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Water Injection & Treatment for Tight Oil EOR

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Water Injection & Treatment for Tight Oil EOR

EOR choices for light Tight Oil
Potential damage to reservoir and well bore.
Water Specifications & Treatment

Case Studies:
1. Advanced Water Flooding
2. Frac injectors?
3. Low Salinity Water Flooding

Topics Include:
Filtration
Water Quality
Reservoir Pressure

Published in: Engineering
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Water Injection & Treatment for Tight Oil EOR

  1. 1. WATER INJ / TREATMENT FOR TIGHT OIL EOR SHONN ARNDT, CNRL EXPLOITATION ENGINEER DEECEMBER 10, 2014 CALGARY, AB, CANADA 2014-03-16, 4:20 PMbigmap.png 1,059×581 pixels business-conferences.com and cell 403 540 0633. My colleague Emma Borg, the Conference Producer will also be onsite for the duration of the event. Critical Success Factors: Please note two points that are critical to the success of this conference from the speakers’ perspective: • Learning Focused Presentations - No Sales Pitches. Delegates come here to learn about markets and strategies - not listen to investor presentations. Please keep company slides to a minimum and ensure you are teaching the delegates something valuable - this always yields a more positive and interested response. There should be no more than 1-2 slides on the company at the beginning with the main bulk of the presentation focusing on teaching the delegates something based on the session outline you selected when you confirmed (online at: http://www.artificial-lift-production-canada- 2014.com/3/agenda/23/agenda/[artificial-lift-production-canada-2014.com] The presentation can finish with an insight into your company's capacities. We want to make sure you and the delegates gain as much as possible from this conference and this is approach is the way to do it. • Speak For Full Duration (i.e, 30 minutes/ agreed duration with Producer) It is essential that you fill your full allocated time slot - usually 30 minutes unless agreed otherwise. If in doubt, it's better to go over time than be under time. Please practice your presentation out loud and make sure it fills the whole time slot. I look forward to receiving your Dinner responses and presentations soon. Please let me know if you have any queries and I will be more than happy to assist. Mike Skwara Ordos Basin
  2. 2. Permeability EOR Choices for LTO Enhanced(Water(Flood( •  Cyclic( •  Advanced( Gas(Injec8on( •  N2(or(CO2(misc( •  HC((WAG)( •  Air(Injec8on( Biochemical( •  MEOR( •  Enzyme(Flooding( Thermal( •  Steam(Injec8on( Low( ( Tight( Low( Moderate( High( 0.1( 1( 10( 100( Water(Flood( Chemical( Gas(Injec8on( Biochemical( Perm(Modifiers( ( ( ( ( ( ( (( Primary(/w(fracs( Other?( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( Req’s Water Req’s Water Req’s Water
  3. 3. ORDOS BASIN CHINA Reference 1 Reservoir Pressure 2.94 - 6.38 MPa (Low), Temp 40 - 80 C Oil Properties Visc 1.48 - 4.3 cP, 0.693-0.8 g/ml, GOR low Formation Water (mg/L) Ca 6712-19 002, K/Na 6985 - 39 439, Ba 120 - 1693 Mg 18 - 1266 Salinities 70 000 - 132 000 CL 39 228 - 80 907 HCO, CO3, SO4 low
  4. 4. Case Study: Advanced WF Jing’an Oilfield, Ordos Basin Permeability 0.5 - 2 mD Porosity 8 - 13% Depth 1690 Reservoir Pressure 10.51 MPa Primary Recovery 8-10%, AWF incr RF~ 3-5% Wuliwan Reference 1 Losing Energy Early Water Breakthrough Optimal 40 - 50 m3/d Nanliang Drill injectors 6 months before producers
  5. 5. Case Study: Frac Injectors? Ansai Oil Field, Ordos Basin In 1990, 44 Wells not fractured with W/H injection pressures of 6.1 MPa. 23 Neighbouring wells were frac’d and injection pressures were 5.9 MPa. Additionally, why convert frac’d producers to injectors? Conclusion: Water injection will open up natural fractures…do not exceed frac pressure that will lead to early break through! Reference 1
  6. 6. Case Study: Low Sal WF Reference 2 Xi Feng Oilfield Permeability 1.12 mD Porosity 10.7% Clay Content 11.4-34.3% (34% Smectite) Pore Throat Radius 0.05-.29 um Reservoir Temp 65 C Oil Density 0.81 g/cm3 Oil Visc 9 cP Salinity 58 430 mg/L (Ca 2460, Mg 317) Low Sal Water A. 5569 mg.L (Ca 200, Mg 30) B. 2784 mg/L (Ca 100, Mg 15) No movable fines Results: Improved %OOIP by 13.3% Need NF treatment or brackish source! Restricted)Pore)Throat) Grain) Boundary)Layer)Forms) (Adsorp:on)of)Fluids)) Grain) - - - - + + + +
  7. 7. POTENTIAL DAMAGE TO RESERVOIR & WELLBORE Injector Producer Well Bore • Large particles >33% ave Pore Throat i.e. 2 mD, Particles>0.5 um will plug. Near Well Bore • Clay Swelling • Adsorption (chemicals / ions) • Injected small particles • Bacteria Well bore / Near Well Bore • Damage from non compatible drilling / completions / WO fluids • Artificial fracs potential channels for injection fluid • Water Blocks (if Swi < Swirr) Reservoir (natural filter) • Plastic Deformation of Matrix • Gas Break out from Oil Water Front
  8. 8. Well Bore DamageParticle size > 33% Pore Throat Reference 3,4,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13
  9. 9. Near Well Bore DamageParticle size >7% & < 33% Pore Throat Can also improve Injectivity with pressure pulsing or seismic stimulation Reference 3,4,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13
  10. 10. Formation DamageParticle size <7% will pass through Reference 1
  11. 11. Water Specifications Water Floods 1. Water driven oil field injected water quality standard Currently DaQing oil field regular injecting water carries the industrial standard issued by National Petroleum & Gas General Corporation <<Particles of Classic Rocks Oil Reserve Injecting Water Standard>> (Table 1) ((SY/T 5329-94) and DaQing Oil Co. Ltd issued enterprise standard << DaQing Oil Reserve Injecting Water Standard>> (Q/SY DQ0605-2000) (Table 2). 7DEOH Particles of Classic Rocks Oil Reserve Injecting Water Standard 67676767 ,1-(7 /$(5 $9(5$*( $,5 3(50($%,/,7­m2 ˘ ̚ ˚ 67$1'$5' *5$',1* $ $ $ % % % )/2$7,1* 3$57,/(6 PJ/ İ İ İ İ İ İ İ İ İ 2 1 7 5 2 / )/2$7,1* 3$57,/( ',$0(7(5­P İ İ İ İ İ İ İ İ İ 2,/ 217(17 PJ/ İ İ İ İ İ İ İ İ İ $9(5$*( 5$7( 2) 25526,21 PPD İ 65% *(50 36P/ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ 6$3523+7, %$7(5,$ 360O Qh Qh Qh 3 $ 5 $ 0 ( 7 ( 5 ,521 %$7(5,$ 36P/ Qh Qh Qh 1RWH LQ WKH WDEOH İQ˘DŽ 7DEOH DaQing Oil Reserve Injecting Water Standard (Q/SY DQ0605- 2000) 46 '446 '446 '446 '4 $9(5$*( $,5 3(50($%,/,7 Oilfield Water Technical Requirements China Also consider water compatibility scaling tendencies other impurities that affect injectivity. Frac Fluid Req’s 100 ppm 1 um 30 ppm 10 cells / mL
  12. 12. Water Treatment Technologies Suggested Configurations for Tight Oil 1. Skim Tank - DAF/DGF or EC - MMF - UF - chem inj Add NF or WAC to remove divalents for Low Salinity flooding
  13. 13. Final Thoughts 1. Put a reservoir in front of your reservoir (i.e. filtration). Damage may not be reversible! 2. Mother nature (formation / water quality) drives water treatment solutions. 3. It’s critical to inject early and keep the water flowing (i.e. maintain reservoir pressure).
  14. 14. References:   1.    Advanced  Water  Injec0on  for  Low  perm  Reservoirs  Ran  Xinquan  Petroleum  Industry  Press  2013   2.    Coreflood  study  of  low  salinity  effects  in  low  permeability  sandstone  reservoirs,  Wu  Jiazhong  et  al  2012   3.    A  new  methodology  that  surpasses  current  bridging  theories,  VIkers  et  al  2006   4.    Injec0on  Water  Quality  -­‐  A  Key  Factor  to  Successful  Waterflooding,  Bennion  et  al    JCPT  June  1998   5.    Produced  Water  Treatment  in  Hydraulic  Fracturing,  Martex  et  al  2013  Canadian  Business  Conference   6.    Forma0on  Damage,  King  et  al,  March  14,  2009  presenta0on   7.    Enhanced  Oil  Recovery  Injec0on  Waters,  Collins  et  al,  1982  US  DOE   8.    Iden0fying  Op0mum  Techniques  for  Parafin  Control,  Schuler,  March  2014   9.    SPE  122189  Improving  Water  Injec0on  in  a  Mature  Field,  Cavallero  et  al,  2009   10.    Water  and  Fluid  Based  Reten0on  in  Low  Perm  Media,  Bennion  et  al,  2006   11.    Study  and  Applica0on  of  Waterflood  Protec0on  Technology  in  Developing  Low  Perm  Reservoirs,  Zhang  et   al,  2013   12.    Decompression  adn  Augmented  Injec0on  during  Waterflooding  Development  in  Low  Perm  Reservoirs,   Zhang  et  al,  2012   13.    Mechanisms  and  Effec0ve  Preven0on  of  Damage  for  Forma0ons  with  Low-­‐Porosity  and  Low-­‐Permeability,   Yan  et  al,  2012   14.    Product  Descrip0on  –  Shengl  Oilfield  Water  Treatment  for  Low  Perm  Reservoirs   15.    SPE893731  Oil  Recovery  with  HZ  Waterflooding,  Osage  COunty  Oklahoma  2004,  Westermark  et  al   16.    New  Field  Water  Treatment  for  Produced  Water  Reuse  in  Fracing  Tipton_Steven,  July  9,  2013  presenta0on    

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