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Open innovation

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a full doc in open innovation (Persian)

Published in: Leadership & Management
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Open innovation

  1. 1. ‫ﺑﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﺰﻭﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﺰﺍﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻮﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺎﺭ‬95
  2. 2. ۲ ‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴـﺖ‬ ‫ﻳـﻚ‬ ‫ﺷـﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣـﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻬـﺪ‬ ‫ﻛـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳـﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﺴـﻲ‬ ‫ﻛـﺎﺭﺁﻓﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺴـﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻣـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍژﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮ‬‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼـﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺩﺍﺭﻩ‬ ،‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﺪﻫﻲ‬. ،‫ﺷﻮﻣﭙﻴﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻧﺸﻤﻨﺪﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻀﻲ‬‫ﺩﺍﻧﺴـﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼـﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻤﺘﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭﺁﻓﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪ‬.،‫ﭘـﺬﻳﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺭﻳﺴـﻚ‬ ،‫ﺧﻼﻗﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﺘﻜﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺮ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺣﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭﺁﻓﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺘﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪﻳﺸﻪ‬ ،‫ﻫﻮﺵ‬‫ﺁﻓﺮﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻃﻼﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺻﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻌﺖ‬ ‫ﻭ‬. ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭﺁﻓﺮﻳﻦ‬‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬‫ﺑﺮﺳـﺎﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺳـﻮﺩﺩﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺑـﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺯﻳـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺷـﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﻳـﻚ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬. ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭﺁﻓﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺨﺼﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﻣﭙﻴﺘﺮ‬‫ﻧـــﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳـﻒ‬ ‫ﺧـﻼﻕ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺮﻳـﺐ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭﺁﻓﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻧﺴﺖ‬‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺩ‬.‫ﻃﺮﻳـﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﭘﻮﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﺩﻝ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺪﻛﻪ‬‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺷﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﭘﻮﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻱ‬‫ﻧـﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬‫ﺍﻳﺠـﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻛـﺎﺭﺁﻓﺮﻳﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻟﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻱ‬‫ﻣﺸﺨﺼﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‬‫ﻣﻲ‬. ‫ﻛﻴﺴﺖ؟‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭﺁﻓﺮﻳﻦ‬
  3. 3. Innovation ‫ﻧـﻮ‬ ‫ﭘﺪﻳـﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ،‫ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻣﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻮ‬ ‫ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺫﻫﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﻜﻦ‬)‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻨﻴﻚ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺧﺪﻣﺖ‬(‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬. ‫ﺧﺪﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﻣﭙﻴﺘﺮ‬‫ﺗﺠـﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ‬.‫ﺍﺳـﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺎﺿﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺛﺮﻭﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬.‫ﻫـﺎ‬ ‫ﺳـﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻛﺜـﺮ‬ ‫ـﻲ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺣﺘ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ـﺪ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺩﺍﻧﻨ‬ ‫ـﻲ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫ـﺬﻳﺮ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻧﺎﭘ‬ ‫ـﺎﺏ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺍﺟﺘﻨ‬ ‫ـﺮﻱ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺍﻣ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ـﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ـﺎﺑﺘﻲ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺭﻗ‬ ‫ـﻲ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻣﺰﻳﺘ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ـﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻧ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻨﻈﺮﺍﻥ‬‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺘﻘﺪﻧﺪ‬‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺭﻣﺰ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬.)،‫ﺩﻳﮕﺮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﻴﺎﺟﻮﺭﻱ‬1387( ۳ ‫ﭼﻳﺳﺕ؟‬ ‫ﻧﻭﺁﻭﺭی‬
  4. 4. ‫ﻣﻴﺪﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﺳﺦ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﭼﻬﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﮕﻴﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﭼﻬﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺯﺵ‬ ‫ﺧﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬: ‫ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻲ؟‬ ‫ﭼﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ؟‬ ‫ﻛﺴﻲ؟‬ ‫ﭼﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﭼﻴﺰﻱ؟‬ ‫ﭼﻪ‬ ۴ Source:MITSloan – ’�а, F&S analysis ‫ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ‬ (‫)ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺷﺒﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﻣﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺯﻧﺠﻴﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ‬ (‫)ﻛﺠﺎ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎﺩ‬ (‫ﭼﻴﺰﻱ‬ ‫)ﭼﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻳﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺯﺵ‬ ‫ﺟﺬﺏ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻳﺎﻥ‬ (‫ﻛﺴﻲ‬ ‫)ﭼﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻫﻜﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬
  5. 5. ‫ﺑﺳﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻭﺁﻭﺭی‬:‫ﺍﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﺭﺍﺩﻳﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ‬‫ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺸـﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺪﺍﺙ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﮕﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻣﺎﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺰﺭگ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻬﺎﻱ‬ ، ‫ﺧـﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺼﺼـﻲ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﻴﻨـﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻧـﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﭘـﮋﻭﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﺟﻬـﺖ‬ ‫ﻣـﺎﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻫـﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻬﺰ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺧﺘﻨﺪ‬. ‫ﭘﺎﺭﺍﺩ‬‫ﺑﺴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻳﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻢ‬‫ﺑﻮﺩ‬.‫ﺍﺧﺘـﺮﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸـﻒ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﻌﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮﺍﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺍﺭﺍﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺩﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻐﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺸﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻧﻜﻨﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ‬. ‫ﻣﻴﺸﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻋﺚ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﮔﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﭘﮋﻭﻫﺸﻲ‬ ‫ﮔﺬﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻣﺎﻳﻪ‬...... ۵ ‫ﻓﻨﺎﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺸﺮﻓﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺩﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻭﺵ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﮋﮔﻲ‬ ‫ﮔﺬﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻣﺎﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﭘﮋﻭﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬
  6. 6. ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺯﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ۶ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﻱ‬‫ﻛﺮﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﭘﺬﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﻮﺫ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺯﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺘﻦ‬‫ﺩﻫـﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺁﻧﻬﺎ‬.‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻫـﺎ‬ ‫ﭘـﺮﻭژﻩ‬ ‫ﻫﻤـﻪ‬ ‫ﺳــﺮﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺗــﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺠــﺎﻡ‬‫ﺑﺴــﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺯﻫــﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻧــﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨــﺪ‬‫ﺷــﻮﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻣــﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺠــﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺷــﺮﻛﺖ‬)Herzog, ۲۰۰۸(. ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻓﻘﻴـﺖ‬ ‫ﺑـﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﻧـﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘـﺮﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺭﺥ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﺌﻮﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‬. ‫ﺍﻣـﻮﺭ‬ ،‫ﺧـﺪﻣﺎﺕ‬ ،‫ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﭘﺨﺶ‬ ،‫ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭ‬ ،‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺁﻓﺮﻳﻨﺶ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ،‫ﺭﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ‬ ‫ﭘﺸﺘﻴﺒﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻟﻲ‬.‫ﻫـﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺣـﻮﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪﻳﺸﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻴﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮژﻱ‬‫ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮژﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺖ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻓﻜﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻟﻜﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺮﺳﺎﺧﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﺒﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺰ‬‫ﻫـﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺷـﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﺒﻮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﺷﺎ‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺪﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻧﺶ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻧﺶ‬.‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻲ‬ ،‫ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ‬.‫ﻧﺴﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﻢ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺷـﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻴـﺮﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺤـﻴﻂ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬. )،‫ﭘﻮﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﮕﻮﻥ‬1389(
  7. 7. ‫ﺯﻳﺭﺍﮐﺱ‬ ‫ﺷﺭﮐﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﻭﺳﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﭘژﻭﻫﺵ‬ ‫ﻣﺩﻝ‬)‫ﺑﺳﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻭﺁﻭﺭی‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺍی‬ ‫ﻧﻣﻭﻧﻪ‬( ۷ ‫ﺍﻳﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺷﺘﺒﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ‬
  8. 8. ‫ﻣﻳﺭﻧﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﯽ‬ ‫ﮐﻧﻧﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﻣﯽ‬ ‫ﻧﻭﺁﻭﺭی‬ ‫ﮐﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺷﺭﮐﺗﻬﺎﻳﯽ‬ ،‫ﻣﻳﺧﻭﺭﻧﺩ‬ ‫ﺷﮑﺳﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻭﺁﻭﺭی‬ ‫ﺑﻳﺷﺗﺭ‬!!!! ‫ﭘﺱ؟؟؟؟؟؟‬ ۸
  9. 9. ‫ﻧﻭﺁﻭﺭی‬ ‫ﭘﺎﺭﺍﺩﺍﻳﻡ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻳﻳﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﺯﻭﻡ‬ •‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺯﺑـﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛـﺎﺭﺁﺯﻣﻮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳـﺎﻥ‬ ،‫ﺩﺍﻧﺸـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣـﺎﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭﻛﻨـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺎﻓﺘـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻓـﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻳﻲ‬‫ﺟﺎﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺮﻙ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺩ‬‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺮ‬‫ﺳﺨﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬‫ﺑﻨﮕﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻟﻜﺎﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬‫ﺗﺨﺼﺺ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬‫ﺍﻳﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺯ‬ ‫ﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻧﺸﻤﻨﺪﺍﻥ‬. •‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﺮﭘﺬﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬‫ﮔﺬﺍﺭﻱ‬‫ﺳﺮﻣﺎﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺵ‬ •‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﺗﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ‬ •‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺮﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬‫ﻓﻨﺎﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻛﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ‬ •‫ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ •‫ﻓﻨﺎﻭﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﻄﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﺯﻱ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬‫ﻫﻤﻜﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻬﻴﻞ‬ ،‫ﻫﺎ‬‫ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻥ‬‫ﻛﻮﺗﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ‬ •‫ﺍﺗﺤﺎﺩﻳـﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺑـﺎﺯﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺁﺯﺍﺩﺳﺎﺯﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ،‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﺎﺑﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﺎﺑﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﻊ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﻭﭘﺎ‬‫ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻤﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﺒﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻗﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﻨﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﺁﺳﻴﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﻮﺭﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﻇﻬﻮﺭ‬ •‫ﻫﺎ‬‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ‬:‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛـﻪ‬ ‫ﺳـﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﺠـﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ،‫ﻓﻨﺎﻭﺭﺍﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪ‬‫ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺩﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ،‫ﺷﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺠﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ‬‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﮕﻮﻫﺎﻱ‬. ۹
  10. 10. ‫ﺑﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻧﻭﺁﻭﺭی‬:‫ﺟﺩﻳﺩ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﺭﺍﺩﺍﻳﻡ‬ ‫ﻅﻬﻭﺭ‬ ۱۰ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬‫ﭼﺴﺒﺮﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺮﻱ‬‫ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬2003‫ﻧﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬“‫ﻧـﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻟـﺰﻭﻡ‬ ،‫ﺑـﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻧـﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮژﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺩﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ‬”‫ﺑﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬. ‫ﺳـﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﻴـﺮﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﺰﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﻨﺪﺍﺭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺰ‬.‫ﻣـﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﻮﺫﭘـﺬﻳﺮﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺮﻭﻧـﻲ‬ ‫ﻫـﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻴﻂ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺯﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬. ‫ﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ،‫ﻳﺎﺑﺪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺮﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺁﺳﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻧﺶ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻫـﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺴـﺎﻧﺲ‬ ‫ﻳـﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ،‫ﺩﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﭘﮋﻭﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺧﺮﻳﺪﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮕﺮ‬. ‫ﻓـﻦ‬ ‫ﺑـﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﺑـﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻤـﺎﻧﻄﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﺭﺍﺩﺍﻳﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨـﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺑـﺎﺯﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺑـﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻴﺮﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺸﺮﻓﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬. ‫ﻣـﻲ‬ ‫ﻛـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﺴـﺐ‬ ‫ﻃـﺮﺡ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻤـﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺯﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬.
  11. 11. ‫ﺑﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻧﻭﺁﻭﺭی‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺧـﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺧـﺎﺭﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻨﺎﻭﺭﻳﻬـﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺷـﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳـﻂ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻼﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺪﻫﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺟﺎﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ،‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﺭﺷﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨـﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺑـﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻛـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻝ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻣﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻳﺎﺑـﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻳـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺷـﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺑـﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺮﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻓﻨﺎﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﺎﺑﺪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺮﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻧﺶ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ‬. Source: Chesbrough, H. – ‘��, F&S analysis
  12. 12. ۱۲ Source: Chesbrough, H. – ‘��, F&S analysis Market Research Development Company boundaries Research projects ‫ﺑﺴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﺭﺍﺩﺍﻳﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﺭﺍﺩﻳﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ‬‫ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ‬‫ﻛﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻤﻨﺪ‬‫ﻣﻲ‬‫ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬. ‫ﻛﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻤﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻫﻮﺵ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﻪ‬‫ﻧﻤﻲ‬‫ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬.‫ﻫﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﻳﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻤﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ‬. ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ‬‫ﺑﻬﺮﻩ‬‫ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﻱ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ،‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻲ‬. ‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺵ‬-‫ﻛﺎﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺯﺵ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ‬. ‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﭼﻴﺰﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﮔﺮ‬‫ﻛﺮﺩﻳﻢ‬‫ﻛﻨﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩﻣﺎﻥ‬ ،. ‫ﻣﺎ‬‫ﺁﻏﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬‫ﺑﺒﺮﻳﻢ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﮔﺮ‬. ‫ﻋﺮﺿﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﺴﺐ‬‫ﻣﻲ‬‫ﻛﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺮﻭﺯ‬. ‫ﺑﺎﺷﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻝ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬‫ﺍﺭﺍ‬‫ﺋ‬‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻪ‬‫ﻛﻨﻴﻢ‬. ‫ﺍﻳﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﮔﺮ‬-‫ﻛﻨﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﻌﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻓﻖ‬-‫ﺷﻮﻳﻢ‬. ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﮔﺮ‬‫ﺑﺮﺍ‬‫ﻱ‬‫ﺍﻳﺪﻩ‬‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬‫ﺑﺎﺷﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻓﻖ‬-‫ﺷﻮﻳﻢ‬. Current market Research Development Company boundaries New market Research projects ‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﺭﺍﺩﺍﻳﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺎﻭﺗﻬﺎﻱ‬
  13. 13. ‫ﺑﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻧﻭﺁﻭﺭی‬ ‫ﻅﻬﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺭﺍی‬ ‫ﻣﺣﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺗﺭﻳﻥ‬ ، ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺟﯽ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﺻﺗﻬﺎی‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻠﯽ‬ ‫ﻣﺣﺩﻭﺩﻳﺗﻬﺎی‬ ‫ﺍﺷﺗﺭﺍک‬ ۱۳ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺗﺭﺳﯽ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻁﻼﻋﺎﺗﯽ‬ ‫ﻣﻧﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺣﺩﻭﺩﻳﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻟﯽ‬ ‫ﻣﻧﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻧﺵ‬ ‫ﮔﯽ‬ ‫ﮔﺳﺗﺭﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﺧﺻﺻﯽ‬ ‫ﺟﻭﺍﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺧﺻﺻﯽ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻧﺵ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﺑﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺯﺵ‬ ‫ﺯﻧﺟﻳﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺟﯽ‬ ‫ﻫﺎی‬ ‫ﻓﺭﺻﺕ‬‫ﺩﺍﺧﻠﯽ‬ ‫ﻫﺎی‬ ‫ﻣﺣﺩﻭﺩﻳﺕ‬ R&D ‫ﭼﺎﻟﺷﻬﺎی‬ ‫ﻭﻳژﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺗﻬﺎی‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﯽ‬ ‫ﻫﺎی‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺩﻩ‬ Room for Open Innovation ‫ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻧﺩﺍﺷﺗﻥ‬
  14. 14. ‫ﺍﺳﺕ؟‬ ‫ﻣﻭﺛﺭ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺳﻣﺕ‬ ‫ﮐﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻧﻭﺁﻭﺭی‬ Lichtenthaler, ۲۰۰۷ 3‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻧﺶ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺤﺚ‬: -‫ﺩﺍﻧﺶ‬ ‫ﻛﺴﺐ‬)‫ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬(‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻛﺴﺐ‬ -‫ﺩﺍﻧﺶ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻔﻴﻖ‬)‫ﺩﺍﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺑﻂ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬(‫ﺳﭙﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﺍﻛﺖ‬ -‫ﺩﺍﻧﺶ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺮﻩ‬)‫ﻓﺮﻭﺧﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﮕﻪ‬(‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻮﺯ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺴﺎﻧﺲ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻭﺵ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺫﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻤﺘﻬﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ، ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻝ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﮋﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺸﻮﺩ‬.‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﺎﺑﺖ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ،‫ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺁﺯﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﺍﻳﺸﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺩﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺮﺡ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻟﻬﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺩﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻧﺶ‬.
  15. 15. ‫ﺑﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ۱۵ Source: lee,Park et al ���� 1-‫ﺷﻮﻧﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬):‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺮﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬( ‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬)‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻱ‬‫ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮژﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺘﻴﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺴﺎﻧﺲ‬ ‫ﺧﺮﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﭘﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻨﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﻴﺰﺩ؛‬‫ﺩﺭﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬‫ﺷﻴﻮﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ،‫ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺁﻭﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮژﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬(. 2-‫ﺷﻮﻧﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺝ‬) :‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺮﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬( ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬) .‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺘﻴﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ً‫ﻼ‬‫ﻣﺜ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ‬‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺪ؛‬‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﻄﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺪ‬(. 3-‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﻴﻮﻩ‬: ‫ﺩﺍﻧﺶ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺪﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ،‫ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬‫ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻨﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ،‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺧﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪﻱ‬.‫ﻣﺪﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺮ‬‫ﻧﺰﺩﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﻜﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻠﺰﻡ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ )Joint Venture(
  16. 16. 1-‫ﺧﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺘﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﺩ‬: ‫ﻳﺎﺑﺪ‬‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﻘﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬‫ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ‬ ،‫ﻣﻜﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬‫ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮژﻱ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬‫ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺧﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺒﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺮﺍ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ؛‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬‫ﺁپ‬‫ﺍﺳﺘﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﻜﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﮔﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﮋﻩ‬‫ﺑﻪ‬. 2-‫ﺑﻠﻨﺪﻣﺪﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬: ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﺪ‬‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺪﺍﺷﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ً‫ﻼ‬‫ﻗﺒ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺼﺼﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻧﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ‬.‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﺳﺎﺱ‬)OECD(‫ﻓﺮﻭﺷﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺁﻳﻨﺪ‬‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻳﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭ‬. 3-‫ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬: ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﮕﻴﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯﺧﻮﺭﺩﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺮﻱ‬‫ﺑﻬﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ‬‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻤﺮﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﺍﻱ‬‫ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﭼﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬. 4-‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﺎﺑﻲ‬‫ﺭﺍﻩ‬: ،‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻱ‬‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺗﺠﺮﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﻜﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ‬‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﭼﻚ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬‫ﻛﺎﻧﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬. ۱۶ ‫ﻭﻳﮋﮔﻲ‬‫ﺑﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬ Source: lee,Park et al ����
  17. 17. 5-‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﭘﺬﻳﺮﻱ‬‫ﺍﻧﻌﻄﺎﻑ‬: ‫ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﭘﺬﻳﺮ‬‫ﺍﻧﻌﻄﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺪ‬‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻚ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﺰﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﺬﺏ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩﺗﺮﻳﻦ‬ ،‫ﺩﻫﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻧﺶ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺤﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﭙﺲ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺼﺼﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬‫ﺗﻴﻢ‬. 6-‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺟﺬﺏ‬ ‫ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬: ‫ﺩﺍﻧﺶ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﭘﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻨﺪﻣﺪﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ،‫ﻓﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻧﺶ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺎﺑﺪ‬‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﻘﺎ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻱ‬‫ﭘﺎﻳﻪ‬.‫ﺑﻬﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﺁﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﺑﻂ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬‫ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ‬‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺒﺮﺩ‬. 7-‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﺭﻳﺰﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﭘﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ‬: ‫ﻛﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﮕﻴﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﻥ‬‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺭﻧﺪ‬‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬‫ﻗﻔﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﺳﺖ‬‫ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻳﻲ‬‫ﭘﺮﻭژﻩ‬.‫ﻫﺎ‬‫ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﭘﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬‫ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ‬‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﺎﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﻭ‬.‫ﺷﺎﻧﺲ‬ ‫ﭼﻨﻴﻦ‬‫ﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻳﺎﺑﺪ‬‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺴﺎﻧﺲ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺁﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬‫ﺍﻳﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﺩ‬.‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺠﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻻﺯﻡ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺼﺺ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﭼﻚ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺩ‬‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺼﺼﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻬﺎﺩﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺻﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻨﻜﻪ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺘ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭﻳﺎﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺪ‬‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬‫ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮﺗﺠﺎﺭﻱ‬. ۱۷ ‫ﻭﻳﮋﮔﻲ‬‫ﺑﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬ Source: lee,Park et al ����
  18. 18. ‫ﺑﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻧﻭﺁﻭﺭی‬ ‫ﻫﺎی‬ ‫ﭼﺎﻟﺵ‬ Source: Chesbrough, H. – ‘��, F&S analysis •‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻝ‬–‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺯﺵ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﻇﻴﻔﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﻭ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﮔﺎﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻬﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕﻲ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ‬ ‫ﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻤﺘﻬﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻜﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻱ‬. •‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻜﻞ‬-،‫ﺩﺍﻧﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺯﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﻤﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮓ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﺑﺴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻧﺶ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻧﺶ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺭﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ •‫ﭘﻮﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ‬–‫ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﮕﺮﺵ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻧﮕﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺎﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﻭ‬ ‫ﻧﮕﺮﺵ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻗﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ IP •‫ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻙ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻧﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻟﻜﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬
  19. 19. ۱۹ ‫ﺑـﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺎﺭﮔﻴﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ،‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﭼﺎﺭﭼﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺯ‬ ‫ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺵ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﺪﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻋﻲ‬: 1-‫ﺑﭙﺮﺩﺍﺯﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻧﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻗﺮﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ‬ ،‫ﺩﺭﻙ‬ ،‫ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻧﺪ‬. 2-‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩﻧﻴـﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻧـﺪﺍﺭﺩ،ﺩﺍﻧﺶ‬ ‫ﻭﺟـﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﭼﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﭼﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻧﺶ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻤﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺧﻠﻖ‬. 3-‫ﻛﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻧﺶ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺧﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻧﺶ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺖ‬. 4-‫ﻫـﺎ‬ ‫ﺷـﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﺳـﺎﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﮋﻭﻫﺸﻲ‬ ‫ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻭﺵ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺁﻣﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﮔﺎﻡ‬.)، ‫ﭼﺴﺒﺮﻭ‬2003( ‫ﺑﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﺭﺩﺍﻳﻢ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻇﺎﻳﻒ‬:
  20. 20. ‫ﺑﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻧﻭﺁﻭﺭی‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻳﺞ‬ ‫ﻫﺎی‬ ‫ﻣﺩﻝ‬ 1-‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﭘﻠﺘﻔﺮﻡ‬Open source platforms ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﭼﺎﺭﭼﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ‬‫ﺑﻪ‬ ،‫ﺗﻜﻤﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻳﻜﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬tool-kit،‫ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﻱ‬‫ﺑﻬﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻱ‬‫ﺳﻔﺎﺭﺷﻲ‬.‫ﺑـﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼـﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺯﺵ‬ ‫ﺍﻓـﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈـﻮﺭ‬‫ﺑـﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬‫ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺪﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﮔﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻱ‬‫ﻃﺮﻓﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺎﻣﻲ‬. ‫ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎﻧﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺱ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ‬‫ﻧﺮﻡ‬ ‫ﭼﺎﺭﭼﻮﺏ‬Application Programming Interface (API)‫ﻧﻤﻮﻧـﻪ‬‫ﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻱ‬‫ﻧﺮﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬‫ﭘﻠﺘﻔﺮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻳﺞ‬.‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺗـﺄﺛﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻱ‬‫ﺷﺒﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺛﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭﻫﺎﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺵ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺟـﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﭼﺎﺭﭼﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻤﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺎﺿﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻳﻲ‬)‫ﻫـﺎﻱ‬‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣـﻪ‬ ‫ﻳـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﻤـﺮﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻔـﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻴـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺁﻧﻼﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻱ‬(‫ﻣﺤﺼـﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴـﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﮔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺠﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻏﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﭘﻠﺘﻔﺮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻝ‬‫ﺩﺭﻋﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺎ‬ ‫؛‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺩ‬‫ﻣﻲ‬. 2-‫ﺍﻳﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺑﻘﺎﺕ‬Think outside box ‫ﺭﻗﺎﺑـﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺸـﻮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻋﺚ‬ ،‫ﭘﺎﺩﺍﺵ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﮋﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻴﻠﻪ‬‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻱ‬‫ﺭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻱ‬‫ﭘﻴﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺩ‬‫ﻣﻲ‬.‫ﻧﻈﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺑﻘﺎﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ‬Hackathon‫ﮔﻴﺮﻧـﺪ‬‫ﻣـﻲ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬.‫ﺑـﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺵ‬ ‫ﺍﻳـﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻴـﻨﺶ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺍﺋـﻪ‬ ‫ﺑـﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨـﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻛـﻪ‬‫ﺩﺭﺣـﺎﻟﻲ‬ ،‫ﺩﺍﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳـﺪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬‫ﺍﻳﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺯﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺪ‬‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻳﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺮ‬‫ﻋﻤﻴﻖ‬. Source: IMD –CVC When it works and when it doesn‘t – ’۰۷; F&S analysis
  21. 21. ‫ﺑﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻧﻭﺁﻭﺭی‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻳﺞ‬ ‫ﻫﺎی‬ ‫ﻣﺩﻝ‬ 3-‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﭙﺎﺭﭼﻪ‬Own operating OI platforms ‫ﺳـﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭﻛﻨـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑـﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﻣـﻞ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺰﺑﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻧﺰﺩﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻨﻴﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬.‫ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨـﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺸـﺘﺮﻳﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺸـﺎﺭﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻋﺚ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻳﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬‫ﺩﺍﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺵ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺩ‬‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ‬. 4-‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻙ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ‬ Partnership/ Outsourcing /Corporate Capitel Venturing ‫ﻛﻨـﺪ‬‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﻜﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ،‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﭘﻠﺘﻔﺮﻡ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺵ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎﻧﻨﺪ‬.‫ﺍﻳـﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻔـﺎﻭﺕ‬ ‫ﺳـﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨـﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺟـﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﻴﻨـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﻜﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﭼﺎﺭﭼﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺵ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺵ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺷﺖ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻻﺯﻡ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ‬ ،‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺰﺑﺎﻥ‬.‫ﺑﻴﺸـﺘﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﻧﻈـﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﺟﺎﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺵ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻫـﺎﻱ‬‫ﻫﺰﻳﻨـﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻋﺚ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻝ‬‫ﺩﺭﻋﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻋﺚ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺩ‬‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬. 5-‫ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ‬‫ﺷﺒﻜﻪ‬Connect + Develop ‫ﻳـﻚ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟـﺐ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﭘـﺎﺩﺍﺵ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺍﺋـﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﻜﺎﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻱ‬‫ﺷﺒﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ،‫ﺍﻳﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺑﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﺭ‬‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺪ‬‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﮕﻴﺰﻩ‬.‫ﺑـﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﺣـﻞ‬‫ﺭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳـﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈـﻮﺭ‬‫ﺑـﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﻜﺎﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻱ‬‫ﺷﺒﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺎﻭﺕ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺩ‬‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﻳﻲ‬. Source: IMD –CVC When it works and when it doesn‘t – ’۰۷; F&S analysis
  22. 22. ‫ﻣﻧﺎﺑﻊ‬: [۱] H. W. Chesbrough, W. Vanhaverbeke, and J. West, Open innovation: Researching a new paradigm. Oxford: Oxford University Press, USA, ۲۰۰۶. [۲] S. Sisodiya, “The effect of open innovation on new product development success: The moderation of interfirm relational knowledge stores and social network characteristics.,” Washington State University, ۲۰۱۰. [۳] M. Sawhney, R. C. Wolcott, and I. Arroniz, “The ۱۲ Different Ways for Companies to Innovate,” vol. ۴۷, no. ۳, ۲۰۰۶. [۴] L. Dahlander and D. M. Gann, “How open is innovation?,” Research Policy, vol. ۳۹, no. ۶, pp. ۶۹۹–۷۰۹, Jul. ۲۰۱۰.

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