Biodiversity Management


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  • Yeah… species extinctions are a natural process and it’s likely that we’ve simply entered the decline of the Bird and Mammal dominated biosphere and into a new phase. It is also quite likely if you take a thorough look at the fossil record, that the highest of those species that have developed so far, is meant to take over the biosphere and it seems to me that it’s the human species that fulfills this role. That is, if we choose to not act like animals and be intelligent. Population caps or population reduction is a desire for the extinction of the greatest creation the biosphere has been able to produce; humanity. It also is rather peculiar to me, and seems a strange coincidence that a bunch of uppity oligarchs like Prince Philip and Sir David Attenborough are pushing this green population control stuff. I think it may be that they only want them and their families to live on planet earth so they can have there way with a bestial mankind and also with donkeys like their buddy Bertrand Russell… hmmm… Well according to this video and James Dwight Dana, the entire biosphere had conspired to create a species capable of cognition, and the intentional stifling of this cognitive power is going against the intended design of the creator. Maybe all this “naturalist”, “green” anti-development/anti-progress stuff is just unnatural Imperial Brainwashing…?
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Biodiversity Management

  1. 1. Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity: The Ecosystem Approach G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 14th Edition Chapter 11 Shohail Motahir Choudhury
  2. 2. Key Concepts <ul><li>Human land use </li></ul><ul><li>Types and uses of US public lands </li></ul><ul><li>Forests and forest management </li></ul><ul><li>Implications of deforestation </li></ul><ul><li>Management of parks </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment and management of nature preserves </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of ecological restoration </li></ul>
  3. 3. Human Activities and Biodiversity Biodiversity Increase Factors <ul><li>Middle stages of </li></ul><ul><li>succession </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate environmental </li></ul><ul><li>disturbance </li></ul><ul><li>Small changes in </li></ul><ul><li>environmental conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Physically diverse habitat </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution </li></ul>Decrease Factors <ul><li>Extreme environ- </li></ul><ul><li>mental conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Large environmental </li></ul><ul><li>disturbance </li></ul><ul><li>Intense environ- </li></ul><ul><li>mental stress </li></ul><ul><li>Severe shortages of </li></ul><ul><li>key resources </li></ul><ul><li>Nonnative species </li></ul><ul><li>introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic isolation </li></ul>Biodiversity
  4. 4. Human Population Size and resource use Human Activities Agriculture, industry, economic production and consumption, recreation Indirect Effects Direct Effects Degradation and destruction of natural ecosystems Alteration of natural chemical cycles and energy flows Changes in number and distribution of species Pollution of air, water, and soil Climate change Loss of biodiversity
  5. 5. Projected Status of Biodiversity 1998–2018 Critical and endangered Threatened Stable or intact NORTH AMERICA Atlantic Ocean Natural Capital Degradation ANTARCTICA EUROPE AFRICA ASIA SOUTH AMERICA AUSTRALIA Pacific Ocean Antarctic Circle Pacific Ocean Tropic of Cancer Tropic of Capricorn Indian Ocean 150° 90° 60°E 0° 30°W 90° 120° 150° 0° 60° 30°N 30°S 60° Arctic Circle Arctic Circle
  6. 6. Why should we care about biodiversity? Intrinsic value Instrumental value or Existence value Aesthetic value Bequest value
  7. 7. The Species Approach The Ecosystem Approach Goal Protect species from premature extinction Strategies <ul><li>Identify endangered species </li></ul><ul><li>Protect their critical habitats </li></ul>Tactics <ul><li>Legally protect endangered species </li></ul><ul><li>Manage habitat </li></ul><ul><li>Propagate endangered species in captivity </li></ul><ul><li>Reintroduce species into suitable habitats </li></ul>Goal Protect populations of species in their natural habitats Strategy Preserve sufficient areas of habitats in different biomes and aquatic systems Tactics <ul><li>Protect habitat areas through private purchase or government action </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate or reduce populations of alien species from protected areas </li></ul><ul><li>Manage protected areas to sustain native species </li></ul><ul><li>Restore degraded ecosystems </li></ul>Solutions for Protecting Biodiversity
  8. 8. Management of Forests Old-growth (frontier) forests 22% Second-growth forests 63% Tree farms/plantation 5%
  9. 9. Managing and Sustaining Forests Ecological Importance of Forests Food webs and energy flow Protect soils from erosion Local and regional climate Numerous habitats and niches Air purification
  10. 10. Economic Importance of Forests Fuelwood Lumber Paper Livestock grazing Mineral extraction and recreation Managing and Sustaining Forests
  11. 11. Forest Management Even-aged management Uneven-aged management Improved diversity Sustainable production Multiple-use Rotation cycle
  12. 12. Management Strategies: Rotation Cycles
  13. 13. Roads Lead to Forest Degradation Increased erosion and runoff Habitat fragmentation Pathways for exotic species Accessibility to humans
  14. 14. Harvesting Trees Selective cutting High-grading Shelterwood cutting Seed-tree cutting Clear-cutting Strip cutting
  15. 15. Trade-Offs Clear-Cutting Forests Advantages Disadvantages Higher timber yields Maximum economic return in shortest time Can reforest with genetically improved fast-growing trees Short time to establish new stand of trees Needs less skill and planning Best way to harvest tree plantations Good for tree species needing full or moderate sunlight for growth Reduces biodiversity Disrupts ecosystem processes Destroys and fragments some wildlife habitats Leaves moderate to large openings Increases soil erosion Increases sediment water pollution and flooding when done on steep slopes Eliminates most recreational value for several decades
  16. 16. Solutions Sustainable Forestry <ul><li>Grow more timber on long rotations </li></ul><ul><li>Rely more on selective cutting and strip cutting </li></ul><ul><li>No clear-cutting, seed-tree, or shelterwood cutting </li></ul><ul><li>on steeply sloped land </li></ul><ul><li>No fragmentation of remaining large blocks of forest </li></ul><ul><li>Sharply reduce road building into uncut forest areas </li></ul><ul><li>Leave most standing dead trees and fallen timber for </li></ul><ul><li>wildlife habitat and nutrient recycling </li></ul><ul><li>Certify timber grown by sustainable methods </li></ul><ul><li>Include ecological services of trees and forests in </li></ul><ul><li>estimating economic value </li></ul>
  17. 17. Fire Surface fires Crown fires
  18. 18. Trade-Offs Advantages Disadvantages Logging in U.S. National Forests Helps meet country’s timber needs Cut areas grow back Keeps lumber and paper prices down Provides jobs in nearby communities Promotes economic growth in nearby communities Provides only 4% of timber needs Ample private forest land to meet timber needs Has little effect on timber and paper prices Damages nearby rivers and fisheries Recreation in national forests provides more local jobs and income for local communities than logging Decreases recreational opportunities
  19. 19. Tropical Deforestation: Consequences Rapid and increasing Loss of biodiversity Loss of resources ( e.g ., medicines) Contributes to global warming
  20. 20. <ul><li>Oil drilling </li></ul><ul><li>Mining </li></ul><ul><li>Flooding from dams </li></ul><ul><li>Tree plantations </li></ul><ul><li>Cattle ranching </li></ul><ul><li>Cash crops </li></ul><ul><li>Settler farming </li></ul><ul><li>Fires </li></ul><ul><li>Logging </li></ul><ul><li>Roads </li></ul><ul><li>Not valuing </li></ul><ul><li>ecological services </li></ul><ul><li>Exports </li></ul><ul><li>Government policies </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Population growth </li></ul>Secondary Causes Basic Causes Causes of tropical forest degradation
  21. 21. Figure 11-19 Page 213 Protect most diverse and endangered areas Educate settlers about sustainable agriculture and forestry Phase out subsidies that encourage unsustainable forest use Add subsidies that encourage sustainable forest use Protect forests with debt-for-nature swaps, conservation easements , and conservation concessions Certify sustainably grown timber Reduce illegal cutting Reduce poverty Slow population growth Reforestation Rehabilitation of degraded areas Concentrate farming and ranching on already-cleared areas Restoration Prevention Solutions Sustaining Tropical Forests
  22. 22. Ecological Restoration <ul><li>Restoration </li></ul><ul><li>Rehabilitation </li></ul><ul><li>Replacement </li></ul><ul><li>Creating artificial ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Remediation </li></ul>
  23. 23. Ecological Restoration: Basic Principles Mimic nature Recreate lost niches Control nonnative species Reconnect small patches Rely on pioneer species
  24. 24. Individuals Matter Wangari Maathai Green Belt Movement
  25. 25. What Can You Do? Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity <ul><li>Plant trees and take care of them. </li></ul><ul><li>Recycle paper and buy recycled paper products. </li></ul><ul><li>Buy wood and wood products made from trees that </li></ul><ul><li>have been grown sustainably. </li></ul><ul><li>Help rehabilitate or restore a degraded area of </li></ul><ul><li>forest or grassland near your home. </li></ul><ul><li>When building a home, save all the trees and as much </li></ul><ul><li>natural vegetation and soil as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Landscape your yard with a diversity of plants natural </li></ul><ul><li>to the area instead of having a monoculture lawn. </li></ul>