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Armand V.
Feigenbaum
An Introduction
 1922- Armand Feigenbaum was born in 6 April 1922.
 1937- He is a General Electric (GE) as an apprentice
toolmaker and management intern with the turbine, engine
and transformer group.
 1938- He entered Union College in Schenectady, NY to
study engineering while continuing his work at GE. His
coursework focused on mathematics, statistics, engineering
and economics.
 1942-1943- When he graduated , he joined GE as a full-
time design engineer. Later in 1943, he was named manager
of quality control for the Schenectady Works plant in New
York at 23 years old. He went on to graduate school at the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and was later
promoted to GE’s corporate headquarters in New York City
to serve as the executive champion for quality.
 1951- Feigenbaum's ideas are contained in his now famous
book Total Quality Control, first published in 1951 under
the title Quality Control: Principles, Practice, and
Administration, and based on his earlier articles and
program installations in the field. The book has been
translated into more than a score of languages, including
Japanese, Chinese, French, and Spanish.
 1961-1963 - His contributions to the quality body of
knowledge include:
Total quality control
The concept of a "hidden" plant
Accountability for quality
 1968- After years of working for GE Feigenbaum
established General Systems Co. (GSC) to further
research technology management (Watson). GSC is an
engineering firm that designs and installs operational
systems for corporations in the U.S., Europe, the Far
East, and Latin America.
 1988- appointed by the Secretary of Commerce in
Washington, D.C. to the first Board of Overseers of
the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award
Program.
 1992- elected to the National Academy of Engineering
of the United States.
 1993- Fellow of the World Academy of Productivity
Science, and awarded the Distinguished Leadership
Award by the Quality & Productivity Management
Association
 1996- he was the first recipient of the
Ishikawa/Harrington Medal by the Asia-Pacific
Quality Organization for “outstanding leadership in
management excellence in the Asia-Pacific region.”
 1997- the Quebec Society for Quality established the
Feigenbaum Medal, which recognizes leadership as a
source of quality progress in Quebec society.
 1998- designated Honorary Member of FUNDECE
(Fundacion Empresaria Para La Calidad y La
Excelencia) and the American Society for Quality
established the Feigenbaum Medal to be granted
annually for excellence in performance.
 2006- awarded the Six Sigma Grand Master Medal by
the Walter L. Hurd Foundation.
Hiscontributionsto thequality body of
knowledge
 Total quality control
 Hidden plant
 Accountability for quality
 The concept of Quality Cost.
01/13/17
Total Quality Control
Armand V. Feigenbaum defined
Total Quality Control as:
“ Total quality control is an effective
system for integrating the quality
development, quality maintenance, and
quality improvement efforts of the various
groups in an organization so as to enable
production and service at the most
economical levels which allow full
customer satisfaction.”
9
Quality Control- As a
concept
 Quality control is management’s responsibility.
 Management should thoroughly understand
the aspects that control quality, namely
humans.
 Therefore, management needs to work on
improving employee consistency and quality.
 According to Feigenbaum, statistical tools
make up a very small percentage of the
quality control program.
 According to Feigenbaum, quality did not
mean giving the best product to the
customer.
 More important as a tool was control, which
focuses on the following:
 1. Devising clear and achievable quality
standards
 2. Enhancing existing working conditions to
reach the desired quality standards.
 3. Setting new quality standards with an
aim to further improve.
Quality- Holistic Approach
 According to him, quality must encompass all the
phases in the manufacturing of a product. This
includes design, manufacturing, quality checks,
sales, after-sales services, and customer satisfaction
when the product is delivered to the customer.
 Given that these factors control the perception of
quality, he proposed controls to control the above-
mentioned phases.
 New-design control
 Incoming material control
 Product control
 Special process studies.
Feigenbaum’s 3 Step Process
 Quality Leadership-motivating force for
quality improvement
 Quality Technology -statistics and
machinery used to improve technology
 Organizational Commitment -includes
everyone in the quality struggle
Feigenbaum’s Ten Benchmarks
of Total Quality Control
 Quality is a company wide process
 Quality is what customer says it is
 Quality and costs are a sum not a difference
 Quality requires both individual and teamwork 
 Quality is a way of managing
 Quality and innovation are mutually dependant
 Quality is an ethic
 Quality requires continuous improvement
 Quality is most cost-effective
 Quality is implemented with a total system connected with
costumers and suppliers.
Feigenbaum’s 4 Deadly Sins
Hot House Quality 
 Quality programs that receive a lot of hoopla and
no follow-through
 Wishful Thinking-Those who would pursue
protectionism to keep American firms from having
to compete on quality
 Producing Overseas
 Confining Quality to the Factory- 
 When quality is viewed as a shop-floor concern,
verses the responsibility of everyone
Feigenbaum’s 19 Steps
 Total quality control is defined as a system
for improvement.
 Big Q quality (company-wide commitment to TQC)
is more important than little q quality (improvements
on the production line)
 Control is a management tool with four steps
 Quality control requires integration of
uncoordinated activities
 Quality increases profits
 Quality is expected, not desired
 Humans affect quality
Continued..
 TQC applies to all products and services
 Quality is a total life-cycle consideration
 Control the process
 Total quality system involves the entire company-
wide operating work structure
 There are many operating and financial benefits of
quality
 The costs of quality are a means
for measuring quality control activities
Continued..
 
 Organize for quality control
 Managers are quality facilitators, not quality cops
 Strive for continuous commitment
 Use statistical tools
 Automation is not a panacea
 Control quality at the source.
Hidden Plant
Every factory a certain
proportion of its
capacity is wasted
through not getting it
right first time
Up to 40% of the
capacity of the plant
being wasted.
Even today some
managers are still to
learn that this is a figure
not too far removed
from the truth
“Quality does not travel under a
single passport.”
 “Murphy's Law, internationalized, says that if
you can get foreign competition, you will.” 
 “Even if you don't have any foreign competition
or don't have any interest in export today, you
need to quickly develop and offer your products
and services as if you were getting some.”
 “We will be facing many new Japans.”
“Quality is what Customer says it is”
01/13/17
Accountability for quality
“ Quality is everybody’s job”
 This concept is intended to be about establishing
accountability for quality.
 Because quality is everybody’s job, it may become
nobody’s job.
 The idea is that quality must be actively managed and
have visibility at the highest levels of management.  
Concept of Quality cost
 It’s a term that’s widely used – and widely
misunderstood.
 The “cost of quality” isn’t the price of creating a quality
product or service. It’s the cost of NOT creating a
quality product or service.
 Every time work is redone, the cost of quality increases.
 Obvious examples include:
-reworking of a manufactured item.
-retesting of an assembly
-rebuilding of a tool
-correction of a bank statement
-The reworking of a service, such as the
reprocessing of a loan operation or the
replacement of a food order in a restaurant
01/13/17
Three different views held by the management
professionals about Cost of Quality
 Higher quality means higher cost
 The cost of improving quality is less than the
resultant savings
 Quality costs are those incurred in excess of
those that would have been incurred if
product were built or service performed
exactly right the first time
01/13/17
Categorization of Quality
Costs
The cost of quality is generally classified into four
categories:
1. External Failure Cost
2. Internal Failure Cost
3. Inspection (appraisal) Cost
4. Prevention Cost
01/13/17
1. External Failure Cost: Cost associated with
defects found after the customer receives the
product or service. Example: Processing
customer complaints, customer returns,
warranty claims, product recalls.
2. Internal Failure Cost: Cost associated with
defects found before the customer receives
the product or service. Example: Scrap,
rework, re-inspection, re-testing, material
review, material downgrades
01/13/17
3. Inspection (appraisal) Cost: Cost incurred to
determine the degree of conformance to quality
requirements (measuring, evaluating or auditing).   
Example: Inspection, testing, process or service
audits, calibration of measuring and test equipment.
4. Prevention Cost: Cost incurred to prevent (keep
failure and appraisal cost to a minimum) poor
quality.  Example: New product review, quality
planning, supplier surveys, process reviews, quality
improvement teams, education and training.
01/13/17
Awards and Recognisation
 First recipient of ASQ's Lancaster Award
 ASQ 1965 Edwards Medal in recognition of "his
origination and implementation of basic
foundations for modern quality control"
 National Security Industrial Association Award of
Merit
 Member of the Advisory Group of the U.S. Army
 Chairman of a system-wide evaluation of quality
assurance activities of the Army Materiel
Command
 Consultant with the Industrial College of the
Armed Forces
01/13/17
 Union College Founders Medal
 Fellow of the American Association for the
Advancement of Science
 Life member of the Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers
 Life member of the American Society of
Mechanical Engineers
 Life member of Plymouth Society of Marine
Biology
01/13/17
 Dr.Feigenbaum is a member of many
professional societies. He is a Life Member
ofboth the American Society of Mechanical
Engineers and the Institute ofElectrical and
Electronic Engineers.
 He is Honor Advisor to China’s Associationfor
Quality, and Honorary Member of the Argentine
Institute for Quality.
 He is a member of the National Society of
Professional Engineers, the AmericanEconomics
Association, the Institute of Mathematical
Statistics, the Academy ofPolitical and Social
Sciences, and the Industrial Relations
ResearchAssociation
01/13/17
 He is a Fellow of both the American Association for
theAdvancement of Science and the American
Society for Quality. He has for manyyears been a
registered professional engineer and active in
engineeringaffairs. 
01/13/17
Bibliography
 Feigenbaum, A V (1945), Quality control: principles,
practice and administration; an industrial
management tool for improving product quality and
design and for reducing operating costs and losses
 Feigenbaum, Armand Vallin (1961), Total Quality
Control
 Feigenbaum, A V; Feigenbaum, Donald S (2003), 
The power of management capital : utilizing the new drivers o
01/13/17
 Feigenbaum, A V; Feigenbaum, Donald S (2009), 
The power of management innovation : 24 keys for sustaining
01/13/17

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feigenbaum

  • 3.  1922- Armand Feigenbaum was born in 6 April 1922.  1937- He is a General Electric (GE) as an apprentice toolmaker and management intern with the turbine, engine and transformer group.  1938- He entered Union College in Schenectady, NY to study engineering while continuing his work at GE. His coursework focused on mathematics, statistics, engineering and economics.  1942-1943- When he graduated , he joined GE as a full- time design engineer. Later in 1943, he was named manager of quality control for the Schenectady Works plant in New York at 23 years old. He went on to graduate school at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and was later promoted to GE’s corporate headquarters in New York City to serve as the executive champion for quality.
  • 4.  1951- Feigenbaum's ideas are contained in his now famous book Total Quality Control, first published in 1951 under the title Quality Control: Principles, Practice, and Administration, and based on his earlier articles and program installations in the field. The book has been translated into more than a score of languages, including Japanese, Chinese, French, and Spanish.  1961-1963 - His contributions to the quality body of knowledge include: Total quality control The concept of a "hidden" plant Accountability for quality
  • 5.  1968- After years of working for GE Feigenbaum established General Systems Co. (GSC) to further research technology management (Watson). GSC is an engineering firm that designs and installs operational systems for corporations in the U.S., Europe, the Far East, and Latin America.  1988- appointed by the Secretary of Commerce in Washington, D.C. to the first Board of Overseers of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Program.  1992- elected to the National Academy of Engineering of the United States.
  • 6.  1993- Fellow of the World Academy of Productivity Science, and awarded the Distinguished Leadership Award by the Quality & Productivity Management Association  1996- he was the first recipient of the Ishikawa/Harrington Medal by the Asia-Pacific Quality Organization for “outstanding leadership in management excellence in the Asia-Pacific region.”
  • 7.  1997- the Quebec Society for Quality established the Feigenbaum Medal, which recognizes leadership as a source of quality progress in Quebec society.  1998- designated Honorary Member of FUNDECE (Fundacion Empresaria Para La Calidad y La Excelencia) and the American Society for Quality established the Feigenbaum Medal to be granted annually for excellence in performance.  2006- awarded the Six Sigma Grand Master Medal by the Walter L. Hurd Foundation.
  • 8. Hiscontributionsto thequality body of knowledge  Total quality control  Hidden plant  Accountability for quality  The concept of Quality Cost. 01/13/17
  • 9. Total Quality Control Armand V. Feigenbaum defined Total Quality Control as: “ Total quality control is an effective system for integrating the quality development, quality maintenance, and quality improvement efforts of the various groups in an organization so as to enable production and service at the most economical levels which allow full customer satisfaction.” 9
  • 10. Quality Control- As a concept  Quality control is management’s responsibility.  Management should thoroughly understand the aspects that control quality, namely humans.  Therefore, management needs to work on improving employee consistency and quality.  According to Feigenbaum, statistical tools make up a very small percentage of the quality control program.
  • 11.  According to Feigenbaum, quality did not mean giving the best product to the customer.  More important as a tool was control, which focuses on the following:  1. Devising clear and achievable quality standards  2. Enhancing existing working conditions to reach the desired quality standards.  3. Setting new quality standards with an aim to further improve.
  • 12. Quality- Holistic Approach  According to him, quality must encompass all the phases in the manufacturing of a product. This includes design, manufacturing, quality checks, sales, after-sales services, and customer satisfaction when the product is delivered to the customer.  Given that these factors control the perception of quality, he proposed controls to control the above- mentioned phases.  New-design control  Incoming material control  Product control  Special process studies.
  • 13. Feigenbaum’s 3 Step Process  Quality Leadership-motivating force for quality improvement  Quality Technology -statistics and machinery used to improve technology  Organizational Commitment -includes everyone in the quality struggle
  • 14. Feigenbaum’s Ten Benchmarks of Total Quality Control  Quality is a company wide process  Quality is what customer says it is  Quality and costs are a sum not a difference  Quality requires both individual and teamwork   Quality is a way of managing  Quality and innovation are mutually dependant  Quality is an ethic  Quality requires continuous improvement  Quality is most cost-effective  Quality is implemented with a total system connected with costumers and suppliers.
  • 15. Feigenbaum’s 4 Deadly Sins Hot House Quality   Quality programs that receive a lot of hoopla and no follow-through  Wishful Thinking-Those who would pursue protectionism to keep American firms from having to compete on quality  Producing Overseas  Confining Quality to the Factory-   When quality is viewed as a shop-floor concern, verses the responsibility of everyone
  • 16. Feigenbaum’s 19 Steps  Total quality control is defined as a system for improvement.  Big Q quality (company-wide commitment to TQC) is more important than little q quality (improvements on the production line)  Control is a management tool with four steps  Quality control requires integration of uncoordinated activities  Quality increases profits  Quality is expected, not desired  Humans affect quality
  • 17. Continued..  TQC applies to all products and services  Quality is a total life-cycle consideration  Control the process  Total quality system involves the entire company- wide operating work structure  There are many operating and financial benefits of quality  The costs of quality are a means for measuring quality control activities
  • 18. Continued..    Organize for quality control  Managers are quality facilitators, not quality cops  Strive for continuous commitment  Use statistical tools  Automation is not a panacea  Control quality at the source.
  • 19. Hidden Plant Every factory a certain proportion of its capacity is wasted through not getting it right first time Up to 40% of the capacity of the plant being wasted. Even today some managers are still to learn that this is a figure not too far removed from the truth
  • 20. “Quality does not travel under a single passport.”  “Murphy's Law, internationalized, says that if you can get foreign competition, you will.”   “Even if you don't have any foreign competition or don't have any interest in export today, you need to quickly develop and offer your products and services as if you were getting some.”  “We will be facing many new Japans.” “Quality is what Customer says it is”
  • 21.
  • 23. Accountability for quality “ Quality is everybody’s job”  This concept is intended to be about establishing accountability for quality.  Because quality is everybody’s job, it may become nobody’s job.  The idea is that quality must be actively managed and have visibility at the highest levels of management.  
  • 24. Concept of Quality cost  It’s a term that’s widely used – and widely misunderstood.  The “cost of quality” isn’t the price of creating a quality product or service. It’s the cost of NOT creating a quality product or service.  Every time work is redone, the cost of quality increases.
  • 25.  Obvious examples include: -reworking of a manufactured item. -retesting of an assembly -rebuilding of a tool -correction of a bank statement -The reworking of a service, such as the reprocessing of a loan operation or the replacement of a food order in a restaurant 01/13/17
  • 26. Three different views held by the management professionals about Cost of Quality  Higher quality means higher cost  The cost of improving quality is less than the resultant savings  Quality costs are those incurred in excess of those that would have been incurred if product were built or service performed exactly right the first time 01/13/17
  • 27. Categorization of Quality Costs The cost of quality is generally classified into four categories: 1. External Failure Cost 2. Internal Failure Cost 3. Inspection (appraisal) Cost 4. Prevention Cost 01/13/17
  • 28. 1. External Failure Cost: Cost associated with defects found after the customer receives the product or service. Example: Processing customer complaints, customer returns, warranty claims, product recalls. 2. Internal Failure Cost: Cost associated with defects found before the customer receives the product or service. Example: Scrap, rework, re-inspection, re-testing, material review, material downgrades 01/13/17
  • 29. 3. Inspection (appraisal) Cost: Cost incurred to determine the degree of conformance to quality requirements (measuring, evaluating or auditing).    Example: Inspection, testing, process or service audits, calibration of measuring and test equipment. 4. Prevention Cost: Cost incurred to prevent (keep failure and appraisal cost to a minimum) poor quality.  Example: New product review, quality planning, supplier surveys, process reviews, quality improvement teams, education and training. 01/13/17
  • 30. Awards and Recognisation  First recipient of ASQ's Lancaster Award  ASQ 1965 Edwards Medal in recognition of "his origination and implementation of basic foundations for modern quality control"  National Security Industrial Association Award of Merit  Member of the Advisory Group of the U.S. Army  Chairman of a system-wide evaluation of quality assurance activities of the Army Materiel Command  Consultant with the Industrial College of the Armed Forces 01/13/17
  • 31.  Union College Founders Medal  Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science  Life member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers  Life member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers  Life member of Plymouth Society of Marine Biology 01/13/17
  • 32.  Dr.Feigenbaum is a member of many professional societies. He is a Life Member ofboth the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Institute ofElectrical and Electronic Engineers.  He is Honor Advisor to China’s Associationfor Quality, and Honorary Member of the Argentine Institute for Quality.  He is a member of the National Society of Professional Engineers, the AmericanEconomics Association, the Institute of Mathematical Statistics, the Academy ofPolitical and Social Sciences, and the Industrial Relations ResearchAssociation 01/13/17
  • 33.  He is a Fellow of both the American Association for theAdvancement of Science and the American Society for Quality. He has for manyyears been a registered professional engineer and active in engineeringaffairs.  01/13/17
  • 34. Bibliography  Feigenbaum, A V (1945), Quality control: principles, practice and administration; an industrial management tool for improving product quality and design and for reducing operating costs and losses  Feigenbaum, Armand Vallin (1961), Total Quality Control  Feigenbaum, A V; Feigenbaum, Donald S (2003),  The power of management capital : utilizing the new drivers o 01/13/17
  • 35.  Feigenbaum, A V; Feigenbaum, Donald S (2009),  The power of management innovation : 24 keys for sustaining 01/13/17