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Final survey report on ai perspective and challenges of developing nations by shreedeep rayamajhi

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Final survey report on ai perspective and challenges of developing nations by shreedeep rayamajhi

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Final survey report on ai perspective and challenges of developing nations by shreedeep rayamajhi

  1. 1. 1 | P a g e Report on AI Perspective and Challenges of Developing Nations Shreedeep Rayamajhi | Rayznews| Learn Internet Governance Executive Summary Today, Artificial Intelligence (AI) is used in various sectors like healthcare, finance, education and security for achieving better growth and development. The AI development is influencing the global economy in such a way that it’s evolving into a culture. The random growth and development have resulted in gaps of standard values where other externalities are aspiring to create a variation of abnormalities. Especially, in the developing and lower economies there are limitations of knowledge, resource and infrastructure and due to these deficiencies, the digital divide gap is widening between the countries. Although technology may change the industry’s efficiency and effectiveness but ultimately what matters is how our societies and communities are adapting at grassroots level. As there are considerable uncertainties about AI and its overall process. The Trust factor for AI is still a challenge to overcome. Similarly, the delegation of decision-making, lack of transparency, and lack of standards have outpaced the development of governance and policy norms which needs to be mitigated with proper values. There is a greater need of a global AI governance system that is flexible and standard enough to address the cultural differences and bridge gaps across nations. With such hindrances, AI has become a daunting topic especially for the developing nations where there are lack of policies and regulation. The statement itself can be reframed with issues of Data Protection, Definition of Data, Privacy, Freedom of Expression (FoE), Big Data etc. Still today a lot of the developing nations and other lower economies lack basic definition and other technical standards where externalities are promulgating in creating a discriminatory condition. Although, AI is a part of our lives, knowingly or unknowingly, we use various AI algorithms for fastening our services. From Facebook to google to other reputed organizations, all use and harvest user data for imprinting and profiling the pool of information. This information and its use are hidden from the users creating a sense of mistrust and contradiction. Different AI strategies have been created by different countries where no two strategies are similar, this has created a proliferation of power and standards. The survey was done to highlight the current knowledge and understanding of developing nations internet leaders and it highlight the current threat of AI politics that is emerging with in gaps that aspires between the developed and developing nations. Reality of today is AI drives the opportunities for leveraging businesses in various field of advance data analytics, software designing, market prediction and language capabilities for creating new business models. The challenges that AI faces is the process of designing a governance mechanism for AI ecosystem which is part of the cycle of market development and evolution of AI in the future. “AI needs a vision for future. A vision which is beyond the limitation of control, power and manipulation. AI needs governance with the human values of creating a better tomorrow focusing inclusion, equality and trust. “
  2. 2. 2 | P a g e Report on AI Perspective and Challenges of Developing Nations Shreedeep Rayamajhi | Rayznews| Learn Internet Governance ITU Data: Source: ITU (1) ITU estimates that at the end of 2018, 51.2 per cent of the global population, or 3.9 billion people, were using the Internet. Individuals using the Internet in Millions Source: ITU (1) Region 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Africa 15 19 24 30 37 54 68 85 107 132 164 190 213 Arab States 26 33 46 55 65 84 93 106 120 135 151 162 173 Asia & Pacific 345 395 505 616 728 873 989 1,110 1,239 1,397 1,552 1,697 1,813 Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 26 33 43 49 56 94 111 139 153 163 174 183 191 Europe 279 302 343 372 395 410 419 434 447 461 472 490 501 The Americas 318 348 387 405 428 456 483 526 541 567 612 637 662
  3. 3. 3 | P a g e Report on AI Perspective and Challenges of Developing Nations Shreedeep Rayamajhi | Rayznews| Learn Internet Governance Developed/Developing Nations, according to the UN M49* (2) Developed Nations Developed Nations Albania Andorra Australia Austria Belarus Belgium Bermuda Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Canada Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Faroe Islands Finland France Germany Greece Greenland Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland The Former Yugoslav Rep. of Macedonia Ukraine United Kingdom United States
  4. 4. 4 | P a g e Report on AI Perspective and Challenges of Developing Nations Shreedeep Rayamajhi | Rayznews| Learn Internet Governance Developing Nations Developing Nations Afghanistan Algeria American Samoa Angola Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belize Benin Bhutan Bolivia (Plurinational State of) Botswana Brazil British Virgin Islands Brunei Darussalam Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Cabo Verde Cayman Islands Central African Rep. Chad Chile China Cocos Keeling Islands Colombia Comoros Congo (Rep. of the) Cook Islands Costa Rica Côte d'Ivoire Cuba Cyprus Dem. People’s Rep. of Korea Dem. Rep. of the Congo Djibouti Dominica Dominican Rep. Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Eswatini Ethiopia Falkland (Malvinas) Is. Fiji French Polynesia Gabon Gambia Georgia Ghana Grenada Guam Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hong Kong, China India Indonesia Iran (Islamic Republic of) Iraq Jamaica Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea (Rep. of) Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao P.D.R. Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Macao, China Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives
  5. 5. 5 | P a g e Report on AI Perspective and Challenges of Developing Nations Shreedeep Rayamajhi | Rayznews| Learn Internet Governance Mali Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia Mongolia Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal (Republic of) Neth. Antilles New Caledonia Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Northern Marianas Oman Pakistan Palau Palestine** Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Puerto Rico Qatar Rwanda Sao Tome and Principe Samoa Saudi Arabia Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa Sri Lanka Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Sudan Suriname Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan, Province of China*** Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks & Caicos Is. Tuvalu Uganda United Arab Emirates Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela Viet Nam Virgin Islands (US) Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe
  6. 6. 6 | P a g e Report on AI Perspective and Challenges of Developing Nations Shreedeep Rayamajhi | Rayznews| Learn Internet Governance * Note: The M49 is a standard for area codes used by the United Nations for statistical purposes, developed and maintained by the United Nations Statistics Division. Based on the M49, countries are classified according to macro geographical regions and sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings, see: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/methods/m49/m49regin.htm ** Palestine is not an ITU Member State; the status of Palestine in ITU is the subject of Resolution 99 (rev. Busan, 2014) of the ITU Plenipotentiary Conference. *** Taiwan, Province of China, is not listed separately in the UN M49 but included in China. It is shown separately here since ITU data on China do not include Taiwan, Province of China, data. Source: ITU (1) Source: https://www.tractica.com/newsroom/press-releases/artificial-intelligence-software-revenue-to- reach-59-8-billion-worldwide-by-2025/
  7. 7. 7 | P a g e Report on AI Perspective and Challenges of Developing Nations Shreedeep Rayamajhi | Rayznews| Learn Internet Governance Information about the Survey: Date of Survey 19/12/2018 to 31/02/2019 Survey form Google docs Link https://goo.gl/forms/QtcKlldqMC5qyJ1j2 Target Group Internet users and community Survey type Questionnaire Participation number 54 Participants Methodology: The survey was done using google doc application where people were invited to attend the survey. Various links were set-up on social media sites like Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn for inviting people for the participation. Various AI communities from different regions were contacted for the responses as well. During this survey the participants were asked various questions in terms of Artificial Intelligence (AI), their basic understanding, knowledge, challenges and various other social indicators of user behavior. The selection of participants has been random including invitations sent and shared. Participants from various fields and sectors have contributed in voicing the current problems and suggestions of their local knowledge and understanding about AI.
  8. 8. 8 | P a g e Report on AI Perspective and Challenges of Developing Nations Shreedeep Rayamajhi | Rayznews| Learn Internet Governance Research Objectives: The basic objective of this survey is to understand the common knowledge and understanding of Artificial Intelligence in developing nations citizen. With this survey we have tried to map the various indicators that are creating a gap in between the developed and developing nations. Technology has given a benefit to the developed nations where as in the developing nations due to lack of infrastructure, policy and regulation data has been an issue of protection and concern. The gap in the definition and adaptation of data has been a huge challenge for locals where AI has been a focal point for multinational organizations for business purpose. This report deals with the basic objective of understanding the capacity of normal person in terms of their knowledge and adaptation of AI in developing nations. ➢ Finding the basic knowledge and understanding of AI ➢ Highlighting the problems and challenges of AI ➢ Participation and inclusion in AI process ➢ Creating better scenario of AI facilitation ➢ Identification of measurable AI indicators ➢ Adaptation and mitigation of AI ➢ Importance of AI governance ➢ AI Impact in developing nations ➢ AI gaps and politics ➢ AI integration behavior According to McKinsey, corporations invested between $20 billion and $30 billion globally in 2016. This included both internal research and development (R&D) and acquisitions. Tech giants such as Alibaba, Amazon, Baidu, Facebook, and Google account for more than three quarters of total AI investment to date. From 2011 through to February 2017, these companies were behind 29 of 55 major merger and acquisition deals in the United States of America (USA) and 9 of 10 major deals in China
  9. 9. 9 | P a g e Report on AI Perspective and Challenges of Developing Nations Shreedeep Rayamajhi | Rayznews| Learn Internet Governance Findings of the Survey:
  10. 10. 10 | P a g e Report on AI Perspective and Challenges of Developing Nations Shreedeep Rayamajhi | Rayznews| Learn Internet Governance
  11. 11. 11 | P a g e Report on AI Perspective and Challenges of Developing Nations Shreedeep Rayamajhi | Rayznews| Learn Internet Governance
  12. 12. 12 | P a g e Report on AI Perspective and Challenges of Developing Nations Shreedeep Rayamajhi | Rayznews| Learn Internet Governance
  13. 13. 13 | P a g e Report on AI Perspective and Challenges of Developing Nations Shreedeep Rayamajhi | Rayznews| Learn Internet Governance
  14. 14. 14 | P a g e Report on AI Perspective and Challenges of Developing Nations Shreedeep Rayamajhi | Rayznews| Learn Internet Governance Problems and Challenges of Developing Nations: Artificial intelligence has become a common name due to the various internet organization. People have started to accept the use of AI in their daily lives. Though the acceptance of AI is very limited with in the use of technology but every now and then when the AI comes into discussion of policy and leadership, AI has been a challenge of substantive issues of policy, legality, governance, and ethical considerations. Despite, the fact that AI is being used through various platforms like Facebook, Google and many other technology companies’ people are unaware of their operations. This is creating a lack of understanding among the people about the real fact and condition of AI. AI needs proper values and trust environment where it can grow and flourish to create better opportunities. One thing we all must understand is technology is for the people and people set the values of the use and values of diversity and inclusion must be collaborated. The major challenges are listed below: 1. Global Politics 2. Adaptation and Mitigation 3. Participation and Inclusion 4. AI Standardization and Governance 5. AI Vision 1. Global Politics: Artificial intelligence and its deployment has been a challenge with diverse set of values of market, security and politics. AI has been nurtured in a limitation of how it has been developed. Many countries have forwarded their strategies focusing on different aspects of AI policy, scientific research, skills and education, public and private sector adoption, ethics and inclusion, standards and regulations, and data and digital infrastructure. But with limitation, no two strategies are the same. Reality is the gaps of the knowledge, resource and infrastructure has created an assumption of rise of various mentality, theories and alliance creating a preconception of what AI is or how it should be governed. The limitation of accepting the dynamic and generalizing the concept has created a commitment of collaboration. This has created a vacuum in between the developed and developing nations. The big IT organizations are manipulating the policies and law in creating their own niche market of competition and manipulation. The global politics is hugely fueled by lack of resource and infrastructure which has been pushed by the conspiracy theory of AI global domination. How can AI be dominating the world when we the people have not understood the true meaning and value of technology. Why are we thinking more about technology domination when we are not even talking about setting the basic values of AI? The assumption of the global politics certainly creates a sense of power and control as the data and information are the main tools of AI and future. 2. Adaptation and Mitigation: From the point of view of developing nations where there is lack of knowledge, resources and infrastructure, the question of AI adaptation is a big hindrance. The part that currently is a challenge is the notion of acceptance regarding the values that has been passed on. The lack of clarity and diversity in assuming has resulted in a greater issue of widening the digital
  15. 15. 15 | P a g e Report on AI Perspective and Challenges of Developing Nations Shreedeep Rayamajhi | Rayznews| Learn Internet Governance divide. Though situations are changing with developing nations coming up in the technology world but still there is great need of adaptation in terms of various aspect of understanding the vitality of data and information from the very basics. Developing nations need to understand their importance, role and representation in terms of developing the basic values as well. Mitigation can be an issue which can be further processed with ➢ Better awareness and capacity building ➢ Better law and policy ➢ Research and study about AI acceptance and other basic indicators It may look simple with adaptation, but the issues of mitigation can be an issue that has been related with the technological gaps. The social cultural values and the economical aspect can be of greater issue that needs country specific values and solution. 3. Participation and inclusion: The current lack of participation and study of developing nations has impacted the AI growth and development which has become more constraining towards the developing nation. Participation and inclusion in developing values, policy making, and collaboration has become a question of standardization. Every country has their own policy and set of values with the acceptance of their socio-cultural behavior. Failing to mitigate the standard creates multi-dimensional layer of gaps where externalities incubates. These include gaps of discrimination and unfair competition. Similarly, the concept of AI governance is more lacking the values of open and multistakeholder approach where greater intervention is required to create better values of trust and collaboration. Better facilitation environment must be created for participation and inclusion. AI needs acceptance of human values and social cultural value only then it can be pervasive. 4. AI standardization and Governance: AI is expanding its capabilities and areas in reinventing the concept of efficiency and effectiveness. Today businesses have streamlined production and even transforming skillsets of the next generation workers to create better standards. The traditional values and practices are changing influencing the overall human behavior. From country to country the basic values are different, in such practices, inconsistency and clashes can be an issue of concern where AI can be a converging in critical issue of how the situation can be dealt with. Digital technologies are changing and challenging our society, the challenges related to AI are the autonomous systems and algorithms that are often presented and discussed in practical issues of policy, legal, governance, and ethical considerations which creates a convergence but with limitation of standardization values it disrupts the overall process. To ensure transparency, accountability, and clarity for the AI ecosystem, there is a need of multistakeholder dialogue process among the various stakeholders to discuss governance mechanisms that ensures AI and autonomous systems while harnessing the full potential of this technology. AI certainly needs standardization in terms of its core values and process of how it should be used to protect and save lives than to create discrimination. There needs to be good discussion started about AI ethics which should focus on increasing transparency, educating the public. The AI needs
  16. 16. 16 | P a g e Report on AI Perspective and Challenges of Developing Nations Shreedeep Rayamajhi | Rayznews| Learn Internet Governance to standardize the basic human values of openness, collaboration and trust and create better governance practice for all. 5. AI Vision: The current development and growth of AI has been random and haphazard, it needs definite vision and values upon which it can further work to make it universal and acceptable. The governance structures for AI and algorithmic decision-making systems occur in multiple layers creating a complex matrix which creates legal and ethical challenges There is greater a need of broader AI vision in terms of developing the trust and collaboration. AI for humanity can be one of the visions that can harness the interest and vitality of the various stakeholder to work towards creating a uniform vision for all. This vision needs to be accepted and endorsed in every possible way of adapting values of openness, equality, inclusion, diversity, human values etc. Issues of AI: 1. Stakeholders from both the private and public sector have essential roles to play in ensuring that AI can achieve its potential for social good. Collectors and generators of data, whether governments or companies, could grant greater access to NGOs and others seeking to use the data for public service and could potentially be mandated to do so in certain cases. To resolve implementation issues will require many more data scientists or those with AI experience to help deploy AI solutions at scale. Capability building, including that funded through philanthropy, can help: talent shortages at this level can be overcome with a focus on accessible education opportunities such as online courses and freely available guides, as well as contributions of time by organizations such as technology companies that employ highly skilled AI talent. Indeed, finding solutions that apply AI to specific societal goals could be accelerated if technology players dedicated some of their resources and encouraged their AI experts to take on projects that benefit the common good (3) Awareness and Capacity Building 2. Ethical considerations must be prioritized in the design and deployment of AI (4) Ethic and Core Values 3. There is a high risk that the benefits of AI will be unevenly distributed within and across societies exacerbating current and future digital divides (4) Digital Divide 4. Organizations using AI in decision-making should ensure that the decision-making process is explainable, transparent and fair (14) Transparency 5. AI solutions should be human-centric. As AI is used to amplify human capabilities, the protection of the interests of human beings, including their well-being and safety, should be the primary considerations in the design, development and deployment of AI (14) Human Values 6. Europe is the largest publisher of AI papers. In 2017, 28% of AI papers on Scopus were affiliated with European authors, followed by China (25%) and the U.S (17%) (5) Resources 7. Current instruments do not address the risks and opportunities presented by AI, by generalized AI. We can ultimately foresee that there could be an international ‘soft law’ put in place, potentially a Convention on AI.” Many participants called for a “democratization of AI” in terms
  17. 17. 17 | P a g e Report on AI Perspective and Challenges of Developing Nations Shreedeep Rayamajhi | Rayznews| Learn Internet Governance of access to data, transparency in who owns the data, pooling of data and how should that data be used for the good of all (9) Standard Governance Process 8. In theory, widespread adoption of automation or robots may make some jobs redundant. However, two clarifications are essential. First, automation or robots are not the same as AI, which means AI should not be held accountable for all job loss by automation or robotics (10) Accountability 9. Research is urgently needed on the AI governance problem: the problem of devising global norms, policies, and institutions to best ensure the beneficial development and use of advanced AI (11) Research and Study 10. AI politics focuses on the political dynamics between firms, governments, publics, researchers, and other actors, and how these will be shaped by and shape the technical landscape (11) Political Dynamics 11. To ensure transparency, accountability, and explainability for the AI ecosystem, our governments, civil society, the private sector, and academia must be at the table to discuss governance mechanisms that minimize the risks and possible downsides of AI and autonomous systems while harnessing the full potential of this technology (8) Multistakeholder Process 12. AI technologies are evolving rapidly, they are still in the development stages. A global AI governance system must be flexible enough to accommodate cultural differences and bridge gaps across different national legal systems (8) Adaptation and Mitigation issues 13. The initial usage of AI in developing countries has been at a micro level -- solving small, specific problems in a defined industry. As machine learning advances and there is a higher utilization of AI, we will see more complex issues being targeted and resolved. When duly adopted, AI can positively impact our everyday lives not just in disaster intervention, education, health care and agriculture but can also help in mitigating poverty, malnutrition and pollution. It’s therefore high-time for NGOs and governments, especially in developing nations, to leverage AI’s true potential and create a snowball effect (13) AI Expansion 14. Some contentious uses of AI could have such a transformational effect on society that relying on companies alone to set standards is inappropriate — not because companies can’t be trusted to be impartial and responsible, but because to delegate such decisions to companies would be undemocratic (16) Standardization and Equality 15. This report makes clear that the path to a transformative but also a safe, trusted and inclusive AI will require unprecedented collaboration between government, industry, academia and civil society (12) Collaboration and Trust 16. The Ethics and Governance of Artificial Intelligence Initiative aimed at bolstering the use of AI for the public good through evidence-based research that provides guidance for decision-makers across the private and public sectors; fostering a network of interdisciplinary researchers focused on AI ethics and governance-related issues; and strengthening relationships between industry, academia, civil society, and government (16) Practical Approach
  18. 18. 18 | P a g e Report on AI Perspective and Challenges of Developing Nations Shreedeep Rayamajhi | Rayznews| Learn Internet Governance Conclusion: AI is growing as the footprint of technology used in various services ranging from virtual reality applications to speech recognition technology to visual recognition to data analysis to programming. Its growth and adaptation has its own opportunities and challenges. What makes it more complex and contradicting is the lack of best practices, interoperability, scalability and trustworthiness among others. This has created a need for standardization and governance in this area. The survey clearly shows impact of AI technology is creating substantive gaps in policy, legality, governance, and ethic in our society. These challenges are impenetrable creating complexity in different layers of AI ecosystem. An effective governance system for AI needs to be mechanized with collective understanding of creating crosscutting solution with in the AI practice. AI also raises ethical concerns to align human values and consider the need to address the discrimination of equality, inclusion and diversity which is worsening the current and future digital divides. Thus, effective research and studies are urgently required highlighting the role and participation of developing nations in the AI revolution and politics. Transparency and Accountability needs to be ensured during the AI design and deployment at the basic level and data collection and decision-making requires clarity mitigating the risks of geopolitical implications. Here are some of the recommendation: 1. Better awareness & capacity campaigns about AI for developing and lower economies 2. Participation and inclusion for all 3. Various layers of governance model need to be adopted 4. Better research and surveys are required 5. Multistakeholder concept to be adopted 6. Standardization of core values for adaptation and mitigation strategy 7. AI needs proper vision with proper set of human values 8. AI requires collaborative vision 9. Trust is an important component which requires better commitment and collaboration 10. Collaborate towards lessening the digital divide 11. AI is in developing stage confining its limitation will hamper its growth and development Looking at the current trend, AI technologies are evolving rapidly, and they should not be idealized just for security threats and vulnerabilities. It is in developing stage, so a new thinking and a new approach needs to be harnessed with a collaborative effort towards developing the set of core values for addressing policy, digital divides, security and economic regulation. It can be segregated in many ways and limiting AI to a definitive narrative can be a great challenge for future. Having said that AI certainly needs collaborative inclusive multistakeholder environment to set the values, so that it can harness openness, equality and standardization.
  19. 19. 19 | P a g e Report on AI Perspective and Challenges of Developing Nations Shreedeep Rayamajhi | Rayznews| Learn Internet Governance Reference: 1. International Telecommunication Union (ITU), statistics pages 2. United Nations (UN) statistics 3. MCKINSEY Global Institute, "Notes from the AI frontier Applying AI for Social Good", December 2018 4. Internet Society, “2017 Internet Society Global Internet Report Paths to Our Digital Future” 5. Artificial Intelligence Index 2018 Annual Report 6. R. Calo, “Artificial Intelligence Policy: A Roadmap,” Social Science Research Network (SSRN), 8 August 2017 7. U. Gasser, “AI and the Law: Setting the Stage,” Medium, 26 June 2017 8. Gasser, Urs, and Virgilio A.F. Almeida. 2017. “A Layered Model for AI Governance.” IEEE Internet Computing 21 (6) (November): 58–62. doi:10.1109/mic.2017.4180835 9. ITU, "AI for GOOD GLOBAL SUMMIT Report 2017" 10. UN ESCAPE, “Artificial Intelligence in Asia and the Pacific” 11. Allan Dafoe “AI Governance: A Research Agenda”, August 27, 2018 12. ITU, "United Nations Activities on AI" 13. Sameer Maskey, Forbes Article , “AI For Humanity: Using AI To Make A Positive Impact In Developing Countries" August 23, 2018 14. Personal Data Protection Commission Singapore, "A Proposed Model AI Governance Framework” January 2019 15. Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University, “Ethics and Governance of AI” 16. Google, Perspectives on Issues in AI Governance
  20. 20. 20 | P a g e Report on AI Perspective and Challenges of Developing Nations Shreedeep Rayamajhi | Rayznews| Learn Internet Governance Contact Information: Shreedeep Rayamajhi ICANN Wiki: https://icannwiki.org/Shreedeep_Rayamajhi Wiki: http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shreedeep_Rayamajhi_(activist) Email: shreedeep@rayznews.com | rayamajhishreedeep@gmail.com Website: http://www.rayznews.com/ | http://www.internetgovernancediplomacy.blogspot.com/ Rayznews Link: http://www.rayznews.com/ RayZnews is an Internet Organization based in Nepal that lobbies the un-heard voices of people and caters a wide variety of news happening globally. We believe in featuring or highlighting stories and voices against censorship, impunity, injustice, human rights, FoE issues, Gender Equality, Digital rights, open standard etc. Our mission is to raise awareness and to help people understand their digital rights in highlighting DIGITAL EQUALITY wherever necessary. http://www.rayznews.com/documents-research-paper/ Learn Internet Governance (Learn IG) Link: http://learninternetgovernance.blogspot.com/ Learn Internet Governance is a Collaborative Community Development Program (CCDP) which focuses on using local resources, knowledge and best practice to reach out to the youth. It is an open knowledge sharing platform creating better learning opportunity to produce new youth leaders.

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