http://www.iwmi.cgiar.org/iwmi-tata/files/pdf/ground-pollute4_FULL_.pdf and http://www.cag.gov.in/EnvironmentAudit/Presentations/Session_Groundwater/4%20S%20Krisnan%20Social%20Cost%20Groundwater%20Pollution%20-%20CAG%20March%202010.pdf
censusmp.nic.in/censusmp/pdfs/Rural_ Urban _ 2011 -mp.ppt http://hetv.org/india/index.html-INDIA STAT TODAY
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2013 my lect -wwd hotel palash-“international year of water cooperation-brain storming issues today”-220313
““International year of WaterInternational year of WaterCooperation-Brain stormingCooperation-Brain stormingissues today”issues today”PRESENTED BY-Er. S.G. PHADKE -22.03.2013
11.What is World Water Day?World Water Day has been observed on 22 March since 1993 when the United Nations General Assembly declared 22 March as World Day forWater.This day was first formally proposed in Agenda 21 of the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
33On 30 September 2010, the UN passed a resolution affirming that access to water and sanitation are human rights, making these rights legally binding in international law by nation states.Right to life is a fundamental right enshrined in article 21 ofConstitution of India and it includes the right to enjoyment ofpollution free water and air full enjoyment of life.Water is defined a safe if it is free from biological contamination(guinea,cholera ,typhoid) and chemical contamination (excessFlouride,breckshness,iron,arsenic and nitrate)
22. 2013 is the year of WaterCooperation.In 2013 World Water Day will share the topic of Water Cooperation. Celebrated since 1993, World Water Day has grown to become one of the key dates in the UN calendarSCARICITY OF WATER
Pollution knows no borders either. Up to 90% ofwastewater in developing countries flows untreatedinto rivers, lakes and highly productive coastal zones,threatening health, food security and access to safedrinking and bathing water Over 80% of used waterworldwide is not collected or treated (Corcoran et al.,2010).Causes of Death?Causes of Death?(Every Year)(Every Year)26000 3.5Million3Million1.8Million
33. Status of water & waste waterin India.Sanitation Scenario in Urban India •26% of the population still defecates in open thatannually generates more than 36 million metric tones ofhuman excreta which lies in open.•38 million metric tones of municipal solid waste aregenerated in urban India annually; of which• 94% is dumped on land• only 5% is composted• Unmanaged wastes are also one of the major sourcesof Greenhouse Gas Emission (GHG) especiallymethane and carbon dioxide- causes global warming
• GLOBLE WATER SUPPLY COVERAGE 83%->U-95% R-73%• GLOBLE SANITATION COVERAGE 59%->U-80% R-39%Fact File-Water Supply & SanitationINDIA’S WATER SUPPLY COVERAGE 82.4%->U-91.9% R-81.4%INDIA’S SANITATION COVERAGE 46.9%->U-77.9(NON CENSUS58)% R-30.7(NON CENSUS 18)%
44.Pollution issues surface& ground waters. River Pollution River Pollution Water Conflicts Water Conflicts Ground water PollutionGround water Pollution Poor management, crumbling Poor management, crumbling infrastructure and depleting resourcesinfrastructure and depleting resources Aquifer Depletion Aquifer Depletion
1111All our Rivers are polluting.A 2007 study finds that discharge of untreated sewage is singlemost important cause for pollution of surface and ground water inIndia. There is a large gap between generation and treatment ofdomestic wastewater in India. The problem is not only that Indialacks sufficient treatment capacity but also that the sewagetreatment plants that exist do not operate and are not maintained.Majority of the government-owned sewage treatment plantsremain closed most of the time due to improper design or poormaintenance or lack of reliable electricity supply to operate theplants, together with absentee employees and poor management.The wastewater generated in these areas normally percolates inthe soil or evaporates. The uncollected wastes accumulate in theurban areas cause unhygienic conditions and release pollutantsthat leaches to surface and groundwater. A 1995 report claimed114 Indian cities were dumping untreated sewage and partiallycremated bodies directly into the Ganges River. Open defecationis widespread even in urban areas of India.
1212The list of all the major cities(27)of India and the rivers which flow through the city or on the basin on which the city flourishedTown RiverAgra YamunaAhmedabad SabarmatAllahabad Ganga, YamunaAyodhya SaryuBadarinath GangaCalcutta HooghlyCuttack MahanadiDelhi YamunaDibrugarh BrahmaputraFerozepur SutlejGauhati BrahmaputraHaridwar GangaHyderabad MusiJabalpur NarmadaKanpur GangaKota ChambalLeh IndusLucknow GomtiLudhiana SutlejNasik GodavariPanchiharpur BhimaPatna GangesSrinagar JhelumSurat TaptiTiruchirapalli CauveryVaranasi GangaVijayawada Krishna
IssuesIssuesWater Conflicts:Water Conflicts:The Ganges River possesses strong economic andThe Ganges River possesses strong economic andreligious importance. The Ganges River as a waterreligious importance. The Ganges River as a watersource has been strongly disputed between India andsource has been strongly disputed between India andBangladesh. With increasing demands of water inBangladesh. With increasing demands of water inCalcutta for industrial and domestic use, andCalcutta for industrial and domestic use, andirrigation use in the Indian state of West Bengal,irrigation use in the Indian state of West Bengal,water conflicts between the two countries havewater conflicts between the two countries haveincreased. With large amounts of pollution in thisincreased. With large amounts of pollution in thisriver system, the available water is unsanitary andriver system, the available water is unsanitary andcan increase illness, as well as trigger masscan increase illness, as well as trigger massmigration.migration.
IssuesIssuesGround water Pollution:Ground water Pollution:• Non-point pollution caused by fertilizers and pesticides used inagriculture, often dispersed over large areas, is a great threatto fresh groundwater ecosystems. Intensive use of chemicalfertilizers in farms and indiscriminate disposal of human andanimal waste on land result in leaching of the residual nitratecausing high nitrate concentrations in groundwater.• Nitrate concentration is above the permissible level of 45 ppmin 11 states, covering 95 districts and two blocks of Delhi.DDT, BHC, carbonate, Endosulfan, etc. are the most commonpesticides used in India. But, the vulnerability ofgroundwater to pesticide and fertilizer pollution is governed bysoil texture, pattern of fertilizer and pesticide use, theirdegradation products, and total organic matter in the soil.
IssuesIssuesGround water Pollution:Ground water Pollution:The crucial role groundwater plays as a decentralized source ofdrinking water for millions rural and urban families cannot beoverstated. According to some estimates, it accounts for nearly 80per cent of the rural domestic water needs, and 50 per cent of theurban water needs in India. Groundwater is generally lesssusceptible to contamination and pollution when compared tosurface water bodies. Also, the natural impurities in rainwater,which replenishes groundwater systems, get removed whileinfiltrating through soil strata. But, In India, where groundwater isused intensively for irrigation and industrial purposes, a variety ofland and water-based human activities are causing pollution of thisprecious resource. Its over-exploitation is causing aquifercontamination in certain instances, while in certain others itsunscientific development with insufficient knowledge ofgroundwater flow dynamic and geo-hydrochemical processes hasled to its mineralization.
IssuesIssuesGround water Pollution:Ground water Pollution:
IssuesIssuesPoor management, Population increase, urban growth,Poor management, Population increase, urban growth,crumbling infrastructure and depleting resources:crumbling infrastructure and depleting resources:• 70% of India’s irrigation needs and 80% of its domestic water suppliescome from groundwater. Average water consumption around the worldis about 53 liters per head per day. In India, we expect to soon haveonly about 20.• We have had droughts for a long time, and now with global climatechange, things will become even more difficult. The glaciers arereceding from the Himalayan Mountains. They are about one fifth thesize they were about 60 years ago.• The waters from the Himalayan glaciers provide water for about 70percent of all the people in Asia. In India, we have three major rivers -the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra – and it is likely that they willdrain to small rivers. In most of northern India, there will be no wateraccording to some leading water experts.• The flood area has increased from 25 million hectares to 60 millionhectares in the last 30 years. That is an indication that the water isdraining away, and these will become dry areas. This is expected tohappen in less than 30 years.
IssuesIssuesInadequate storage capacity:Inadequate storage capacity:Developed, arid countries (United States,Developed, arid countries (United States,Australia) have built over 5000 cubic metres ofAustralia) have built over 5000 cubic metres ofwater storage per capita. Middle-incomewater storage per capita. Middle-incomecountries like South Africa, Mexico, Morocco andcountries like South Africa, Mexico, Morocco andChina can store about 1000 cubic metres perChina can store about 1000 cubic metres percapita. India’s dams can store only 200 cubiccapita. India’s dams can store only 200 cubicmetres per person. India can store only about 30metres per person. India can store only about 30days of rainfall, compared to 900 days in majordays of rainfall, compared to 900 days in majorriver basins in arid areas of developed countries.river basins in arid areas of developed countries.
IssuesIssuesAquifer Depletion:Aquifer Depletion:Already about 15% of India’s food is beingproduced using non-renewable, “mined”, groundwater. There is clearly an urgent need for action.First, India needs a lot more water infrastructure.Compared to other semi-arid countries, India canstore relatively small quantities of its ficklerainfall. New infrastructure needs to be built,from large multipurpose water projects to smallcommunity watershed management andrainwater harvesting projects.
The presence of coliformsuggests that the water is beingcontaminated with the fecalmaterial of humans, livestocks,pets and other animals. RiversYamuna, Ganga, Gomti,Ghaggar, Chambal, Mahi, Vardhaare amongst the other mostcoliform polluted water bodies inIndia. The Mithi River, which flowsthrough the city of Mumbai, isheavily polluted.The levels ofBOD are severe near the citiesand major towns. In rural parts ofIndia, the river BOD levels weresufficient to support aquatic life.
Collecting plastic bags fromdumping ground, river side,ponds is a general scene.SOLID WASTE IS OF GREATCONCERNTO OUR ENVIRONMENT ANDSPECIALLY SEWERAGESYSTEM.
22222005-Floods-in-Mumbai-massive floodclaimed at least 5,000 lives in thecommercial capital of India. A rainfallof 994 mm for 24 hours lashed thecityPATANA-38 KILLED &1.86MILLION PEOPLE AFFECTED THISYEAR-2011
2424• It is observed that a minimum and maximum percapitawater supply figure is reported for Kerala state as 12 lpcdand 372 lpcd.• It has been assessed that the Unaccounted for water(UFW) through leakage and wastage in Indian citiesranges anywhere between (20-40%) and more than80% of this occurs in the distribution system andconsumer ends.• Filter back wash water samples from many of thewater treatment plants were collected and analyzed. Itcan be seen that some of the samples have rather highBOD. The quantity of filter backwash water is normallyabout 5%. It can easily be recycled to the inlet ofwater treatment plant, as about 20 times dilutionwould be available at the inlet. This is being practicedat Peddapur water treatment plant, Hyderabad.
CHOICE OF WATER SOURCE FOR DRINKING WATERTREATMENT PROCESS-Is water sources reducing?EXCELLENTSOURCEGOODSOURCEPOORSOURCEREJECTABLESOURCEAVERAGEBOD(5DAYS)(mg/L)0.75 TO 1.5 1.5TO 2.52.5 TO 4 >4AVERAGECOLIFORM,MOSTPROBABLENUMBER(MNP)(PER 100ml.)50 TO 100 100TO50005000TO20000>20000pH 6 TO 8.5 5 TO 6 &8.5 TO 93.8 TO 5 &9 TO 10.3<3.8>10.3CLORIDES (mg/L) <50 50 TO 250 250 TO600>600FLORIDES (mg/L) <1.5 1.5 TO 3 >3 -
2828* An estimated 14652 MLD sewage is generated from 112Class I cities having STPs. The combined treatment capacity ofthe STPs in these Class I cities is 6047 MLD. Therefore, acapacity gap of 8605 MLD exists in 112 Class I cities havingSTPs.* An estimated 143 MLD sewage is generated from 22 Class IItowns having STPs whereas the combined treatment capacity ofthe STPs in these 22 Class II towns is 234 MLD.* There remain 302 Class I cities and 467 Class II townshaving no sewage treatment facilities. An estimated 11512 MLDsewage is generated from 302 Class I cities not having STPs and2822 MLD sewage is generated from 467 Class II towns nothaving STPs.ARE WE SATISFIED WITH PACE OFDEVELOPMENTWE HAVE ACHIEVED TODAY IN INDIA INSEWERAGE SECTOR?
• 4861 out of the 5161 cities/towns in India do not haveeven a partial sewerage network.• Almost 50 per cent of households in cities like Bangaloreand Hyderabad do not have sewerage connections• About 18 per cent of urban households do not haveaccess to any form of latrine facility and defecate in theopen• Less than 20 per cent of the road network is covered bystorm water drains –– MoUD, Government of India(2010b)• Only 21 per cent of the waste water generated istreated, compared with 57 per cent in South Africa ––MoUD, Government of India (2010b) –– IBNET (2009)• Of the 79 sewage treatment plants under stateownership reviewed in 2007, 46 were operating undervery poor conditions –– CII and CEEW (2010)
5.Water Diseases & our concern.S.No. Category Description Example Diseases1. Water-borne Enteric infectionSpread through fecalcontamination ofwaterTyphoid, campylobacter,Giardiasis, cryptosporidium,cholera, enterohemorraghic &enterotoxigenic E Coli, norovirus,etc.2. Water- washed Infections that spreadin communities thathave insufficientwater for personalhygieneTrachoma, scabies, shigella3. Water- based Diseases wherecausative organismrequires part of lifecycle to be spent inwaterSchistosomiasis, dracunculosis4. Water- related Vector borne diseaseswhere insect vectorrequires access towaterMalaria, onchocerciasis,trapanosomiasisClassification of Water - DiseasesClassification of Water - Diseases5
66.Urban Population increase,Where we stand?• India’s population at 00.00 hours of 1st March, 2011 is1,21,01,93,422 consisting of 62,37,24,248 males and58,64,69,174 females.• Population of Madhya Pradesh is 7,25,97,565 comprising3,76,12,920 males and 3,49,84,645 females, contributing 6percent to India’s total population.• In terms of population size, the state has moved up to 6th rankin this census from its 7th position in Census 2001.Census 2011 covered 35 States/UnionTerritories, 640 districts, 5,924 sub-districts(tahsil),7,935 Towns and 6,40,867 Villages.
•In 2000, world population reached 6.1 billion, and is growing at anannual rate of 1.2 per cent, or 77 million people per year.•In 1950, 68% of the world’s population was in developing countries,with 8% in least developed countries.Urbanization: Facts and FiguresGlobal Facts and Figures•In 1800, only 2% of the world’s population was urbanized•In 1950, only 30% of the world population was urban.•In 2000, 47%. of the world population was urban•By 2030, it is expected that 60% of the world population will live inurban areas.•Almost 180,000 people are added to the urban population each day•It is estimated that there are almost a billion poor people in theworld, of this over 750 million live in urban areas without adequateshelter and basic services.
Urban Agglomerations, or More Mega Cities•In 1950, there was only one city with a population of over 10 million inhabitants: NewYork City.•By 2015, it is expected that there will be 23 cities with a population over 10 million.•Of the 23 cities expected to reach 10 million plus by 2015, 19 of them will be indeveloping countries.•In 2000 there were 22 cities with a population of between 5 and 10 million; there were402 cities with a population of 1 to 5 million; and 433 cities in the .5 to 1 millioncategory.
No more than 300 of the countrys 7935 cities(INCREASE 0F 2774CENSUS TOWNS IN 2011) and towns have sewer systems, andmany of those systems do not have treatment plants. The bulk ofmunicipal sewage flows untreated into rivers, lakes or the sea.GLOBAL POPULATION-----6,962,900,000 (100 %)• INDIA’S POPULATION-----1,210,193,422 (17.38%)•DURING 1990-2000 GLOBLE POPULATION INCREASED BY 15% (5.226 TO 6.055 BILLION)• IN LAST DECADE INCREASE IN URBAN POPULATION - 27.5 %.• WHILE RURAL POPULATION INCREASE IS ONLY - 8 %FACT FILE• INDIA POPULATION Total :1,210,193,422-Census reveals that 17.38% of the world is Indian• Rural: 833,087,662 68.84%• Urban: 377,105,760 31.16%All Towns: MADHYA PRADESH•Census 2001 394•Census 2011 476Increase: 82
3636India:For the first time since Independence, the absolute increase inpopulation is more in urban areas that in rural areas• Rural – Urban distribution: 68.84% & 31.16%• Level of urbanization increased from 27.81% in 2001 Census to31.16% in 2011 Census• The proportion of rural population declined from 72.19% to 68.84%Indias Total Population 121 Crores.Daily Death - 62389Daily Birth - 86853Census reveals that 17.38% of the world is Indian
77.What is wetland & Ramsarconvention? A wetland is an area of water saturated with water eitherpermanently or seasonally. Wetlands are categorized bytheir characteristic vegetation, which is adapted to theseunique soil conditions. The water found in wetlands can besaltwater, freshwater, or brackish. Wetlands includeswamps, marshes, and bogs, among others. Ramsar Convention: In Ramsar city(in MazandaranProvince) in Iran international wetland conservation treaty,an international agreement signed on 2ndFeb.1971 by 160countries and this day is observed as Wetland Day.
Wetlands are defined as follows:Wetlands are defined as follows: Article 1.1: "...wetlands are areas of marsh, fen,Article 1.1: "...wetlands are areas of marsh, fen, peat landpeat landor water, whether natural or artificial, permanent oror water, whether natural or artificial, permanent ortemporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh,temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh,brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depthbrackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depthof which at low tide does not exceed six metres."of which at low tide does not exceed six metres." Article 2.1: "[Wetlands] may incorporate riparian andArticle 2.1: "[Wetlands] may incorporate riparian andcoastal zones adjacent to the wetlands, and islands orcoastal zones adjacent to the wetlands, and islands orbodies of marine water deeper than six meters at low tidebodies of marine water deeper than six meters at low tidelying within the wetlands".lying within the wetlands".What is wetland & Ramsar Convention?What is wetland & Ramsar Convention?The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance nowincludes 1,950 sites (known as Ramsar Sites) coveringaround 1,900,000 km2(730,000 sq mi),
Ashtamudi Wetland. 19/08/02. Kerala. 61,400 ha. 08°57N 076°35E(Ramsar site no.Ashtamudi Wetland. 19/08/02. Kerala. 61,400 ha. 08°57N 076°35E(Ramsar site no.1204.)1204.)BhitarkanikaMangroves.19/08/02.Orissa.65,000 ha. 20°39N 086°54E.(Ramsar siteBhitarkanikaMangroves.19/08/02.Orissa.65,000 ha. 20°39N 086°54E.(Ramsar siteno.1205.)no.1205.)Bhoj Wetland. 19/08/02. Madhya Pradesh. 3,201 ha. 23°14N 077°20E.(Ramsar site no.1206.)(Ramsar site no.1206.)Chilika Lake. 01/10/81; Orissa; 116,500 ha; 19º42N 085º21E.(Ramsar site no. 229. )Chilika Lake. 01/10/81; Orissa; 116,500 ha; 19º42N 085º21E.(Ramsar site no. 229. )Deepor Beel. 19/08/02. Assam. 4,000 ha. 26°08N 091°39E.(Ramsar site no. 1207.)Deepor Beel. 19/08/02. Assam. 4,000 ha. 26°08N 091°39E.(Ramsar site no. 1207.)East Calcutta Wetlands.19/08/02.West Bengal.12,500 ha. 22°27N 088°27E.(RamsarEast Calcutta Wetlands.19/08/02.West Bengal.12,500 ha. 22°27N 088°27E.(Ramsarsite no.1208.)site no.1208.)Harike Lake. 23/03/90; Punjab; 4,100 ha; 31º13’N 075º12’E. (Ramsar site no. 462.)Harike Lake. 23/03/90; Punjab; 4,100 ha; 31º13’N 075º12’E. (Ramsar site no. 462.)Kanjli. 22/01/02;. Punjab; 183 ha; 31°25N 075°22E(Ramsar site no. 1160.)Kanjli. 22/01/02;. Punjab; 183 ha; 31°25N 075°22E(Ramsar site no. 1160.)Keoladeo National Park. 01/10/81; Rajasthan; 2,873 ha; 27º13’N 077º32’E.Keoladeo National Park. 01/10/81; Rajasthan; 2,873 ha; 27º13’N 077º32’E.Wetland Sites in IndiaWetland Sites in IndiaIndia presently has 19+6 sites designated as Wetlands ofInternational Importance, with a surface area of 648,507hectares.
Salient Features of Upper & Lower LakesUPPER LAKE V/S LOWER LAKEITEM UPPER LAKE LOWER LAKEYear of construction 11THCentury AD In 1794 ADType of dam Earthen dam Earthen damLocation Latitude –Longitude -23°12 – 23°16 N77°18 – 77°23 E23º 14 --- 23º16N77º 24 --- 77º 25 ECatchment’s area 361 sq. km. 9.6 Sq. Km.Submergence area at FTL 31 sq. km 1.287 Sq. Km.No. of inflow points 14 28Main source of inflow Raiin water Rain water during rains,Seepage from the Upper Lakeand domestic sewageStorage Capacity 117 3.5 MCM.Sewage inflow (average Peak flow) 18 MLD About 50 MLDMain use of water Potable Washing of clothes, boatingShore line 59 km. 6.15 Km.Maximum length 1.615 Km.Maximum width 0.954 Km.Maximum depth 9.4 m.Elevation of top of waste weir 499.88 m.Water level of lower lake 499.88 m.11.7 m.13.918.48508.05504.383101.60Full tank levelElevation of top of spillway/wasteweir
Problems of LakesDhobighatBathingInflow of untreated sewageDebries due to idol emersionTrapa cultivation & boating
COMPLETED SUB PROJECTS• 1 Deep. & Widening of Spill Channel• 2 Restoration of Takia Island• 3 Desilting & Dredging• 4 Afforestation• 5 Catchment Area Treatment• 6 Solid Waste Management• 7 Link Road from Retghat to Lalghati• 8 Lake View Promenade• 9 Biological Control thru’Aquaculture• 10 Deweeding• 11 Installation of Floating Fountains• 12 Fringe Area Protection• 13 Prevention of Pollution (Sewerage)Scheme & Garland Drain• 14 Prevention of Pollution fromDhobighats• 15 Const. Of Bhadbhada bridge• 16 Interpretation CentreCONTINIOUS SUB PROJECTS•17 Water Quality Monitoring•18 Public Awareness &ParticipationProject worksProject works (16+2)
• Sewerage system is an intricate Civil Engineering workwhich is designed for two extreme conditions of minimumflow in the initial range of population and maximum flowfor design period loads .• Sewerage scheme is designed only for DWF i.e. designedas separate system and not as combined system forTechno-economic reasons .• In case of combined system we shall have to spend 3.5times more for collection and transmission of sewage andthen also due to dilution of sewage , mal function of STP.• A Sewerage System is technically viable if per capita watersupply in the area is least 135 lpcd and water suppliedthrough house connections.4545Must Consider following Points:
• Sewerage System is financially viable if the area hasreasonable population density.• In case sewer connections are not done for a longer periodwithout any flow , the assets created may become nonfunctional. In any sewerage system waste water is to becollected from house holds in sewer lines and thereforemost important component of the system is sewerconnections to function the total sewerage system4646Must Consider following Points(2/2):• Works on PPP-success models.• Water Leaks & losses need to be tackled.• 24x7 water supply in all cities based on pilot projects• Water audit• Rehab to existing water systems
FOR TIME AND ATTENTION GIVENphadke_sg@yahoo.comTel.-R-0755-2499282 Mob. 98262-64526