Building strong brands


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Building strong brands

  1. 1. BUILDING STRONG BRANDS -David A. Aaker 1
  2. 2. Brand Equity 2  Brand equity is a set of assets(and liabilities) linked to a brand’s name and a symbol that adds to (or subtracts from) the value provided by a product or a service to a firm and/or that firm’s customers.
  3. 3. BrandEquity Brand Loyalty Brand Awareness Perceived Quality Brand Association 3
  4. 4. Brand Identity 4
  5. 5. Why Is Building Strong Brands So Hard? Building brands Price Competition Fragmenting ComplexBias- change Bias- innovation Invest elsewhere ST Pressure 5
  6. 6. Building A Strong Brand 6
  7. 7. THE BRAND IDENTITY • Provides direction, purpose and meaning for the brand • Brand strategists aspire to create and maintain • Helps establish a relationship between a brand and a customer by generating a value proposition involving Functional, Emotional or Self- Expressive benefits 7
  8. 8. Brand Identity Traps Brand identity traps Image trap Position trap Product- attribute fixation trap External perspective trap 8
  9. 9. Four Brand Identity Perspectives Extended Core As a product As an organization As a person As a symbol 9 Core
  10. 10. Brand-as-product 10 Product Scope Attributes and country or religionQuality /Value Use Associations
  11. 11. Brand-as-organization • Attributes of the organization • More enduring and more resistant to competitive claims • Less imitable, applies to a product class, difficult for competitors to demonstrate that they have overcome the perceived gap 11
  12. 12. Brand-as-person • Like a person, a brand personality can be perceived as being upscale, competent, impressive, trustworthy, and others • An Apple user can identify himself as casual, anti-corporate and creative 12
  13. 13. Brand-as-symbol • A strong symbol can provide cohesive and structure to an identity and make it much easier to gain recognition and recall 13
  14. 14. Identity structure 14 Core identity Extended identity • What is the soul of the brand? • What are the fundamental beliefs and values that drive the brand? • Competencies of organization behind the brand? • Organization stand for?
  15. 15. Identities A McDonald's brand identity A Nike brand identity • Core Identity: Value Offering, food Quality, service, cleanliness, serves wide clientele • Extended Identity: convenience, fast food, hamburgers, family-oriented, genuine, wholesome, Ronald McDonald’s children’s charity • Value Proposition: good tasting hamburgers, fries and drinks that provide value, fun and excitement through birthday parties, feeling special, etc • Core Identity: sports related, for the top athletes, performance shoes, enhancing lives through athletics • Extended Identity: ‘Just Do It’, one feels excited, provocative, spirited, cool, innovative and aggressive • Value Proposition: high tech shoes. Exhilaration of athletic performance excellence, being associated with a strong personality • Credibility: makes shoes and clothing that are stylish 15
  16. 16. Providing a Value Proposition -functional -emotional -self-expressive 16
  17. 17. The Value Proposition 17 Functional Emotional Self-expressive Relative price
  18. 18. Credibility • Sometimes Brands play an endorser role • For e.g., Nike plays endorser for Nike air Jordan, Chevrolet for Magnum, Kellogg's for corn flakes, Sony for Walkman 18
  19. 19. 19 Brand is building - to be continued