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Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public


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A case study of Mysore city

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Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public

  1. 1. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 20122IIntroduction
  2. 2. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 20123Advertising is as old as mankind. It is embedded in our lives as is food,sleep and speech. We all communicate, persuade, influence and lead to someaction every day in our lives.In fact, Padamsee, the ex-CEO of Lintas says “when a man wears trouser-shirt ensemble instead of a dhoti, he is advertising he is westernized. When awoman wears lipstick, she is advertising that she wants to look beautiful. Whena neta delivers a speech, he is advertising that he wants to be noticed. Ads areparts of human nature to be noticed.” Advertising is “Truth well told”,according to McCann Ericsson, the first ad agency for Coca-Cola.Advertising is a form of persuasive communication with the public. TheAmerican Marketing Association, Chicago, defines advertising as “any, paidform of non-personal presentation of ideas, goods and services by anidentified sponsor.” Ad may be any form of presentation, an illustration in anewspaper or magazine, a television commercial, or a bill board. It is not on aperson-to-person basis, but targeted to the general public. The advertisementcan be for any product, service or idea. It may vary from toothpaste to lifeinsurance, to even public service ads which sell ideas like road safety, eyedonation, etc…Advertising is the communication link between the buyer and the seller. Itgoes further from providing information; it persuades the consumers to acceptthe idea or buy the product or service, with the help of reasoning and emotionalappeals.
  3. 3. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 20124Source:www.tdiindia.comAd is a potent tool of marketing and a component of overall promotionactivities. The marketing operation of any business is guided by its market planwhich has the best possible mix of four variables, namely, the nature of theproduct, the price if the product, the channels of distribution which take theproduct to the consumer and the promotional activities.With the help of marketing research, the advertiser is the knowledge anddata about the consumer, the product, and the market. These data are about theconsumers, who they are, what are their needs, what is their buying behavior,what are the product qualities desired by them, who are the competitors and theextent of competition, and a great deal more information. These are useful inplanning advertising programmes, and in selecting the type of media to beemployed.In advertising terms, medium is a channel of communication, someexamples of advertising media are newspapers, magazines, TV, radio, andinternet. A medium is a vehicle through which an ad is carried to the consumer.It is the mediator between the creator of the ad at one end and the consumer atthe other.
  4. 4. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 20125As a matter of fact, media too have a market o their own and work hard tosell their media related services. Newspapers try to increase their circulationwhile electronic media try to get more viewership and listenership.Once a medium has been established with a significant audience, it is in astronger position to attract advertisers to their medium. Advertisers areconstantly on the lookout for such audiences to put across their promotionalmessages.Types of mediaEffective advertising refers to informing the public about the rightproduct at the right time through the right medium. Conveying the rightmessage at the wrong time or through the wrong medium would be a waste ofresources. Therefore, the right media selection is the crux of the success of theentire ad campaign. However, the right message, time and place are also equallyimportant.Media selection decision refers to only the selection of a specific mediumof advertising, such as newspaper, or magazine or radio or TV, or outdooradvertising. On the other hand media planning is a general term encompassingdecisions involving the time and place of advertising in addition to the selectionof the medium. A media plan outlines how advertising time and space in variousMediaPrintNewspapers MagazinesDirectMailElectronicTV Radio CinemaOutdoorBillboards/BannersDigitalHoardingsTransitadvertisingOther media
  5. 5. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 20126media will be used to achieve the marketing objectives of the company throughadvertising.One advertiser confesses “half of my advertising is wasted. The problemis, I don’t know which half.”Media planning is significant due to the constant reports that advertisingis wasteful. With the right methodology in media planning, an advertiser canachieve elimination of wasteful advertising up to a great extent. Theeffectiveness of an advertisement depends on when and where it is released.
  6. 6. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 20127Outdoor advertisingOutdoor advertising is actually the oldest form of advertising. It can betraced back to the wall graphics of the Stone Age. The use of signs inadvertising dates back to the days of ancient Rome and Greece. During this era,signs were used to mark the location of mercantile establishments. Traders inthose days used signs outside buildings and along the routes as a means of masscommunication. Today’s outdoor media of advertising are nothing but arefinement of the ancient method of delivering a message to a large group ofpeople.It is believed that a human being spends a third of his life outdoors. Thereare millions of commuters travelling by cars, bikes, buses, trains and taxis.Outdoor advertising makes the travelling of these millions of peopleentertaining on the road. The potential of outdoor advertising in India wasrecognized by the founder for Selvel ad agency, S K Nicholson. In 1941, he setup the first hoarding at Grant Road on Sattar Building, Mumbai.Aaren, another leading ad agency of the era started making using thismedium of advertising from 1962, with a modest 8’x12’ hoarding in Mubai(then Bombay) at Rs.175 per month. Even though the cost of outdoor ad spacemay have increased with the cost of living, it still remains one of the leastexpensive advertising media.Outdoor advertising is one of the major advertising media used in thepresent day. it also happens to be one of the first forms of display advertisementin the history of advertising. Today it has evolved into several types dependingon the creativity of the artist designing it. Outdoor media include bill boards,hoardings, digital hoardings, mobile hoardings, banners, posters, buntings,translites and much more; the list grows with innovation in the graphicdesigning industry. Even though other media like print, radio and television
  7. 7. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 20128generate high revenue with advertising, out of home ads like banners and billboards can be much more effective than ads in print and electronic media.This is due to many factors which favour outdoor media as a form ofmarketing communication. Most people today spend more time outside homethan indoors. Due to this, most people are involuntarily exposed toadvertisement outdoors. Also, unlike television or radio ads which are aired foronly a few seconds, outdoor advertisement like bill boards and hoardings areavailable for consumers round the clock. It is also a very cost-effective medium.A running a full-page newspaper advertisement for a single day in any majornewspaper will cost the same amount as putting up ten bill boards for a month -and it (newspaper) is not nearly as effective. Messages are deliveredcontinuously and frequently. (Tendick, 2007)Outdoor advertising is literally out-of-door. It is out of the home or placeof business. Whatever may be the slight difference in the interpretation; alloutdoor ads have no editorial vehicle to carry the messages. The viewer has toincur no expenditure, not has to make an effort to see an outdoor advertisement.It is not so with the other media. An ad message is not brought to the audience;it is the audience who go to the ad message, though they view it in course ofother activities. Outdoor ads on the other hand offer repeat opportunities to viewthe message.In the USA, there is an Outdoor Advertising Association of America(OAAA), which has established certain standards on size, is qualified asoutdoor media. Roadside and on premises devices, which are not of standardsizes and/or designs, are not classified strictly as outdoor ads. They are referredto as signs.
  8. 8. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 20129Outdoor media can also instill strong brand recognition in the consumers.Since they make use of colours, graphics, motion clips (in digital hoardings),celebrities endorsing the message, catchy slogans and typography, outdooradvertisement tends to grab the attention of commuters at any point of time. Itcan also be targeted towards specific audiences in certain areas.Outdoor advertising offers long life. Moreover, an advertiser canincorporate names and addresses of the local dealers or agents at the bottom ofan outdoor advertisement. These dealer imprints are called snipes.Textbook authors and academic researchers have identified a variety ofdistinctive characteristics of billboards and outdoor advertising (e.g., Kelley andJugenheimer 2004; Sissors and Baron 2002; Taylor 1997; Vanden Bergh andKatz 1999; Woodside 1990). The advantages of using billboards include, amongother things- potential placement of the advertisement close to the point of sale,high frequency of exposure to regular commuters, high reach, 24-hour presence,geographic flexibility for local advertisers, economic efficiency in terms of lowproduction costs and low cost per thousand exposures, visual impact fromadvertisement size and message creativity, and brand awareness. Disadvantagesinclude the need to limit the number of words in the message, short exposure tothe advertisement, low demographic selectivity, and measurement problems.Relatively few studies have attempted to examine execution factors associatedwith the effectiveness of billboard advertising. However, a few have providedvery specific advice for outdoor advertisers. In examining the outcomes ofoutdoor advertising, some studies found that a novel or very creative executioncould improve recall or attention to billboards (Fitts and Hewett 1977; Hewett1975). Thus, use of a clever creative execution is one factor that has beenhypothesized to correlate with effective outdoor advertising.
  9. 9. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 201210Outdoor media has the area-specific quality, which is an important factorcontributing to the success of this medium. This is especially so in India, sincethe consumer population here is very much heterogeneous. The taste andpreferences of consumers differs in every state, every district and town.This study attempts to find the level of success of outdoor advertisementas a medium of communication in Mysore city. This study encompasses thestudy of consumer’s attitude towards outdoor media, the impact this mediabears on the consumers and its level of success in changing attitudes/buyinghabits of people residing in Mysore city.
  10. 10. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 201211IIIReview of Related Literature
  11. 11. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 201212The topic ‘Influence of Outdoor Ads On Public-A Case Study of MysoreCity’ has not been taken anywhere else and this study is the first of its kind.However, studies related ‘advertising’, ‘outdoor advertising’ and‘influence of outdoor ads’ have been done all over the world. Though they havenot been done as case studies of cities or states in India, they are aplenty inother parts of the world like USA. Some of studies which are closest related tothe study ‘Influence Of Outdoor Ads On Public-A Case Study Of Mysore City’are• Use And Effectiveness Of Billboards: Perspectives From Selective-perception Theory And Retail-gravity ModelsCharles R. Taylor, George R. Franke, And Hae-kyong Bang• The Effects Of Outdoor Advertisements On Consumers: A Case StudyGulmez Mustafa, Karaca Sukran, Kitapci Olgun• Exploring The Relationship Between Celebrity Endorser Effects AndAdvertising Effectiveness A Quantitative Synthesis Of Effect SizeClinton Amos (Augusta State University), Gary Holmes (Drury University),David Strutton (University Of North Texas)• Research Paper On Billboard Advertisement: Title: The Impact Of ZainBillboard Advertisements On Students, A Study Of The Ghana Institute OfJournalismMaxwell Akalaare Adombila (Ghana Institute of Journalism (GIJ))• Assessing The Effects Of Animation In Online Banner Advertising:Hierarchy Of Effects ModelChan Yun Yoo, Kihan Kim, And Patricia A. Stout
  12. 12. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 201213• Environmental Harmony and Evaluation of Advertisement Billboards withDigital Photogrammetry Technique and GIS Capabilities: A Case Study inthe City of AnkarCevdet C. Aydın , and Recep Nisancı• Advertising attitudes and advertising effectivenessAbhilasha Mehta (Gallup and Robinson,inc)According to Abhilasha Mehta, individual attitudinal factors related toadvertising in general do influence how a respondent reacts to any particularadvertisement, reinforcing expectations by other researchers previously. To beeffective, advertising is something people should like to look at, believe andfind utility with keeping them up-to-date about products and services.In a content analysis of billboards, Blasko (1985) examined whetheradvertisers were following accepted creative principles associated with outdooradvertising. Drawing on Burton’s Advertising Copywriting (1983) and theTraffic Audit Bureau’s Planning for Out-of-Home Media (1977), Blasko listedfive main principles of effective billboard advertising: short copy (eight orfewer words in copy), simple background, product identification (billboardclearly identifies product or advertiser), simple message (single messagecommunicated), and creative (use of clever phrases and/or illustrations). Studiesconducted by Donthu, Cherian, and Bhargava (1993) and Bhargava, Donthu,and Caron (1994) found recall of billboards to be positively related to a varietyof factors, including brand differentiation, emphasis on product performance,inclusion of price, use of a photograph, use of humor, use of color, and a goodlocation for the billboard. The 1993 study emphasized that advertising recall can
  13. 13. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 201214be enhanced by using fewer words or unusual executions. As with the keyadvantages of outdoor advertising, there have been many discussions ofstrategic and execution factors related to the success of billboards, but littlesystematic investigation of the underlying factors that drive successful billboardadvertising. Below, we offer some insight on these factors by providing twotheoretical perspectives on the promotional role of billboards.Previous survey research has presented evidence on companies’experience with billboards, their perceptions of billboards versus other media,and their estimate of the impact of a billboard ban on sales (Taylor and Franke2003). This study focuses on companies’ reasons for using billboards and theirviews on factors that are critical to billboards’ success. Future research couldadd to the approaches of these studies in several ways. Expanded surveys ofnonusers or former users of billboards would provide a useful comparison to theperspectives of current billboard users and give additional insights on thestrengths and weaknesses of this form of outdoor advertising.Advertising is regarded as a positive effort, which generally contributesto the economy by developing media facilities and enabling the higheststandards of life for people, which helps cultural development and which has animmeasurable educational structure (Marketing Magazine, 1979, p.5–6).Outdoor advertisements, which were first used by advertisers in the UnitedStates during the 1850s, were applied in Turkey in 1985 (Civelek, 2003, p.46).The most frequently used instruments of outdoor advertisement are as follows(Assael, 1993, p.606; Marketing Turkey 2004, p.48); Billboards composed ofpanels and posters that are immobile and separate, Street furniture such asracquet billboards, stations and cylindrical towers, Transit panels placed inairports, railways, subways, buses and taxis. Billboards are the most commonand widely used forms among the outdoor advertisement media listed above
  14. 14. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 201215(Berkovitz, et al, 1994, p.541; Lichtenthal, et al., 2006, p.237). When comparedto other media tools, the share of outdoor advertisements as a proportion of totaladvertising expenditure is increasing – albeit slowly.In literature, it is possible to find some researches and studies aboutoutdoor advertising even though it is not so much. One of the researches ofthose is that of Karmen and Azhari. Azhari and Kamen point out that brandsand slogans used in outdoor advertising are more memorable than otheradvertising medias. While the rate of recall of products and brands used inoutdoor advertising is 79 %, it is 67 % in printed media (1984: 11). In 1975 and1982, in researches guided by open –air institution, it is concluded that theimportance of outdoor advertising on the subject of recognition and recollectionof brands is gradually increasing (Whitehall, Tinkham and Tinkham 1990: 50).The purpose of outdoor advertisement as a mass communication tool is toconvey the desired massage to the target group in an effective and lasting way.According to Mustafa, Sukran and Olgun (2009) the most effective outdooradvertisement tool is billboards and the most high profile sector is the clothingsector. According to the respondents, we can see that television ranks firstamong the most effective toolsIn purchasing a good or service, People generally have positive opinionsabout outdoor advertisements. They think that outdoor advertisements are moreeye-catching and creative when compared to other advertisement types and,their physical size lends them an effective visual impact. People regard theoutdoor advertisements, which they regularly encounter, as a part of the city andthey do not notice that these advertisements are outdoor advertisements. Thissituation has been changing as people become more conscious of outdooradvertisements. In their studies, Shao and Herbig (1995, p.71) stated that tools
  15. 15. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 201216of outdoor advertising such as billboards (bulletin board-poster panels) are oftenused in China and that as Chinese use mass communications and bicycles intransport, they are exposed to outdoor advertisements every day. They reportedthat the reason behind this exposure is that the charges for outdooradvertisements are relatively cheap and these advertisements have a long-termusage when compared to the other advertisement tools. Woodside claim that inhis research outdoor advertising not only increase the rate of buying ,in order toincrease sales ,the outdoor advertising should be presented in areas wherepedestrian traffic are heavy (Woodside 1990: 229). In his research of Üsterman,he express that fictional approach and research design in outdoor advertisingarouse consumer’s interest about brand, initiate and accelerate buying process.(2009: 108). In a research oriented university students, the rate of ones who buyproducts by influencing outdoor advertising is increased by 33%. In the sameresearch, the rate of ones who tend towards attitude of buying is increased by 54% (Sezer 2009: 185). According to Lopez and Bassell, outdoor advertising willcontinue to grow and diversify over the next decades, not only because of itscost-effectiveness, but also because it seems to be the only unavoidable realmfrom which to reach progressively elusive consumers, and the ideal anchor ofintegrated marketing communication.According to Amos, Holmes and Strutton, celebrities add value throughthe process of meaning transfer (McCracken 1986, 1989). The meaning transfermodel posits that celebrities develop a persona through the types of roles theyplay in society as well as how they are portrayed in the media. Collectively, theculturally constituted society then assigns meaning to celebrities. Whencelebrities endorse a product, the meaning developed around a particularcelebrity will – or at least it is hoped for by advertisers – transfer to a company,brand, or product (Erdogan & Baker 2000). Thus, when a consumer identifieswith a celebrity (identification occurs when a person is willing to accept
  16. 16. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 201217influence from another person) (Kelman 2006, p. 3), he/she purchases theproduct in the hope of claiming some of these transferred meanings for theirown lives (McCracken 1989). However, no guarantee exists that any celebritycan continuously produce popular music, act in financially successful movies,or win sports championships. In fact, depending on their level of performance,celebrities do rise and fall in popularity throughout their entire career (Agrawal& Kamakura 1995). When a celebrity fails to perform acceptably, as defined byconsumers, a celebrity endorser’s effectiveness tends to decline (Agrawal &Kamakura 1995). The dominant role played by negative celebrity informationsuggests that highly publicized negative events/information associated with acelebrity will likely prove detrimental to advertising campaigns. An intriguinglow risk solution might entail using still popular, but conveniently deceased,celebrities in product promotion (Till & Shimp 1998).Several technological developments including plug-ins, JAVA script,Flash, and streaming media have contributed to improving the design andinteractivity of digital advertising. Motion is often considered to be a criticalcomponent of animated banner ads (Reiber 1991), because most animated adsare a series of static images superimposed on one another to create an illusion ofmotion (Kalyanaraman and Oliver 2001). But according to Yun Yoo, Kim andStout, the effect of product involvement on attention is independent fromanimation effects. As an individual’s product involvement increases, the level ofattention to banner advertising will also rise, regardless of the level of animationin banner ads. At some point, too much animation or motion may reduce theadvertising effectiveness due to the individuals limited cognitive capacities orsome negative affective responses (such as irritation or annoyance), even thoughthose banner ads are eye-catching.
  17. 17. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 201218A recent study of billboard users found that compared with other media,billboards were rated higher in terms of ability to communicate informationaffordably, attract new customers, and increase sales (Taylor and Franke 2003).While many advantages of billboards have been identified anecdotally, fromexperience, or through academic study, there is a need to investigate whetherfrequently listed advantages overlap with each other, and to examine whetherthey truly are advantages that are important to billboard users (2009: 38). Smallcompanies and local merchants are estimated to purchase almost 80 percent ofthe media (Belch and Belch, 1998). Products such as entertainment, packagedgoods, and media now provide a significant portion of outdoor advertisingrevenues (Outdoor Advertising Association of America, 1998).
  18. 18. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 201219IIMethodology
  19. 19. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 201220Statement of the problemEvery research begins with a question or a problem. Identifying theproblem correctly is crucial to the research because it gives the focus needed onthe study, and makes it easy for the researcher to find answers. This research isbased on the effect of advertising on the people, the effectiveness of the mediumused to advertise, and the response to advertisements.• Before commencing the study titled ‘Influence of Outdoor Advertising onPublic- A case Study of Mysore City’, the following questions are constructed.• Up to what extent are the people of Mysore City exposed to outdooradvertising?• How many of them have applied the advertising message in their lives andexperienced change of attitude?• How many of them purchase products/services promoted in outdooradvertising?• What can be done to improve outdoor advertising in Mysore city?Objectives• To analyze the variety of outdoor ads in Mysore city• To see the popularity of outdoor ads on public in Mysore city• To examine the influence and impact of outdoor ads on public in Mysore city• To study the role of outdoor ads in the purchasing habits of the public inMysore city• To suggest remedies to improve quality of outdoor ads in Mysore city
  20. 20. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 201221Scope of studyThis study has a significant scope in the advertising industry in Mysorecity. The analysis of data collected by this study will provide a document for thereferences of advertisers all over Mysore. It gives an account of theeffectiveness of different types of outdoor media, namely- billboards, banners,mobile hoardings, digital hoardings and transit- in the opinion of the residentsof mysore city.This can be a document for reference of advertisers and media planners ofmysore to choose the medium of advertising, or more precisely, the type ofoutdoor advertisement to make it more effective.Area of studySince this is a case study of Mysore city, the area of study is Mysore. Therespondents are randomly taken from different areas, residing in differentneighborhoods and working or studying in different places in Mysore city.Limitation of studyThis study was conducted for duration of 3 months, from march to may2012. Due to the time constraint, the sample size taken is 50 respondents. Alsodue to the same limitation, the study focuses on outdoor advertising only and noother media.
  21. 21. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 201222Research MethodologyThe study titled ‘Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public- A caseStudy of Mysore City’ is a quantitative analysis. The method of study used forthis research is survey method.Survey research is a method where the researcher selects a population ofstudy, and then selects a smaller sample which represents the population. Theresearcher then uses tools of data collection such as questionnaires or interviewsto collect responses regarding the study. This data is then represented in theform of statistics, and in a graphical form. Based in these statistics, the results ofthe survey are interpreted and a conclusion is drawn on the subject.Sample: the population of this study is the entire population of Mysorecity. The sample size taken for the study is 50. A method of conveniencesampling is used to select the sample size, again due to several limitations liketime and resources. The respondents are almost equally divided into strata basedon age groups, professions etc.The tool of data collection used in this study is questionnaire. Eachquestionnaire contains 15 questions including the socio-demographic variables,media habits and other open ended questions.The data collected is first represented in percentages and in the form ofbar graphs. This is then analyzed to make interpretations and draw the rightconclusions.
  22. 22. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 201223IVData analysis andInterpretation
  23. 23. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 201224Part A:1. Gender and 2. Age:Group-1: 18-23 Group-2: 24-39 Group-3: 40 and above17 21 12M F M F M F6 11 4 17 6 6Graph 1: Represents the percentage of male and female respondents,belonging to different age groups.In the sample size of 50, the respondents are equally distributed amongthe three age groups. Group 1 consists of respondents between 18 and 23, whoare mostly students. Group 2 (24-39) consists of working men and women, whohave a regular income and spend a fair amount of time outdoors, and also homemakers. Group 3 (40 and above) consists of middle aged and senior citizens,who are residents of the city for a long time and may have an exposure to theoutdoor advertising in the city. Group 1 takes up 34% of the population (12%male and 22% female), Group 2 takes up 60% (8% male and 54% female) andGroup 3 is 24% (12% male and 12% female). The sample consists of a majorityof female respondents, as they were more co-operative in answering thequestionnaires.0.00%10.00%20.00%30.00%40.00%50.00%60.00%70.00%18-2324-3940 and aboveFemaleMale
  24. 24. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012253. Education:10th PUC Degree Post Graduation3 3 22 22Graph 2: Represents the education level of respondents.As indicated by the graph, most respondents are educated up to the levelof Bachelor degree and Master degree. Only 12%, who are home makers, haveeducation up to class 10 and PUC. 44% of the respondents are graduates and44% are post graduates.0%5%10%15%20%25%30%35%40%45%10thPUCDegreePGSeries 1
  25. 25. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012264. Employment:Working Not working22 28Graph 3: Shows the employment of the respondents.The respondents are almost equally divided among those who areworking and those who are not. 44% of them are working in different sectorsranging from software to agriculture, while 56% are not working. A majority ofthem are students at degree and post graduation level.0%10%20%30%40%50%60%WorkingNot workingEmployment
  26. 26. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012275. Income:10000 or less 10000-50000 50000-I lakh Above 1lakh33 11 4 2Graph 4: Represents the income of respondents.As nearly half of the sample consists of those who are not working, ahuge majority (66%) of them earn less than Rs.10000 per month. However, inthe group of working individuals, 22% earns between Rs.10000 to Rs.50000.however, only 8% of the respondents earn up to 1 lakh, and only 4% earn morethan 1 lakh.0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%within 1000010000-5000050000-1 lakhAbove 1 lakhincome
  27. 27. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 201228Part B:6. Do you read/watch/observe advertisements?All the time Sometimes Occasionally Never8 34 8 0Graph 5: Shows the percentage of people who observe advertisements.All respondents have exposure to advertisements. While only 16% ofthem observe the ads and think about them much, a majority of 68% them justnotice ads. Another 16% occasionally see them and do not observe much of itscontent. Basically all the people of Mysore are exposed to advertising.0.00%10.00%20.00%30.00%40.00%50.00%60.00%70.00%All the timeSometimesOccasionallyNever
  28. 28. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012297. Which of the following media do you prefer to see/hear advertisement?Graph 6: Represents the people’s preference of medium to see/hearadvertisementsMost of the respondents (52%) prefer TV, the audio visual medium to seeadvertisements. While some prefer both print and TV, only a small minority of2% prefer as a medium of advertising. 12% of the people prefer newspaper,30% prefer both newspapers and TV and only 2% prefer radio.0.00%10.00%20.00%30.00%40.00%50.00%60.00%Series 1
  29. 29. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012308. Are you aware of the medium called outdoor advertising?Graph 7: Represents the level of awareness of outdoor advertising.14% of the people are highly aware of outdoor media, 10% are unaware.A majority of 76% are just aware of outdoor advertising.0.00%10.00%20.00%30.00%40.00%50.00%60.00%70.00%80.00%highly awareawareunawareAware of outdoorads
  30. 30. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 2012319. Are you aware of the following outdoor ads?Billboards, Digital hoarding, Mobile hoardings, Banners, Transit(ads onpublic vehicles)Graph 8: Represents the exposure to individual types of outdooradvertising, namely Billboards, Digital hoarding, Mobile hoardings,Banners, Transit.30% of the population is highly aware of billboards, 52% aware and 18%unaware. 22% of the population is highly aware of digital hoardings, 55% awareand 24% unaware. 14% of the population is highly aware of mobile hoardings,70% aware and 16% unaware. 34% of the population is highly aware ofbanners, 62% aware and 4% unaware. 14% of the population is highly aware ofbillboards, 50% aware and 34% unaware.0.00%10.00%20.00%30.00%40.00%50.00%60.00%70.00%80.00%BillboardsDigitalHoardingsMobileHoardingsBannersTransithighly awareawareunaware
  31. 31. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 20123210. Rate the effectiveness of these advertisements in descending order (1 formost effective and 5 for least effective:Billboards, Digital hoarding, Mobilehoardings, Banners, Transit(ads on public vehicles)Graph 9: Represents the ratings given by people of Mysore to each type ofoutdoor advertising, namely Billboards, Digital hoarding, Mobilehoardings, Banners, Transit.This question asks the respondent to indicate the level of effectiveness ofthe outdoor medium by rating it. According to the graph, banners have beenrated ‘1’ by majority of people, while billboards, mobile hoardings and digitalhoardings follow closely. However transit has been rated ‘5’, that is leasteffective by a huge majority. It is also the least rated as ‘1’ in effectiveness. Thismay mean that people fail to notice transit as a medium of advertising, or do notappreciate the idea of public vehicles covered with ads.0.00%5.00%10.00%15.00%20.00%25.00%30.00%35.00%40.00%12345BillboardDigital hoardingMobile hoardingBannerTransit
  32. 32. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 20123311. What kind of outdoor advertisement do you usually observe in Mysorecity?Graph 10: represents the kinds of ads seen in Mysore, as observed by therespondents.36% of the respondents think that cinema ads are more in the city, awhopping 54% have observed a majority of commercial precuts ads and 12%have said that political ads are seen in large numbers. Whereas only 8% of therespondents have observed social message ads and only 6% of them have seenads for services.0.00%10.00%20.00%30.00%40.00%50.00%60.00%CinemaSocial adCommercialServicePolitical
  33. 33. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 201234Part C:12. Do you think the advertisements result in change of attitude?Graph 11: Represents the extent to which outdoor advertising results inchange of attitude.Most of the respondents (52%) are non-committal about the effect ofadvertisements on their attitudes. They have responded that outdoor ads may beresponsible for change in their attitudes. However, 36% of the respondents thinkthat outdoor advertisements do change attitudes, but 10% of them think thatthey do not result in change of attitude.While most of them believe that ads give information about the productor service, they would buy only the product but not the idea. Some of them haveopined that the people, who are exposed to these ads and have the level ofunderstanding to perceive its message, also are intelligent enough to make theirown firm decisions. They are not influenced by advertising. They have also saidthat in the busy life of today not many people have the time to sit and analyzeoutdoor advertising to have a change of attitude. However, a large number ofthem believe that advertisements provide consumers with lot of information,and influence in purchasing habits. It communicates from the manufacturer tothe consumer and helps the consumers decide which product to buy. But it cando no more than that.0.00%10.00%20.00%30.00%40.00%50.00%60.00%YesNoMaybeYesNoMaybe
  34. 34. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 20123513. Do you think the outdoor ads make you want to buy the product/serviceadvertised?Graph 12: Represents the influence of outdoor ads on the purchasinghabits of the peopleAgain, a majority of 58% of the respondents is not sure and think outdoorads may or may not be responsible for their purchase decisions, depending onthe product quality etc. whereas 26% of them are influenced by the ads and buythe product, and 16% are not influenced at all.0.00%10.00%20.00%30.00%40.00%50.00%60.00%YesNoMaybeSeries 1
  35. 35. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 20123614. Do you agree with the statement that celebrities being brandambassadors have influence on your purchasing habits?Graph 13: Represents the people’s opinion on celebrities endorsingproducts and services, and their influence on people’s buying.This question got mixed reactions from the respondents. 38% of themdisagreed that a celebrity as brand ambassadors has influence on consumers,32% of them agree on the same. 245 of them gave a neutral opinion. Amongthose who agree, most respondents are from group 1 and 2 (16% and 16%respectively), that is between ages 18 to 23, and 24 to 40. Among those whodisagree, a majority are from group 3 (14%), that is above the age of 40.0.00%5.00%10.00%15.00%20.00%25.00%30.00%35.00%40.00%AgreeDisagreeCant sayGroup-3Group-2Group-1
  36. 36. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 20123715. Do you agree that outdoor advertising in Mysore can be improved?Yes/NoGraph 14: Represents the people’s opinion to whether outdoor ads inmysore can be improved or not.Some of the opinions given are:• By attractive, simple slogans.• Ad can be segregated, must be more pleasant, should not hamper free flow of traffic, andmust not be vulgar.• By using innovative ideas• Billboards in prominent places will improve visibility.• Ads should be original.• Government should support advertising in all places.• Through attractive sentences and pictures.• It can inspire people in buying the products as well as it helps to provide knowledge aboutnewly introduced products and helps in creating awareness among people.• Digital hoardings are very less in Mysore city. New method of marketing improves sales.• Through creative ideas.• By improving the presentation of goods and products in a catchy way.• With the strategies like targeting the people who are confined to the product being advertised.• Through mobile hoardings.0.00%10.00%20.00%30.00%40.00%50.00%60.00%YesNo
  37. 37. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 201238• Go for more options like billboards, wherever you can find more population. Engage theresidents from Mysore for the purpose rather than commercializing the product with brandambassadors.• Using present modern technology• By advertising in attractive manner, more and more on busy streets and traffic signal spots.• By putting more ad flex in and around the city• Taking away bill boards from heritage sites would be appreciated. Also, sponsoring a cleanroad or a green park would help.A majority of the response is favorable towards more outdoor ads andtheir placing in heavy traffic areas and at more visible viewpoints. The resultshave also shown that people prefer to see advertisements with creative butsimple copy, slogans and punch lines rather that celebrities and long copy withillustration. This shows that what attracts the viewers more than the illustrationor the celebrity in the ad, is the copy.Few of the respondents have also implied to the use of more advancedtechnology to attract the viewers. This may refer to digital and animatedhoardings. With enough resources on the budget, digital hoardings can alsomake a very effective advertising medium
  38. 38. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 201239VConclusion andrecommendation
  39. 39. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 201240As represented by the graphs 7 and 8, more than 90% of the residents ofMysore City have exposure to outdoor advertising. Among those who are‘highly aware’ of outdoor advertising, most are students of the media andregularly exposed to various advertising media. Among those unaware of themedium are home makers who are less likely to be exposed to outdoor ads.However, youth and working professionals who spend much time outdoors areall aware of outdoor advertising.The results of this study show that outdoor advertising is effective tosome extent in changing people’s decisions and making them buy the product.But they have not been successful in changing their attitude in general. They areviewed as mere tools providing information about the product and services tothe consumers.According to the observations of Mysoreans, the roads of Mysore city aredominated by commercial advertisements of products and services, and cinemaads. While political banners are also seen in places, only negligible numbers ofsocial messages are advertised. Advertisers can include some social messagesand make them stronger so that it results in change of attitude of the people. Itmay also help to promote the commercial products and services with a socialmessage to bear a stronger impact on people of Mysore.The people have rated transit advertising as the least effective medium. Itis also worth noticing that a majority of people are unaware of transitadvertising. It is possible that they are aware of the type of advertising but notthe name ‘transit’. However, transit is less in Mysore compared to other metrocities and can be used more often to put across an advertising message.The results of this study also reveal that banners are rated the mosteffective type of outdoor advertising. The next effective is billboards, closelyfollowed by mobile and digital hoardings. But the study also reveals that a
  40. 40. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 201241majority of people prefer to see ads in an audio-visual medium. Hence,improving on the digital hoardings could make and effective medium ofadvertising in Mysore.
  41. 41. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 201242Bibliography:• Foundations of advertising theory and practice- S A Chunawalla and K C Sethia• Use And Effectiveness Of Billboards: Perspectives From Selective-perception TheoryAnd Retail-gravity ModelsCharles R. Taylor, George R. Franke, And Hae-kyong Bang• The Effects Of Outdoor Advertisements On Consumers: A Case StudyGulmez Mustafa, Karaca Sukran, Kitapci Olgun• Exploring The Relationship Between Celebrity Endorser Effects And AdvertisingEffectiveness A Quantitative Synthesis Of Effect SizeClinton Amos (Augusta State University), Gary Holmes (Drury University), David Strutton(University Of North Texas)• Research Paper On Billboard Advertisement: Title: The Impact Of Zain BillboardAdvertisements On Students, A Study Of The Ghana Institute Of JournalismMaxwell Akalaare Adombila (Ghana Institute of Journalism (GIJ))• Assessing The Effects Of Animation In Online Banner Advertising: Hierarchy OfEffects ModelChan Yun Yoo, Kihan Kim, And Patricia A. Stout• Environmental Harmony and Evaluation of Advertisement Billboards with DigitalPhotogrammetric Technique and GIS Capabilities: A Case Study in the City of AnkarCevdet C. Aydın , and Recep Nisancı• Advertising attitudes and advertising effectivenessAbhilasha Mehta (Gallup and Robinson, Inc.)•• The Many Benefits of Billboard Advertising- Robert Tendick• Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA), USA, official•
  42. 42. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 201243Appendix: IQuestionnaire for data collection:University of MysoreDOS in Communication and JournalismProject workI am the student of Manasagangotri, Mysore, Department of Communication and Journalism,and presently doing a project on “Influence of Outdoor Advertisement on the Public-aCase Study of Mysore city”. I request you to kindly fill the questionnaire below and assureyou that the data generated shall be kept confidential.Part A:1. Gender: M / F 2. Age:3. Education: 4. Employment:5. Income:Part B:6. Do you read/watch/observe advertisements?All the time Sometimes Occasionally Never7. Which of the following media do you prefer to see/hear advertisement?Newspaper/magazine TV Radio8. Are you aware of the medium called outdoor advertising?Highly aware Aware Unaware9. Are you aware of the following outdoor ads?Billboards: Highly aware Aware UnawareDigital hoardings: Highly aware Aware UnawareMobile hoardings: Highly aware Aware UnawareBanners: Highly aware Aware UnawareTransit: Highly aware Aware Unaware
  43. 43. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 20124410. Rate the effectiveness of these advertisements in descending order (1 for most effectiveand 5 for least effectiveBillboards:Digital hoardings:Mobile hoardings:Banners:Transit(ads on public vehicles):11. What kind of outdoor advertisement do you usually observe in Mysore city?Cinema Public service Commercial/Product ads ServicesPolitical adPart C:12. Do you think the advertisements result in change of attitude?Yes No MaybeIf “Yes’, how?______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________If “No”, how?________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________13. Do you think the outdoor ads make you want to buy the product/service advertised?Yes No Maybe14. Do you agree with the statement that celebrities being brand ambassadors have influenceon your purchasing habits?Agree Disagree Can’t say.15. Do you agree that outdoor advertising in Mysore can be improved?Yes/NoIf “Yes”, how?___________________________________________________________________________
  44. 44. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 201245Appendix: IIPhotographs of Outdoor Advertising around Mysore city
  45. 45. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 201246Outdoor advertising on and around Devraj Urs road, Mysore
  46. 46. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 201247Outdoor advertising on and around Devraj Urs road, Mysore
  47. 47. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 201248From top: Public service, Political and social message ads
  48. 48. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 201249From top: billboard, cinema ads and Transit on city buses in Mysore
  49. 49. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 201250More transit advertising in the city
  50. 50. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 201251Middle: advertising on bus shelters
  51. 51. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 201252
  52. 52. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 201253Veta: digital hoarding on Saraswathipuram, Mysore
  53. 53. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 201254Digital TV: digital hoarding on Saraswathipuram, Mysore
  54. 54. Influence of Outdoor Advertising on Public 201255Ads at a traffic signal near K G Koppal, Mysore