Capsule camera


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Capsule camera

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Capsule camera

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION ♦ Patients can now swallow pill-sized, disposable cameras ♦ This new esophageal capsule endoscope is a smooth plastic capsule about the size of a large vitamin pill that has tiny video cameras at each end. ♦ The pill takes about 2,600 color pictures, which are transmitted to a recording device worn by the patient. ♦ The disposable capsule is passed naturally, usually within 24 hours.
  3. 3. EVOLUTION ♦ The technology available to doctors has evolved dramatically over the past 40 years. ♦ Basic endoscopy was introduced in the late 1960s, and about 20 years later, ultrasound was added, enabling us to look at internal GI structures as never before. ♦ Now, with EUS, we can determine the extent to which tumors in the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, or rectum have spread in a less invasive way. ♦ One technology that has been available for about 30 years is Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio pancreatography (ERCP).
  4. 4. USES OF ERCP: • ERCP's is used to place stents within bile ducts, remove difficult bile duct stones, and obtain biopsy samples. • Used in motility treatment. • Motility is the movement of food from one place to another along the digestive tract.
  5. 5. ASSOCIATED TECHNOLOGIES • Passive capsule observation endoscopes • • • • • • compact low-power consumption imaging technology.  compact low-power consumption wireless transmission technology. Capsule guidance system Wireless power supply system Drug delivery system Body fluid sampling technology Self-propelled capsule Ultrasound capsule
  6. 6. TECHNOLOGY ♦ Ultra-Low-Power Wireless Technology is Used in Swallowable Camera Capsule. ♦ improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in CMOS detectors, ♦ development of white LEDs, and development of application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs). ♦ CMOS detectors have active pixel resolutions that provide comparable performance to CCDs, while drawing less power than CCDs
  7. 7. EXAMPLES • Mrs.Judy Shuhala, a retired school teacher, had Gastritis,an inflammation of the stomach lining. • Mr.Norman Cullen, a 76-year-old Bay Area resident, Suffering from an undetected GI bleed.
  8. 8. MARKET VIEW ♦ 01 August 2001Physicians and patients in the European Union, the United States of America, Australia, and Israel will now be able to benefit from a new medical technology . ♦ The Israeli company Given Imaging Ltd., which manufactures the diagnostic system, has received official approval to market the video capsule to physicians within European Union countries.
  9. 9. ♦ the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) cleared the marketing of the cameracapsule in the U.S. ♦ The system is also currently being used in clinical trials in Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, and Spain. ♦ The Given system will be available to doctors in selected markets within 90 days of placing an order.
  11. 11. ♦ The M2A capsule consists of a microchip camera, light emitting diodes that act as flash, an antenna, two 1.5 V silver oxide batteries and Zarlink's RF transmitter chip . ♦ The RF transmitter chip is manufactured in 0.35µm CMOS technology ♦ It re-quires a voltage of 2.6 to 3.2 V and transmits on a 403, 432 or 434 MHz carrier ♦ This allows a data rate of 2,700 kbit/s over a distance of 1 m while having a power consumption of 5.2 MW.
  12. 12. ♦ All this is run by two ultra low-power silver oxide batteries that will operate for 6-8 hours. ♦ weighs 3.5 grams and can display a 140° field of view of the patients insides at 1:8 magnification. ♦ This information is then transmitted via an array of sensors secured to the abdomen, to the Data Recorder affixed to a belt worn around the patient's waist.
  13. 13. ♦ The silver oxide batteries in the capsule power the CMOS detector, as well as the LEDs and transmitter. ♦ white-light LEDs are important because pathologists distinguish diseased tissue by color. ♦ The developers provided a novel optical design that uses a wide-angle lens over the imager, and manages to integrate both the LEDs and imager under one dome while handling stray light and reflections.
  15. 15. UTILITIES ♦ Eliminates Procrastination ♦ Views the Entire GI Tract ♦ Traditional endoscopy can view only the upper GI tract. ♦ Earliest Cancer Detection ♦ Advances Treatment of Irritable Bowel Capsule endoscopy
  16. 16. APPLICATION DOMAIN ♦ Capsule Endoscopy : Patient has to swallow a vitamin pill sized video capsule as an endoscope. Capsule Endoscopy helps the doctor to determine the cause for:~ ♦ Recurrent abdominal pain ♦ Diarrhea ♦ Bleeding ♦ Anemia
  17. 17. ♦ It is useful to detect small bowel tumors ♦ Patients who are on medications for joint pains etc. ♦ Inflammatory bowel diseases ♦ Irritable bowel ♦ To monitor the therapeutic effects
  18. 18. How should the patient prepare himself or herself for the study? ♦ Patient will be given written instructions the day before. ♦ An empty stomach allows better visualization (10 hrs before the examination). ♦ The doctor will inform the time of fasting. ♦ If the patient is on medications inform the doctor. ♦ Cardiac patients have to inform about pace makers & other devices. ♦ Patient can eat ,4 hrs after ingestion of the capsule.
  19. 19. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT SCOPE • The torpedo-shaped capsule can provide more than five hours of real-color images. • The patient need not be in a hospital or clinic during this time • The images are transmitted from the capsule using UHF signals to an antenna array attached to the patient (much like an ECG test).
  20. 20. ♦ The data indicate where in the abdomen the capsule was at the time. ♦ These promote greater efficiency in medical institutions and help improve quality of life for the patients. ♦ Gastrointestinal endoscopes are now recognized as the only medical devices that can simultaneously perform observations, diagnoses (tissue extraction), and treatment.
  21. 21. CONVERGENCE OF TECHNOLOGY The different technologies used are: • Telemedicine. • Electronics. • Information Technology.
  22. 22. MATHEMATICAL SUPPORT ♦ In an FDA-organized trial conducted in New York, the ♦ Given Imaging Diagnostic System 12 patients, or 60 percent ♦ push enterosc ♦ opy 7 of 20 patients, or 35 percent. In total, 14 lesions were detected ♦ The Given Imaging Diagnostic System 12 of the 14 lesions, or 86 percent, ♦ push enteroscopy 7 out of 14, or 50 percent. ♦ The FDA also noted that the Given system was able to identify sources of bleeding in five cases which were beyond the reach of the traditional enteroscope.
  24. 24. CONCLUSION ♦ Endoscopy is the most common diagnostic tool for GI problems; however, the endoscope is not long enough to view the entire small intestine. ♦ If the patient’s problem lies further down the intestinal tract, it’s more difficult for the physician to diagnose and treat. ♦ Now amazing new technology—a wireless, allowable video capsule— allows physicians to capture images of the small intestine with no pain to the patient.
  25. 25. ♦ The capsule’s greatest benefit is its ability to survey the entire GI tract, possibly eliminating the need for further diagnostic studies. ♦ the Given system is user-friendly and painless, allowing patients to return to work on the same day of ingestion ♦ it increases accuracy when compared to some other endoscopic devices. ♦ this product may also offer cost savings by reducing the number of diagnostic tests required to obtain an accurate diagnosis.
  26. 26. FUTURE OF TECHNOLOGY ♦ At this time, the capsule is not a replacement for colonoscopy. ♦ Photodynamic therapy is one of the new treatments that will soon be available to patients with certain types of Barrett's esophagus or GI tumors. ♦ hotodynamic therapy uses lasers to destroy the precancerous esophagus cells (identified by a photosensitive chemical marker), but leaves normal cells alone.
  27. 27. THANK YOU