DLP - Digital Light
What is DLP Technology ?
• Digital Light Processing (DLP) is a display technology
developed by Texas Instruments.
• It provides all-digital projection displays that offer
superior picture quality in terms of resolution, brightness,
• This provides an overview of the digital video processing
solutions like scan conversion, picture enhancements,
• DLP™ technology is in use wherever visual excellence is
DLP was invented in 1987 by Dr. Hornbeck of Texas Instruments Inc.
In 1992, TI started a project to explore the DMD's commercial viability.
A year later, it named the new technology DLP and formed a separate group
to develop commercial display applications.
In 1994, TI demonstrated DLP projectors for the first time.
In 1997, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences chose DLP
to project film at the Oscars, where the first three-chip DLP technology was
demonstrated to the Hollywood community.
In 1999, DLP Cinema was first demonstrated to the public with
the release of Star Wars Episode I: the Phantom Menace. By
December 2002, TI had shipped 2 million DLP subsystems.
DLP Products has also received two Emmy Awards, for excellence in
1998 and for technology and engineering in 2003.
In 2002, Hornbeck was elected a fellow of the International Society for
Optical Engineering and received the David Sarnoff Medal from the
Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers.
Enter Digital Light Processing
• pixels on a DLP chip is a reflective mirror
• amplifies the light generated from the chip.
• The advantage of DLP
It produces bright, high-contrast
It can be projected onto any size
Important Basic Concepts of DLP
• Color Wheel
Semiconductor That Changed Everything
Heart of DLP
Invented by Larry Hornbeck
of Texas Instrument
world's most sophisticated
Rectangular array of up to 1.3 million of
hinge-mounted movable microscopic
Size of a fifth of human hair
Each mirror correspond to one pixel of image
Mounted over a CMOS SRAM
Not operating – parked at 0 degree
On – Tilt +10 degrees
Off – Tilt –10 degrees
On/Off Switching – 1000 times/sec
Consists of 508,800 tiny,
The tilt directs light toward the screen,
or into a "light trap" that eliminates
unwanted light when reproducing
blacks and shadows.
A glass window seals and protects the
DLP: Adding Colors
• The white light passes through a color wheel
• The color wheel filters the light into red, green, and
• a single-chip DLP projection system can create at
least 16.7 million colors.
• 3-DMD chip system is capable of producing no fewer
than 35 trillion colors.
How DLP works ?
• Signal Conversion
• Gray Scale Image
• Color Creation
Step 1 –
• Accepts both analog or digital signal
• All signals must be converted into digital
• The digital signal, enables mirrors to tilt
towards “On” or away from “Off” light
Step 2 –
On” – light Pixel vs. “Off” – Dark Pixel
Mirror switched on more frequently than off – Reflects Light Gray
Rapid Switching allows up to 1024 shades of gray reflections
Digitalized video signal entering DMD get converted into highly
detailed grayscale image
Step 3 –
• Color is added as white light from the lamp passes through
a color wheel filter
• Color Wheel – RED, GREEN & BLUE
• mirrors on DMD are tilted on for the exact amount of time
required for each basic color
• Only 1 color is shined onto DMD at a time
• When spinning fast enough, human eyes blend alternating
flashes to view “more” colors in the projected image.
Color wheel present
DLP Technology allows for a clear smooth picture with no
glare due to its embossed coating technology:
DLP Technology allows for a clear smooth picture with no glare due to its
embossed coating technology:
Anti Glare Coating Screen
Current Projection TV or Monitor
A 43" DLP™ TV is 35% slimmer and 56% lighter than a 36" direct view TV.
• Every pixel on a DLP chip is a reflective mirror, which
amplifies the light generated from the chip.
• There is no limit to the size of the screen that can be
• Brightness and contrast is even across the entire surface of the
Mirrors are aluminium
Off chip drivers
Arrayed on center->high fill factor
+ve & -ve
Potential of yoke
Brightness, contrast ratio
Video processing systems
Performing 5.7 billion 8-bit additions/sec.
Data Path ASIC
48-bit Data Input Register(DIR)
Independent Clock Control
Room Projectors, home theater, CRT, institutional
1-chip DLP Projection System
16.7 millions of colors
TV, projector, home theater system
3-chip DLP Projection System
35 trillion of colors
3 DMD configuration
Each DMD dedicated to 1 color only
White light passes through a prism to
divide red, green and blue and later
recombine to form image
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
CONVERGENCE OF TECHNOLOGY
Rotation of the mirror
memory cell in the
on (1) state, the mirror
rotates to +10 degrees.
off (0) state, the mirror rotates
to -10 degrees
(1) state of the mirror
(0) state of the mirror appears dark.
• used in large projection screen
• Mission To Mars, Toy Story 2, Rocky and
Bullwinkle, Disney's Dinosaur, and Spy
• several manufacturers, such as Hitachi,
Panasonic, Samsung, and Mitsubishi are
producing rear-projection DLP sets for the
• organic compounds in LCD panels susceptible
to high heat and light energy stress.
• DLP technology does not use organic
• LCD technology has a failure mode that does
not exist with DLP.
FUTURE OF TECHNOLOGY
• HD2+ for contrast ratios greater than
3000:1 for much improved color.
• eliminating more of the latent brightness
when in the “off” position .
• Sequential Color Recapture (SCR)
“Spiral of Archimedes”