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Water application methods (part – ii)


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water resource engineering-I

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Water application methods (part – ii)

  1. 1. Water W t application li ti methods (Part – II) WRE – I UNIT- VIProfP f S S JAHAGIRDARBE (CIVIL), ME(ENV.),PhD(persuing)NK Orchid college of Engg and Tech , Solapur Engg. Tech.
  2. 2. ContentsDrip irrigationSprinkler irrigation
  3. 3. 1] Drip irrigationAlso known as trickle irrigationDrip irrigation refers toapplication of water i small li ti f t in llquantity at the rate of mostly lessthan 12 Lit/hr as drops to thezone of the plants through a f h l h hnetwork of plastic pipes fittedwith emitters.
  4. 4. Componentsi) HEAD EQUIPMENTS a. Water source - Subsurface tank b f k b. Pump - Suction, monoblock pump, delivery non return valve, gate valve c. Filt station - S d filter, screen Filter t ti Sand filt filter, manifold and pressure gauge d. Fertiliser application - Fertiliser tank and ventury assembly
  5. 5. ii) DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMe. Conveyance line - Main line sub line,main, laterals, minor tubes and end caps.f. Drippers - Pf D i Pressure corresponding didrippers. g. Valves - Non-return valve (NRV), Ballvalves,valves Air release valve (ARV), flush (ARV)valvesh.h Water meter - If necessary f
  6. 6. Sand filter Types of Filters SCREEN FILTER
  7. 7. Accessories
  8. 8. MERITS1. Increased water use efficiency2. Better crop yield3. U if3 Uniform and b tt quality of d better lit fthe crops p4. Efficient and economic use orfertilizer through fertigation5. L Less weed growth d th
  9. 9. 6. Minimum damage to the soilstructure77. Avoidance of leaf burn due tosaline soil8. U8 Usage i undulating areas and l in d l ti d lessppermeable soil9. Labour saving10. High uniformity suitable forautomization11. No over irrigation
  10. 10. 11. Nutrients preservation p12. No soil erosion13. Suitable for any topography.14. Increase in net irrigable area15. Cultivation of cash crops l f h16. Variation in application 6 V i ti i li tirate.rate
  11. 11. DEMERITS1. Clogging of d i l i f drippers2. Ch i l precipitation Chemical i it ti3.3 Salt accumulation at wettingfront
  12. 12. 1] Sprinkler irrigationIn the sprinkler method of irrigation irrigation,water is sprayed into the air andallowed to f ll on the ground surface ll d fall h d fsomewhat resembling rainfall. The gspray is developed by the flow ofwater under pressure through smallorifices or nozzles. The pressure isusually obtained by pumping.
  13. 13. Advantages of sprinkler irrigationElimination of the channels for conveyance,therefore no conveyance loss Suitable to all types of soil except heavy clay Suitable for irrigating crops where the plantpopulation per unit area i very hi h It i most l ti it is high. is tsuitable for oil seeds and vegetable crops Water saving Closer control of water application ppconvenient for giving light and frequentirrigation andhigher water application efficiency
  14. 14. Increase in yield Mobility of system May also be used for undulating area Saves land as no bunds etc. are required Areas located at a higher elevation thanthe source can be irrigated Possibility of using soluble fertilizers andchemicals Less problem of clogging of sprinklernozzles due to sediment laden water
  15. 15. Traveling Volume Gun Sprinkler Irrigating from Lagoon g
  16. 16. Portable Solid-Set Sprinkler System Solid-
  17. 17. Fairway Runoff Research Plots at OSU Turf Research Farm
  18. 18. Side-Side-Roll Sprinkler Lateral in Peanuts
  19. 19. Center Pivot System with Spray Pad Sprinklers
  20. 20. Components(i) A pump unit(ii) Tubings - main/ sub mains and laterals l t l( )(iii) Couplers p(iv) Sprinkler head(v) O h( ) Other accessories such as valves, i h l bends, plugs and risers.
  21. 21. Constraints in application of sprinkler irrigation (Demerits)(i)( ) Uneven water distribution due to high winds.(ii) E Evaporation l ti loss when operating h ti under high temperatures. g p(iii) Highly impermeable soils are not suitable. it bl(iv) Initial cost is high.
  22. 22. No wind Elongated parallel pattern
  23. 23. (viii) More water requirement as compared to drip irrigation. d d i i i i(ix) High water pressure required in sprinkler (>2.5 kg/cm 2).(x) Difficulty in irrigation during wind in sprinkler . i di i kl
  25. 25. •Write detailed note on drip irrigation. Alsodraw layout of drip irrigation system showingdifferent components. (Nov (N 2008 N 2007 8 marks, M 2007 N Nov 2007,8 k May Nov2006 ,10 marks)•Write detailed note on Sprinkler method ofirrigation. Also draw layout of sprinklerirrigation system showing different components.(May 2006 ,8 marks)•Draw and discuss layout of a drip irrigationsystem with its suitability suitability.(Nov 2009, 6 marks)
  26. 26. •Discuss the drip irrigation and sprinklerirrigation methods with their suitability suitability.(May 2009, 7 marks)•Discuss the sprinkler irrigation system indetails with layout, advantages, limitationsand suitability.(May 2010,(M 2010 7 marks) k)•Discuss the sprinkler irrigation system in p g ydetails with their advantages anddisadvantages.disadvantages (Nov 2010, 8 marks)