CUSTOMS OF
THE MIDDLEEAST
(Jasmine kaur-2012043
Shreya Kumar-2012100)
What are Customs?
 “A

custom is a cultural idea that describes
a regular, patterned way of appearing or
behaving that is...
Examples…..
Customs for Middle-Eastern
Muslim Women


guided by primary Islamic
sources of law



religious guidelines, preIslamic t...
Kinds of Head Scarves
Religious Life


unusual for women to
worship in mosques



men and women on
opposite sides of
the aisle



men in fron...
Politics


Saudi women given the
right to vote in 2007



Egypt-25 percent reservation
in the constituent assembly



I...
Education


Colonial rule- compulsory
education to a select elite



Post colonial rule: majority of
women still exclude...
Employment


MENA region ranks lowest in
women labour force participation
in the world



Islam- women allowed to work
s...
Property Rights
 Women

do not have to give their premarriage possessions to their husbandsreceive “dower” instead

 All...
Marriage






Marriage is a contractrequires consent of women
Female circumcision - part
of a ritual before marriage...
Inter-Faith Marriages


A Muslim woman cannot marry
a non-Muslim



But Muslim men can marry
Jewish or Christian women

...
Behavior and rights within a
Marriage
A

woman’s space is the private sphere of
the home;
 man’s space is the public sph...
 In

case of death of the husband , wives
get a share of the movable property but
have no right on the immovable property...
Divorce


In Islam, a woman can initiate a divorce in some circumstances-



‘Sharis’ law seek a ‘tafriq’ under certain ...
Movement and Travel
 No

limitations or prohibitions on women’s
travelling alone is mentioned in the Quran
 In some coun...
A Book and Movie based on a
true story….
 (Movie)

The Stoning of Soraya
M. is a 2008 American Persian
language drama
fil...
Famous Books written on true
narratives….


The Princess Trilogy



Princess : A true story of Life Behind the Veil in
S...
Recent Changes
 The

government has
granted women the right
to vote.
 Participation in the local
elections.
 The women ...
Implementations that could
improve the situation


Education of women should be stressed.



The system of male guardian...
Thank You!
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Customs

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This presentation basically gives an insight into middle eastern traditions , laws and customs and at some point questions their relevance and what exactly customs are in a society .

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Customs

  1. 1. CUSTOMS OF THE MIDDLEEAST (Jasmine kaur-2012043 Shreya Kumar-2012100)
  2. 2. What are Customs?  “A custom is a cultural idea that describes a regular, patterned way of appearing or behaving that is considered characteristic of life in a social system.”
  3. 3. Examples…..
  4. 4. Customs for Middle-Eastern Muslim Women  guided by primary Islamic sources of law  religious guidelines, preIslamic traditions  impact on women’s life  dress code of Muslim women
  5. 5. Kinds of Head Scarves
  6. 6. Religious Life  unusual for women to worship in mosques  men and women on opposite sides of the aisle  men in front of women  women in second floor balconies  separate rooms
  7. 7. Politics  Saudi women given the right to vote in 2007  Egypt-25 percent reservation in the constituent assembly  Iraq-25 percent representation in the parliament  Tunisia and Libya- “zippered list model” (Queen Rania Al Abdullah of Jordan)
  8. 8. Education  Colonial rule- compulsory education to a select elite  Post colonial rule: majority of women still excluded from higher education  focus on religious education  In many countries, women must obtain permission from a male guardian for attending university
  9. 9. Employment  MENA region ranks lowest in women labour force participation in the world  Islam- women allowed to work subject to certain circumstances  Limited opportunities- restricted to fields like medicine and teaching  Role of women as mothers and wives is stressed upon
  10. 10. Property Rights  Women do not have to give their premarriage possessions to their husbandsreceive “dower” instead  All their earnings through employment are theirs to keep  Iraq-women cannot own property, inherit less than half of what their brothers do
  11. 11. Marriage      Marriage is a contractrequires consent of women Female circumcision - part of a ritual before marriage Muslim men can indulge in polygamy Endogamy is common in Islamic countries In some regions, child marriages are forced.
  12. 12. Inter-Faith Marriages  A Muslim woman cannot marry a non-Muslim  But Muslim men can marry Jewish or Christian women  A Muslim woman cannot convert her religion  However, a man can leave Islam or convert to another religion
  13. 13. Behavior and rights within a Marriage A woman’s space is the private sphere of the home;  man’s space is the public sphere  Women must fulfil marital and maternal responsibilities  men are financial heads
  14. 14.  In case of death of the husband , wives get a share of the movable property but have no right on the immovable property such as land, farm or real estate.
  15. 15. Divorce  In Islam, a woman can initiate a divorce in some circumstances-  ‘Sharis’ law seek a ‘tafriq’ under certain allowable reasons.  The second method, by far more common in wife-initiated divorces, ‘khul’ is a divorce without cause but mutual consent.  Women applies for divorce- complicated legal procedure which may take up to 2 years  In some regions, men can divorce their wives just by saying “you are divorced!” three times.
  16. 16. Movement and Travel  No limitations or prohibitions on women’s travelling alone is mentioned in the Quran  In some countries, if a journey longer than 3 days is undertaken, the woman must be escorted by a male guardian.  In some regions, women are not allowed to drive or even ride a bicycle.  These customs originated for the safety of women.
  17. 17. A Book and Movie based on a true story….  (Movie) The Stoning of Soraya M. is a 2008 American Persian language drama film adapted from French journalist Feridoune Sahebjam’s 1900 book ‘La Femme Lapidee’ based on a true story.
  18. 18. Famous Books written on true narratives….  The Princess Trilogy  Princess : A true story of Life Behind the Veil in Saudi Arabia   Princess : Sultana’s Daughters Princess : Sultana’s Circles
  19. 19. Recent Changes  The government has granted women the right to vote.  Participation in the local elections.  The women have been allowed to ride bicycles .
  20. 20. Implementations that could improve the situation  Education of women should be stressed.  The system of male guardianship should be abolished.  Steps should be taken to improve the female workforce.  The religious body should be separated from the political and judiciary system.  Women representation in the religious Islamic Body.
  21. 21. Thank You!

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