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Steel building construction

  2. INTRODUCTION • Mild steel is a type of carbon steel with a low amount of carbon – it is actually also known as “low carbon steel.” • The amount of carbon in mild steel is 0.05% to 0.25% by weight, whereas higher carbon steels are typically described as having a carbon content from 0.30% to 2.0%. • Less carbon means that mild steel is more ductile, machinable, and weld able than high carbon and other steels. • Mild steel also has a high amount iron and ferrite, making it magnetic • less tensile strength than high carbon and alloy steels
  3. 3 The process of heat treatment is carried out first by heating the material and then cooling it in the brine, water and oil. The purpose of heat treatment is to soften the metal, to change the grain size, to modify the structure of the material and to relieve the stress set up in the material after hot and cold working.
  4. Manufacturing of mild steel •Direct-reduced iron (DRI), also called sponge iron , is produced from the direct reduction of iron ore (in the form of lumps, pellets, or fines) to iron by a reducing gas or elementary carbon produced from natural gas or coal. •A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals and its alloys, generally iron, but also others such as lead or copper •An electric arc furnace (EAF) is a furnace that heats charged material by means of an electric arc. while blast furnaces cannot vary their production by much and can remain in operation for years at a time, EAFs can be rapidly started and stopped, allowing the steel mill to vary production according to demand.
  5. RECYCLING Steel can be recycled over and over again without losing any of its properties. An interesting fact is that recycling 1 t of steel helps to save 1.8 barrels of oil, 10.9 million Btu's of energy, 642 kWh of energy, and 2.3 m3 of landfill space. Steel recycling can be performed by following some of these steps: Sorting – Magnets can be used to attract the steel away from other materials in a recycling facility
  6. 6 Shredding - Shredders are designed with rotating magnetic drums that extract iron and steel from other metals and materials Media separation- by using electrical currents, high-pressure air flows and liquid floating systems, further separation of steel from other materials can be achieved Shearing - Hydraulic machinery are used to cut thick heavy steel recovered from railways and ships by exerting enormous pressure on the items. Sometimes gas and plasma arch are used Steel is then melted and reshaped before being used in the production of a variety of commodities ranging from bikes and new cans to paper clips.
  7. PROPERTIES OF MILD STEEL • Ductile & malleable • More tough and more elastic than cast iron and wrought iron • More prone to rusting than wrought iron • Corrodes quickly • Easily forged, welded & riveted • Withstands shocks & impacts well • Not much affected by saline water • Equally strong in tension, compression and in shear • Difficult to harden and temper • density7.8 gm/ cubic centimeter • Young's modulus -200Gpa • Compressive strength 250 Mpa • Tensile strength -370Mpa
  8. Characteristics Structural steel differs from concrete in its attributed compressive strength as well as tensile strength. • Strength - Having high strength, stiffness, toughness, and ductile properties, structural steel is one of the most commonly used materials in commercial and industrial building construction. • Constructability - Structural steel can be developed into nearly any shape, which are either bolted or welded together in construction. Structural steel can be erected as soon as the materials are delivered on site, whereas concrete must be cured at least 1–2 weeks after pouring before construction can continue, making steel a schedule-friendly construction material. 8
  9. • Fire resistance - Steel is inherently a noncombustible material. However,when heated to temperatures seen in a fire scenario, the strength and stiffness of the material is significantly reduced. The International Building Code requires steel be enveloped in sufficient fire-resistant materials, increasing overall cost of steel structure buildings • Corrosion - Steel, when in contact with water, can corrode, creating a potentially dangerous structure. Measures must be taken in structural steel construction to prevent any lifetime corrosion. The steel can be painted, providing water resistance. Also, the fire resistance material used to envelope steel is commonly water resistant. • Mold - Steel provides a less suitable surface environment for mold to grow than wood. 9
  10. Advantages of mild steel • Continuous weld can be produced • High level of operation are not required • Less distortion and hardning • Less grain growth • High elastic ratio and endurance stress • Better machine ability at high hardness • Greater ductibility at high stength • Ease of fabrication and speed of construction • Lower in cost • High strength to weight ratio.
  11. Disadvantages of mild steel • Heavy material , installing may not be easy • Weld may contain slag • It rust easily • Cannot made better by heat treatment • Due to its weight difficult to transport • Has a high expansion rate in changing temperatures, can suufer fatigue and cracks and more corrosion • high density • Poor electric and thermal conductivity
  12. Uses of mild steel 12 •Steel frame buildings •Machinery Parts •Cookware •Pipelines •Visually Aesthetic Metal Gate, Fencing etc. Design
  14. sections • Sections are the most common building materials we used in construction work. • There are many types of sections but it can be classified into two parts- 1-load bearing 2-frame sections • Load bearing sections I sections (parallel flanged column) c section (channel section) L section (equal leg angles) I sections c section L section
  15. sections • Framed sections framing sections are those mild steel sections used for framing doors , windows , glass panels . Types of framing sections- • T section -1 –sash bar 2- glazing bar • Mullion –at window frames • Z section- for window shutters
  16. STEEL PLATES Steel plate is a material often used to make products. This steel can be welded, formed, machined, sheared, drilled, sawed, punched bolted and riveted. Mainly used for building ships, bridges, structure for buildings, pressure vessels, industrial machinery and military equipments, nuclear reactors, penstock, etc. SOME MANUFACTURING STEPS: Rolling: • Minimize internal flaw of the plate. • Automatic dimension control. • Reduces thickness deviation. •Accelerated Cooling: • Process of rolling and accelerated cooling. • To produce high tensile steel without any heat treatment. •Hot levelling: • Residual stress is removed. • to provide better flatness of plates. •Ultrasonic testing: • Check for flaws, such as blow holes, cracks, etc. • done to ensure quality.
  17. H SCAFFOLDING Consists of welded frames of two verticals & two horizontals of 48.3 mm OD verticals, braced together with scissor type cross braces secured by spring clips. Bracing is provided in alternate bays for scaffold heights upto 20m and in all bays for greater heights. 'H' frame with 60.3 mm OD. verticals are also available for staging of heavier structures. Available sizes are 2000 x 1250, 1500 x 1250, 1000 x 1250. All other sizes & finishes are also available. Manufactured out of 20mm NB pipe. Suitable for Frame spacing 2.5, 2.0, 1.5 ,1.0 Meters.
  18. JOINT PINS Pins are manufactured from mild steel bars with diameters ranging from 9 to 330 mm. Pin connections are provided when hinged joints are required, i.e., for the connection where zero moment or free rotation is desired. Pins are provided in the following cases: • Tie rod connections in water tanks and elevated bins • As diagonal bracing connections in beams and columns. • Truss bridge girders • Hinged arches • Chain link cables suspension bridges Variouus types of pins used for making the connections are forged steel pin, undrilled pin and drilled pin. To make a pin connection, one end of the bar is forged like a fork and a hole is drilled in this portion. The end of the other bar to be connected is also forged and an eye is made. A hole is drilled in such a way that it matches with the hole on the fork end bar. The eye bar is inserted in the jaws of the fork end and a pin is placed. Both the forged ends are made octagonal for a good grip. The pin in the joint is secured by means of a cotter pin or screw.
  19. APPEARANCE • mild steel (steel containing a small percentage of carbon, strong and tough but not readily tempered), also known as plain- carbon steel and low-carbon steel, is now the most common form of steel because its price is relatively low while it provides material properties that are acceptable for many applications.
  20. FABRICATION & ASSEMBLY • Mild steel is hard in nature , fabrication is difficult ,only possible in large factories • Mild steel could be easily assembled using welding. • Mild steel can also attached by heating and melting method.
  21. HANDLING AND TRANSPORTION • Comes in large sizes upto 12 m ,handling is tougher then aluminium or other material • Mild steel can be sawed , drilled , welded on the site. • Requires heavy machinery for installing load bearing structures
  22. • Casting Based • Extrusion Based • Foil and Powdered Based • Sheet Based Forms of Aluminium
  23. Casting Based • Metal rods • Hardware and fittings • Security and decorative grills
  24. Sheet based • Mild steel sheets Extrusion Based • Doors and Window frames • Space divider and partition
  25. Recycled products • Recycled steel can be used for the same applications as steel produced from virgin material. Products that are made of recycled steel include: • Electrical appliances • Automobiles and other vehicles • Office supplies • Hardware such as bolts, nuts, screws etc. • Construction materials • Cans and containers 25
  26. Mild steel as designing 26
  27. False Ceiling FLAT FALSE CEILING: The use of such ceiling is done in industrial buildings mild steel frames are made to carry the load.
  28. Mild steel fascia  External non-load bearing wall designed to carry its own weight Sufficient strong to carry wind loads  Larger sizes can be produced by using interlocking sections.
  29. Mild steel trusses • A truss is essentially a triangulated system of straight interconnected structural elements. The most common use of trusses is in buildings, where support to roofs, the floors and internal loading such as services and suspended ceilings, are readily provided. The main reasons for using trusses are: • Long span • Lightweight • Reduced deflection • Opportunity to support considerable loads.
  30. 30 •Collapsible Steel Doors It is use in godowns, workshop, public windows and etc. •Rolling Steel Shutter Door The door is raised to open it and lowered to close it. On large doors, the action may be motorized. It provides protection against wind and rain and it is use in mainly in shops. •Mild Steel Sheet Door It is use in godowns, workshop, public windows and etc. It is quite strong Types of mild steel doors
  31. 31 •Corrugated Steel Doors It is same as above doors except it is mady by corrugated steel sheets are welded to shutter frame instead of MI sheets. • Hollow Metal Doors This types of doors look like a wooden door but have more strength and strong compare to wood. It is made by using strong metal sheets.
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  33. 33 Types of aluminiumwindows •Fixed windows A window that cannot be opened, whose function is limited to allowing light to enter. •Sash Window A sash window or hung sash window is made of one or more movable panels or "sashes" that form a frame to hold panes of glass, which are often separated from other panes (or "lights") by narrow muntins • Metal Windows Metal windows, made up of mild steel having lesser cost and more strength
  34. 34 Ventilators Ventilators are small windows, fixed at a greater height than the window, generally about 30 to 50 cm below roof level.