Cultural Diversity                     Dr. Shohail Choudhury
Layout    1   For Cultural        Diversity        5   Hofstede’s five value                             dimensions    2  ...
For Cultural Diversity    Arguments in favour of cultural diversity in organisations    Cultural diversity builds strength...
Organisational Culture            Inclusivity          • How open the organization is to someone who can do the job       ...
Characteristics of aMulticultural Organisation                               • Members of minority and majority cultures  ...
Managing diversity in workplace    Building an inclusive work environment that allows    everyone to reach their potential6
Culture and structure                            Hofstede’s findings                          One of the important studies...
Hofstede’s five value dimensions                         Diversity among global cultures                               • T...
Global cultures and value dimensions9
Project Globe10
Hofstede’s arguments     Given the value differences, Hofstede questioned whether American theories     could be applied a...
Characteristics of a Multicultural Organisation12
Hofstede’s arguments              In countries with high uncertainty avoidance     Organisation more formalised.     Great...
Hofstede’s arguments             In countries with high collectivist orientation     Preference for group as opposed to in...
Hofstede’s arguments                In countries ranked high on masculinity     Management style is likely to be more conc...
Characteristics of a Multicultural Organisation16
Case Study17
Thank you!18
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Cultural diversity lesson 6

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Cultural diversity lesson 6

  1. 1. Cultural Diversity Dr. Shohail Choudhury
  2. 2. Layout 1 For Cultural Diversity 5 Hofstede’s five value dimensions 2 Organisational Culture 6 Project Globe 3 Multicultural Organisation 7 Hofstede’s arguments 4 diversity in workplace 8 Case Study2
  3. 3. For Cultural Diversity Arguments in favour of cultural diversity in organisations Cultural diversity builds strength for dealing with global markets. To be successful in working with and Ethnic diversity builds strength for dealing with diverse customers. gaining value from diversity requires a Diverse work teams are high in creativity and innovation. sustained, systemic approach and long- Diverse workforces attract new highly talented members. term commitment. an opportunity for an occasion that as well as group Success is everyone in an requires a leadership and facilitated by a organization to supportive and process skills that perspective that learn from each cooperative can facilitate considers diversity other how better organizational effective group to be to accomplish culture functioning. their work and3
  4. 4. Organisational Culture Inclusivity • How open the organization is to someone who can do the job • A shared set of beliefs, values and patterns of behavior common Culture to group of people • Organization based on pluralism and operates with respect for Multicultural Organisation diversity • Groupings of people based on shared demographics and job Organisational Subcultures identities • The belief that one’s sub-cultural group or membership is Ethnocentrism superior to all others4
  5. 5. Characteristics of aMulticultural Organisation • Members of minority and majority cultures Pluralism influence key values and policies. • Minority-culture members are well represented at Structural integration all levels and in all responsibilities. Informal network • Mentoring and support groups assist career integration development of minority-culture members. Absence of prejudice and • Training and task force activities support goal of discrimination eliminating culture-group biases. Minimum inter-group • Members of minority and majority cultures avoid conflict destructive conflicts.5
  6. 6. Managing diversity in workplace Building an inclusive work environment that allows everyone to reach their potential6
  7. 7. Culture and structure Hofstede’s findings One of the important studies Attempted to study impact cultural differences on management Conducted by Geert Hofstede, first in the late 1960s and continuing through the next three decades. The original study was based on an employee survey involving 116,000 IBM employees in 40 different countries. The survey asked people of their preferences in terms of management style and work environment. Hofstede five value dimensions on which countries differed.7
  8. 8. Hofstede’s five value dimensions Diversity among global cultures • The degree to which a society accepts unequal Power Distance distribution of power • The degree to which a society tolerates risk and Uncertainty Avoidance uncertainty Individualism- • The degree to which a society emphasizes individuals and collectivism their self-interests • The degree to which a society values assertiveness and Masculinity-femininity materialism • The degree to which a society values short term or long Long Term Orientation term goals8
  9. 9. Global cultures and value dimensions9
  10. 10. Project Globe10
  11. 11. Hofstede’s arguments Given the value differences, Hofstede questioned whether American theories could be applied abroad and discussed the consequences of cultural differences in terms of motivation, leadership, and organisation. Hofstede argued, organisations in countries with high power distance would tend to have More levels of hierarchy. A higher proportion of supervisory personnel (narrow span of control). More centralised decision making. Status and power would serve as motivators. Leaders would obeyed as authorities.11
  12. 12. Characteristics of a Multicultural Organisation12
  13. 13. Hofstede’s arguments In countries with high uncertainty avoidance Organisation more formalised. Greater amount of written rules and organisation. Greater importance attached to specialisation in terms of technical competence. Managers would avoid risk and would be motivated by stability and security. The role of leadership would be more one of planning, organising, coordinating, and controlling.13
  14. 14. Hofstede’s arguments In countries with high collectivist orientation Preference for group as opposed to individual decision making. Consensus and cooperation more valued than individual initiative and effort. Motivation derives from sense of belonging, and rewards are based on being part of the group (loyalty and tenure). The role of leadership is to facilitate team effort and integration, to foster a supportive atmosphere, and to create necessary group culture.14
  15. 15. Hofstede’s arguments In countries ranked high on masculinity Management style is likely to be more concerned with task accomplishment than nurturing social relationships. Motivation will be based on accumulation of money and things rather than quality of life. The role of leadership is to ensure bottom-line profits in order to satisfy shareholders. In a more feminine cultures, the role of the leader would be to safeguard employee well-being, and to demonstrate concern to social responsibility. Hofstede’s also found country clusters.15
  16. 16. Characteristics of a Multicultural Organisation16
  17. 17. Case Study17
  18. 18. Thank you!18

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