the observation. 5. By observing what people do and how they interact with each other the researcher can acquire a lot of qualitative data.
  • 7. Usually the least expensive , assuming adequate return rate. Moderately expensive , assuming reasonable completion rate. Most expensive because of interviewer’s time and travel expenses Little , since self administered format must be short and simple Some , since interviewer can probe and elaborate on questions Much ,since interviewer can show visuals ,probe, establish rapport None , since form is completed without interviewer Some , because of voice inflection of interviewer Significant, because of voice and facial expressions of interviewer. Basic of comparison Cost per completed survey Ability to probr and ask complex questions Opportunity for interviewer to bias results Anonymity given respondent Complete , since no signature is needed Some , because of telephone contact Little, because of face to face contact Mail ,internet , and fax surveys Telephone surveys Personal and mail intercept surveys Comparison of self administered, telephone , mail
  • 8. EMAIL TECHNIQUES • Email service are defined as a data collection method used to collect quantitative data using survey or questionnaire that are sent to targeted respondents via emails. • Respondents can then answer these surveys directly in embedded questions or respond over email.depending on the survey delivery method chosen by the researcher. • Email surveys have been in the matket for a very long time. • Email is perhaps thr oldest method of computer – based communication and is widely available in one form or another.
  • 9. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH • Qualitative research involves collecting and analyzing non – numerical data eg. Text ,video , audio etc to understand the concept , opinions, experiences. • It can be used to gather in – depth insights into a problem or generate new ideas for research. • Qualitative research is the opposite of quantitative research, which involves collecting and analyzing numerical data for statistical analysis. • Qualitative research is commonly used in the humanities and social sciences, in subjects such as anthropology , sociology , education , health sciences , history ,etc. • It is defined as a market research method that focuses on obtaining data through open – ended and conversational communication.
  • 10. QualitativeresearchProcedures Direct (non disguised) Indirect ( disguised) Depth interviewsFocus groups Projective techniques Association techniques Completion techniques Construction techniques Expressive techniques
  • 11. FOCUS GROUP • Focus Group have received little attention from Sociologist, although they are commonly used qualitative technique in market research. • The data collected in Focus Group Sessions typically consists of tape recorded group discussion among four to ten participants who share their thoughts and experience on a set of topic selected by the researcher. • A Focus Group is best defined as a small group of carefully selected participants to contribute to open discussions for research. • The hosting organisation carefully selects participants for the study to represent the larger population they are attempting to target. • The group might look at new products feature updates or other topics of interest to general ise their entire population reaction. • Focus Group research includes a moderator. Their job is ensure legitimate results and reduce bias in the discussions.
  • 12. ADVANTAGES OF FOCUS GROUPS 1. Synergism :- putting a group of people together will produce a wider range of information, insight and ideas that will individual responses secured privately. 2. Snowballing :- one person’s comment triggers a chain reaction from the other participants. 3. Stimulation :- usually after a brief introductory period, the respondents want to express their ideas and expose their feeling as a General level of excitement over the topic increases in the group. 4. Security :- because the participant’s feeling are similar to those of the other group members ,they feel comfortable and are therefore willing to express their ideas and feelings. 5. Spontaneity :- because respondents are not required to answer specific questions, their responses can be spontaneous and should therefore provide an accurate idea of their views. 6. Serendipity :- ideas are more likely to arise out in a group than in an individual interview. 7. Specialization :- because a number of participants are involved Simultaneously, use of high tarined interviewer . 8. Structure :-The group Interview allows for flexibility in the topic covered and the analysis.
  • 13. DEPTH INTERVIEW • Qualitative Data Collection method, in depth interviews offer the opportunity to capture rich, descriptive data about how people think and behave and unfolding complex processes. They can be used as a standalone research method or as part of a multi method design , depending on the need of the research. • In-depth interviews are normally carried out face to face so that a report can be created with respondents. • Body language is also used at the high level of understanding to the answers. • The generally used small samples and also conduct direct one to one personal interviews. • Detect long time therefore length and observation are involved. • A detailed background is provided by the respondents and elaborate data concerning the respondents opinion, values ,motivation ,expression, feeling extra are obtained.
  • 14. ADVANTAGES OF DEPTH INTERVIEW • Interviewers can establish report with participant to make them feel more comfortable ,which can generate more insightful responses – especially regarding sensitive topics. • Interviewers have greater opportunity to ask follow up questions ,probe for additional information and circle back to key questions later on the interview to generate a Rich understanding of attitudes , perception, motivations , etc. • Interview ask and monitor changes in tone and word choice to gain a deeper understanding . ( note :- ia the in- depth interview is face to face , researchers can also focus on body language). • There is a higher quality of Sampling compared to some other Data Collection methods. • Researchers need fewer participants to glean and relevant insights. • There are none of the potential distractions or peer pressure dynamics That can sometimes important focus groups. • Because In – depth interviews can potentially be so insightful ,it is possible to identify highly valuable findings quickly.
  • 15. PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES • Projective techniques are in direct and unstructured methods of Investigation which have been developed by the psychologist and use projection of respondent for inferring about underline motives or just urges Or intentions which cannot be secured through direct questioning as the respondent there is enough to reveal them or is unable to figure out himself. • These techniques are useful in giving respondents opportunities to express their attitudes without personal embarrassment. • This technique helps the respondents to project his own attitude and feelings unconsciously on the subject under study. Thus projective techniques play an important role in motivational researches Or in attitude surveys.
  • 16. IMPORTANT PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES • 1.word association test • 2 .completion Test • 3.construction techniques. • 4.expression techniques.
  • 17. WORD ASSOCIATION TEST • An individual is given a clue or hint and asked to respond to the first thing that comes to mind. • The association can take the shape of a picture or a word. • There can be many interpretation of the same thing. A list of words is given and you don’t know in which what they are most interested. • The interviewer records the responses which reveal the inner feeling of the respondents. • The frequency with which any word is given a response and the amount of time that Elapses before the responses is given are important for the researcher.
  • 18. COMPLETION TEST :- • In this the respondents are asked to complete an incomplete sentence or story. • The completion will reflect their attitide and state of mind. • A variation of sentence completion is paragraph completion in which the respondent completes a paragraph beginning with the stimulus Phrases. • In a story completion respondents are given part of a story enough to direct on tension to a particular topic but not to hint at the ending. They are required to give the conclusion in their own words.
  • 19. CONSTRUCTION TEST • This is more or less like completion test. They can give you a picture and you are asked to write a story about it. • The initial structure is limited and not detailed light decomposition test. • With a picture Response, the respondents are asked to describr a series of pictures of ordinary as well ad unusual events. The respondents interpretation of the pictures gives indications of that individual’s personality. • In cartoon tests, cartoon characters are shown in a specific situation related to the problem .the respondents are asked to indicate what one cartoon character might say in response to the comments of another character. Cartoon tests are simplet to administer and analyze than picture responsr techniques.
  • 20. EXPRESSIVE TECHNIQUES • In expressive techniques , respondents are presented with a verbal or visual situation and asked to relate the feelings and attitudes of other people to the situation. • Role playing , respondents are asked to play the role or assume the behavior of someone else. • Third person techniques, the respondents is presented with a verbal or visual situation and the respondents is asked to relate thr beliefs and attitudes of a third person rather than directly expressing personal beliefs and attitudes .this third person may be a Friend ,neighbor , colleagues or a” typical” person.
  • 21. ADVANTAGES OF PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES • They may elicit responses that subjects would be unwilling or unable to give if they knew the purpose of the study. • Helpful when the issues to be addressed are personal , sensitive , or subject to strobg social norms. • Helpful when underlying motivations , beliefs , and attitudes are operating at a subconscious level.
  • 22. MEASUREMENT • It is defined as a process of associating numbers or symbols to observations obtained in a research study. • Measurement means assigning numbers or others symbols to characteristics of objects according to certain prespecified rules. • The rules for assigning numbers should be standardized and applied uniformly. • One to one correspondence between the numbers and the characteristics being measured .
  • 23. SCALING • The generation of a continuum upon which measured objects are located . • Is process of placing the respondent on continuum with respect to their attitude toward department store. • Consider an attitude scale from 1 to 100. Each respondent is assigned a number from 1 to 100,with 1 = extremely unfavorable , and 100= extremely favorable. Measurement is the actual assignment of a number from 1 to 100 to each respondent. Scaling is the process of placing the respondents on a continuum with respect to their attitude toward department stores.
  • 24. SCALE CHARACTERISTICS • Descriptive :- unique labels that are used to designate each value of the scale. All scales possess description. • Order :- the relative sizes or positions of the descriptors. Order is denoted by descriptors such as “ greater than” , “less than” and “ equal to” • Distance :- the characteristics of distance means that absolute differences between the scale descriptors are known and may be expressed in units. • Origin :- the origin Characteristics means that the scales has unique or fixed beginning.
  • 25. PRIMARY SCALE OF MEASUREMENT :- 1. Nominal scale 2. Ordinal scale 3. Interval scale 4. Ratio scale
  • 26. NOMINAL SCALE • A scale whose numbers serve only as labels or tags for identitying and classifying objects. • When its used for purposes of identification , there is a strict one to one correspondence between the numbers and the objects. • Do not reflect the amount of the characteristics • Counting is the only permissible operation. • Limited number of statistics based on frequency counts Ex :- different types of blood : A, AB , O ,B 1= A , 2 = O. , 3 = B , 4 = AB Male = 0 and female = 1, ‘sex’ is measured on a nominal scale.
  • 27. ORDINAL SCALE • Record information about the rank order of scores. • Ordinal measurements describe order • But not relative siz3 or degree of different between the items measured. • In this scale type , the numbers assigned to objects or evnets represent the rank order ( 1st ,2nd , 3rd etc) of the entities assessed. • Ordinal varibales do not tell us anything about the absolute magnitude of the difference between 1st and 2nd or between 2nd and 3rd . That is, we know 1st was before 2nd , and 2nd was before 3rd , but we do not know how close 3rd was to 2nd or how close 2nd was to 1st. The limit’s of ordinal data are most apparent when one looks at the distance between the third and the fourth place finishers.
  • 28. INTERVAL SCALE • Interval scales tell us about the order of data points , and the size of the intervals in between data points. • Quantitative attributes are all measurable on interval scales. • The Location of the zero point is not fixed. And negative values can be used. • And example of an interval scale is the farenheit scale of temperature. In the farenheit scale of temperature . In the fareheit temperature scale , the distance between 20 degrees and 40 degrees is the same as the distance between 75 degrees and 95 degrees.
  • 29. RATIO SCALE • A ratio scale is an interval scale with true zero point. • Possesses all the properties of the nominal , ordinal , and interval scales • Meaningful to compute ratios of scale values • All statistical techniques can be applied. • Most measurement in the physical sciences and engineering is done on ratio scales such as mass , length ,time , angle ,energy. • The klvine temperature scale has a non – arbitrary zero point of absolute zero , which is denoted ok and is equal to – 273.15 degrees celsius.