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ASSQC on snap fasteners and buttons


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ASSQC on snap fasteners and buttons

  3. 3. SNAP FASTENERS • A snap fastener (also called snap, popper, and press stud) is a pair of interlocking discs, made out of a metal or plastic, commonly used in place ofbuttons to fasten clothing and for similar purposes • A circular lip under one disc fits into a groove on the top of the other, holding them fast until a certain amount of force is applied • Often used in children's clothing, as they are relatively easy for children to use • Different types of snaps can be attached to fabric or leather by riveting with a punch and die set specific to the type of rivet snaps used (striking the punch with a hammer to splay the tail), sewing, or plying with special snap pliers
  4. 4. Snap (snap) n. 1: any clasp or fastener that closes with a click 2: to close, fasten, go into place, etc. with a snapping sound 3: to break, part or be released with a sharp, cracking sound
  5. 5. HISTORY • Snap fasteners date back as far as the 1800's when the sew-on snaps were used for costumes and lingerie • It wasn't until the 1940's that the 4-part gripper style snaps were introduced to the home sewing consumers • This style of snap fastener revolutionized the way sewing consumers used snaps • Up until then, the only large garment manufacturers were able to use precision automatic equipment to attach snaps onto clothing
  6. 6. PRESENT SCENARIO • Today, sewing consumers have many options for snap attachment • From die-based pliers to hammer-based tools, home sewing consumers can attach snaps to sewing projects with precision • When it comes to attaching 4-part snaps, a snap attaching device is required • Choosing a snap attaching tool is like choosing fabric for a garment — the decision is based on personal preference
  7. 7. PRESENT SCENARIO… • There are two different types of snaps currently on the market — post-style and prong-style • A post-style snap has a shaft that requires a hole to penetrate the fabric • A prong-style snap has teeth that penetrate through the fabric; For best results, look for industrial quality snaps that are sure to stay secure • Technically, snap fasteners are mechanical closures consisting of a closure unit and attaching unit
  8. 8. Snap cap socket stud post
  9. 9. COMPONENT PARTS • Socket (attached with the fabric with a pronged ring)- female functional part, with a cup shaped shell with an annular chamber surrounding its mouth • Pronged ring- used to attach sockets or prong attached studs to the fabric • Stud- male functional part, engages the socket, attached with the fabric with a post(eyelet) • Eyelet- flanged component which mates with the stud to attach the stud to the fabric
  10. 10. APPLICATION • Prong-style snaps are best used with loosely woven or knit fabrics • Some of the most common uses for prong-style snaps are:  Cardigans, shirts, vests  Lightweight jacket  Polar fleece garments  Children's wear  Western wear  Home décor  Costumes  Uniforms  Sleepwear
  11. 11. APPLICATION… • Post-style snaps are best used with densely woven or natural/synthetic fabrics. Some of the most common uses for post-style snaps are:  Leather jackets  Heavy outer wear jackets  Denim jackets/jeans  Purses/bags  RV and Boat covers
  12. 12. SNAP SIZES • Generally, available sizes are  14- 5/16”  15- 3/8”  16-7/16”  18- 15/32”  20- 1/2”  24- 5/8”
  13. 13. SNAP SIZES… • Size 14 snaps have a light closing tension; Perfect for light weight fabrics such as single-knits, batiste, cottons • Size 15 snaps are the perfect in-between size; Good for light and medium weight fabrics from cottons to knits • Sizes 16 and up are designed for light or heavyweight fabrics; Perfect for polar fleece, denim or corduroy; Tighter closing tension to keep garments securely fastened
  14. 14. TYPES OF SNAP FASTENERS • Open Prong Ring - An open circular ring enabling the fabric to show through the snap when placed on cloth • Capped Prong Ring - A solid circle of colour to give the look of a button when placed on cloth • Pearl - A domed, synthetic half-pearl rimmed with a ring used mostly in Western Wear • Decorative - A snap with an embossed designer cap
  16. 16. QUALITY AND TESTING • The quality of snap fasteners is generally judged by how easily they can be fastened or unfastened and their holding power • The resistance to unsnapping can be determined by testing snap fasteners mounted on a strip of material near the end are tested on standard tensile testing machines equipped for testing the strength of textile fabrics and having sensitivity for accurate low force levels • Tests are made on snap fasteners before laundering and after a predetermined number of laundering or dry cleaning
  17. 17. ACCORDING TO WALDES AND REID • Waldes and Reid mention the following in regard to checking quality snap fasteners  The attaching machinery should locate the snap fasteners accurately and at proper pressure  Component parts should be checked to close tolerances and free from dirt and other foreign substances so that they will feed rapidly through the hopper and permit uniform and trouble free assembly. Hardness and workability of metal are important factors  Hard metals will have parts formed poorly and may crack; if too soft, the closure will be weak  The fasteners should attach firmly and withstand the maximum pull that they can be expected to endure on the garment
  18. 18. ASTM D4846 • Standard Test Method for Resistance to Unsnapping of Snap Fasteners • This test method covers the determination of the force required to disengage snap fasteners by a pull perpendicular to and parallel with the plane of the snap fastener • Requires attachment of snaps to specimens using specifications provided by the producers of the snaps • Used to establish correlation to wear conditions and for comparing different brands and types of snap fasteners • The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values stated in the parentheses are for information only • Does not address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use.
  19. 19. QUALITY MAINTENANCE • The best foundation is two plies of fabric plus one ply of interlining • If the interlining is not sewn to the base fabric, the fabric around the snap fasteners may tear after some ON/OFF actions. Make sure that the interlining and fabric are stitched together, especially on the back placket • Attachment on uneven thickness may result in snap fasteners detachment, weak ON/OFF actions, or fabric tearing. Where there exist significant uneven thickness, snaps can not be attached
  20. 20. QUALITY MAINTENANCE… • Snap fasteners may turn around if the fabric is too thin at the attaching point. Packing is required in this case • Make it your routine at the beginning of the day's work to check that it won’t come off easily • Snap fasteners should not be ironed directly. It may cause scratch or deformation on the metallic snaps, and breakage or distortion on the plastic snaps. Placing a cloth over the snap fasteners before ironing them is better
  21. 21. • Problems such as deformation, breakage, stiff or lost ON/OFF actions may occur if the pressure is too strong • Plastic snaps, under high temperature, are less resistant to deformation, discoloration, and scratch
  22. 22. SNAP TESTER • It is used to determine the holding or breaking strength of prong-ring attached snap fasteners on garments • It consists of an Upper Snap Clamp, a Lower Fabric Clamp & Force Gauge mounted on a Stand • The snap component is gripped by the Upper Snap Clamp and the garment is fixed to the lower Fabric Clamp • By turning the Top Flywheel, the operator can apply a specific force and the holding force or the breaking strength can be recorded
  23. 23. WEAR TESTING
  24. 24. WHAT IS WEAR • In material science, wear is erosion or sideways displacement of material from its "derivative" and original position on a solid surface performed by the action of another surface • Related to interactions between surfaces and more specifically the removal and deformation of material on a surface as a result of mechanical action of the opposite surface
  25. 25. WHAT IS WEAR… • In textiles and apparels, factors like stress and strain in daily wear, abrasive actions, effects of environmental elements, or effects of repeated laundering and dry-cleaning that influence the behaviour and performance of garments are so variable that their cumulative effect on an item cannot be predicted with certainty by any of the test methods available today. Therefore actual use of (wear testing of) the item under evaluation by several people will yield much more useful data than all other testing combined • That is why even though wear testing is expensive and time consuming, some companies “wear test” their fabrics and garments before putting them on the market
  26. 26. PURPOSE OF WEAR TESTING • It can help evaluate the performance of new or existing products compared to the performance of known products • It would be an excellent tool to gauge consumer acceptance and product development • It can help evaluate the suitability of existing products in different end uses • It can help evaluate the interaction of wear, laundering and dry-cleaning, daily stress-strain, environmental elements, and so on on a given fabric • Real advantage arising from wear testing is the ability to determine what care instructions should be furnished the consumer, thereby generating greater consumer satisfaction
  27. 27. IMPORTANT POINTS TO BE DECIDED BEFORE INITIATING A WEAR TESTING PROGRAM • The objective is to compare a new product with a n existing product of satisfactory performance; to compare two or more products with certain differences such as fabric blend composition, construction details and so on; to determine the proper care label; to judge consumer acceptance of a new product; or to arrive at realistic performance standards for a product • Properties to be evaluated; of course, they will depend on the objective • How the product under wear test will be evaluated ? for example, by visual ratings, by testing certain properties after a certain properties after a certain number of wears, and so on • Length of test • Method of refurbishing (laundering or dry-cleaning) and who will complete this refurbishing
  28. 28. PHYSICAL TEST METHODS • Tensile strength  Standardised methods are now being used in most of the laboratories where strength data is needed only as part of an overall evaluation, the less precise but more convenient grab test can be used  For ex- the influence of a finish on the degradation of cellulose are needed, the strip method based on constant thread count is more desirable
  29. 29. Tensile strength
  30. 30. PHYSICAL METHODS… • Tear strength  Two methods have been standardised, (i). tear method in which the pull is applied in the direction of the tear  (ii) trapezoid method in which the pull is applied at right angles to the direction of the tear  In either of the tests, the results from the two do not parallel one another will indicate whether a fabric has low resistance to tear or not
  32. 32. PHYSICAL METHODS… • Abrasion or wear testing  Its in a developmental state and cannot be regarded as satisfying an investigator  What is needed is more correlation between the results of actual wear and the indication of physical states  In general, it requires that men wear the clothing under controlled conditions  The Taber abrader and an abrasion device developed by Industrial By-products and research corporation, have been used in tests of army wool hose
  33. 33. Taber abraser or abrader- The Rotary Platform Abrasion Tester (commonly referred to as the Taber Abraser or Taber Abrader) was introduced in the 1930's and has been a popular instrument for evaluating abrasion and wear resistance. Easy to operate, the Taber Abraser (Abrader) is referenced in numerous internationally recognized test standards and covers a wide spectrum of materials (including plastics, coatings, laminates, leather, paper, ceramics, carpeting, safety glazing, etc.).
  34. 34. BUTTONS
  35. 35. INTRODUCTION • In modern clothing and fashion design, a button is a small fastener, most commonly made of plastic, but also frequently of seashell, which secures two pieces of fabric together • In archaeology, a button can be a significant artefact. In the applied arts and in craft, a button can be an example of folk art, studio craft, or even a miniature work of art
  36. 36. INTRODUCTION… • Buttons are most often attached to articles of clothing but can also be used on containers such as wallets and bags • However, buttons may be sewn onto garments and similar items exclusively for purposes of ornamentation • Buttons serving as fasteners work by slipping through a fabric or thread loop, or by sliding through a buttonhole • Nowadays, hard plastic, seashell, metals, and wood are the most common materials used in button-making; the others tending to be used only in premium or antique apparel, or found in collections
  37. 37. TYPES OF BUTTONS • Shank buttons have a hollow protrusion on the back through which thread is sewn to attach the button.Button shanks may be made from a separate piece of the same or a different substance as the button itself, and added to the back of the button, or be carved or moulded directly onto the back of the button, in which latter case the button is referred to by collectors as having a 'self-shank' • Flat or sew-through buttons have holes through which thread is sewn to attach the button. Flat buttons may be attached by sewing machine rather than by hand, and may be used with heavy fabrics by working a thread shank to extend the height of the button above the fabric
  38. 38. Shank buttons
  39. 39. Sew through buttons
  40. 40. Stud buttons
  41. 41. TYPES OF BUTTONS… • Stud buttons (also pressure buttons, press studs or snap fasteners) are metal (usually brass) round discs pinched through the fabric . Often found on clothing, in particular on denim pieces such as pants and jackets, more securely fastened to the material,, difficult to remove without compromising the fabric's integrity • Covered buttons are fabric-covered forms with a separate back piece that secures the fabric over the knob. • Mandarin buttons or Frogs are knobs made of intricately knotted strings. Mandarin buttons are a key element in Mandarin dress, where they are closed with loops. • Worked or cloth buttons are created by embroidering or crocheting tight stitches (usually with linen thread) over a knob or ring called a form
  42. 42. Covered buttons
  43. 43. Mandarin buttons
  44. 44. TYPES OF BUTTONS… • 2 Hole  Flat buttons that have 2 small holes in the centre to sew through. The holes are typically lined up parallel to the edge that it is fastening • 4 Hole  Flat buttons with 4 holes in them. The attachment is stronger that with 2 hole buttons and they are better for thick fabric
  45. 45. BUTTON SIZES • The size of the button depends on its use. Shirt buttons are generally small, and spaced close together, whereas coat buttons are larger and spaced further apart • Buttons are commonly measured in lignes (also called lines and abbreviated L), with 40 lignes equal to 1 inch. For example, some standard sizes of buttons are 16 lignes (10.16 mm, standard button of men's shirts) and 32 lignes (20.32 mm, typical button on suit jackets) • The American National Button Society (NBS)[19] has its own button sizing system which divides button sizes into 'small', 'medium' and 'large'
  46. 46. BUTTON SIZES… • Ligne is a French word meaning line • used prior to the French adaptation of the metric system in the late 1700s, and is still used by French and Swiss wristwatch makers to measure the size of a watch movement • The standardized conversion for a ligne is 2.2558291 mm (1 mm = 0.443296 ligne), and it is abbreviated with the letter L • Ligne : A button's ligne, refers to a button's size. Ligne is the internationally recognized standard. Consensus at the time was that a "ligne" measured the inside diameter of a "round wick folded flat." One inch is equal to 40 English ligne, 11 French ligne, and 25.5 mm • The button size varies from ligne 14(9mm) to ligne 100(63mm)
  47. 47. BUTTON TESTING • Durability of buttons can be tested by an impact test[91] • Individual buttons are placed on a surface centred under a tube through which a pre-selected mans falls from a pre-selected height • After the mans impact the button, the button is removed from the testing device and visually examined using 5x magnified glass for breakage, cracking or chipping • This is for acceptance testing of buttons • They are classified as A, B1 through B3 depending upon the impact resistance, the class A button being the most durable
  48. 48. QUALITY CHECKING • Buttons should have large, clean sew holes that are free from flash and will not cut the thread • Holes must be located properly in relation to the edge of the button • Buttons should be of uniform thickness • Colour or shade should be within a certain visual tolerance. • They should withstand laundering, dry-cleaning and pressing without any changes such as cracks, melting of surface(scorching), change in colour
  49. 49. THANK YOU!