NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MODERN LANGUAGESInformationTechnologyMicrsoft Windows (Information About Microsoft Windows)
IN THE NAME OF ALLAH THE MOST GRACIOUS THE MOST MERCIFUL“Say : Come I will recite what your Lordhas forbidden to you –that you do notassociate anything with Him and showkindness to your parents , and do notslay your children for (fear of) poverty;We provide sustenance for you and forthem. Do not approach the shamefuldeed whether open or secret; and do nottake life, which ALLAH has made sacredexpect for the requirement of justice;This He has command you, with that youmay understand.” (AL-QURAN)
Message from Regional Director Lahore Campus “Change is the only constant. Hanging on is the only sin”. Adhering to status quo is tantamount to nullifying the process of growth and augmentation. Those, who stubbornly stick to status quo are subject to ultimate annihilation. He who rejects change is the architect of decay. Hence the secret of our survival lies in keeping pace with rapid changes brought by modern science and technology. We are duty bound to keep ourselves abreast of the demands of the postmodern era, which is perpetually undergoing a process of rapid transition. An up-to-date nation walks many miles ahead of those people, who are averse to progress I would like to impress upon modem youth to leave no stone unturned to work for the well-being and uplift of our beloved country. Hard work and strenuous efforts will surely pave way for our ultimate success. Follow the following dictum in letter and spirit: Be strong! We are not here to play, to dream, to drift, We have hard work to do, and loads to lift. Shun not the struggle; face it. It’s Gods gift. NUML Lahore campus has a highly qualified faculty. We aim at providing students with diverse knowledge of their discipline, which goes a long way in their character building as useful citizen of Pakistan. We provide an environment conducive for learning. As Regional Director, it is my august and foremost duty to provide congenial, peaceful and friendly environment, where students may acquire knowledge and nurture and groom their personality through curricular and extra-mural activities. I always encourage my staff to work earnestly and righteously for the optimum satisfaction of the students. I am confident that NUML, Lahore campus, will continue to flourish and excel in the field of higher education and research to live up to the challenges of the 21st century. Brig. (R) Muhammad Akram Khan RegionalDirector
Contents Microsoft Windows Windows CE Windows 95 Windows 98 Windows 2000 Windows ME Windows XP Windows Vista Windows 7 Windows 8
Microsoft WindowsWindows 3.1Windows 3.1x is a series of 16-bit operating systems produced byMicrosoft for use on personal computers. The series began withWindows 3.1, which was first sold during March1992 as a successor to Windows 3.0. Furthereditions were released between 1992 and 1994until the series was superseded by Windows 95.Windows 3.1 (originally codenamed Janus,[citationneeded] of which two betas were published),released on April 6, 1992, includes a TrueType fontsystem (and a set of highly legible fonts), whicheffectively made Windows a viable desktop publishing platform for thefirst time. Similar functionality was available for Windows 3.0 throughthe Adobe Type Manager (ATM) font system from Adobe.Windows 3.1 was designed to have backward compatibility with olderWindows platforms. As with Windows 3.0, version 3.1 had FileManager and Program Manager, but unlike all previous versions,Windows 3.1 and later support 32-bit disk access, cannot run in realmode, and included Minesweeper instead of Reversi (though Reversiwas included in some copies).Windows 3.1 Multimedia PC Version (Beta only, released Nov 1992 –codenamed Bombay) included a media viewer, and the ability to playvideo files. It was targeted to the new multimedia PC and includedsound and video integration with CD-ROM support
Microsoft WindowsWindows 95A major release of the Microsoft Windows operating system releasedin 1995. Windows 95 represents a significant advance over itsprecursor, Windows 3.1. In addition to sportinga new user interface, Windows 95 also includesa number of important internal improvements.Perhaps most important, it supports 32-bitapplications, which means that applicationswritten specifically for this operating systemshould run much faster. And although Windows95 can run older Windows and DOS applications,it has essentially removed DOS as the underlying platform. This hasmeant removal of many of the old DOS limitations, such as 640K ofmain memory and 8-character filenames.Windows 98Windows 98 (codenamed Memphis) is a graphical operating system byMicrosoft. It is the second major release in the Windows 9x line ofoperating systems. It was released tomanufacturing on May 15, 1998 and to retailon June 25, 1998. Windows 98 is the successorto Windows 95. Like its predecessor, it is ahybrid 16-bit/32-bit monolithic productwith an MS-DOS based boot stage.Windows 98 was succeeded by Windows 98Second Edition on May 5, 1999. Development
Microsoft Windowsof Windows 98 began in the 1990s, initially using the codename"Memphis" to refer to the product. Many builds were released orleaked, starting with build 1351 on December 15, 1996 and endingwith Windows 98 Second Edition.Windows MEWindows Millennium Edition, or Windows ME (pronounced as aninitialism, "M-E"), is a graphical operating system released onSeptember 14, 2000 by Microsoft,and was the last operating systemreleased in the Windows 9x series.Windows ME was the successor toWindows 98 and was targeted specifically at home PC users. Itincluded Internet Explorer 5.5, Windows Media Player 7, and the newWindows Movie Maker software, which provided basic video editingand was designed to be easy to use for home users. Microsoft alsoupdated the graphical user interface, shell features, and WindowsExplorer in Windows ME with some of those first introduced inWindows 2000, which had been released as a business-orientedoperating system seven months earlier. Windows ME could beupgraded to Internet Explorer 6 SP1 (but not to SP2 (SV1) or InternetExplorer 7), Outlook Express 6 SP1 and Windows Media Player 9 Series.Microsoft .NET Framework up to and including version 2.0 issupported, however versions 2.0 SP1, 3.x, and greater are not. OfficeXP was the last version of Microsoft Office to be compatible withWindows ME.
Microsoft WindowsWindows 2000Windows 2000 is an operating system produced by Microsoft for useon both client and server computers. Windows 2000 was released tomanufacturing on December 15,1999 and launched to retail onFebruary 17, 2000. It is the successorto Windows NT 4.0, and is the lastversion of Microsoft Windows to displaythe "Windows NT" designation. It is succeeded by Windows XP(released in October 2001) and Windows Server 2003 (released in April2003). During development, Windows 2000 was known as Windows NT5.0.Four editions of Windows 2000 were released: Professional, Server,Advanced Server, and Datacenter Server. Additionally, Microsoftsold Windows 2000 Advanced Server Limited Edition and Windows2000 Datacenter Server Limited Edition, which ran on 64-bit IntelItanium microprocessors and they were released in 2001. Whileeach edition of Windows 2000 was targeted at a different market, theyshared a core set of features, including many system utilities such asthe Microsoft Management Console and standard systemadministration applications.
Microsoft WindowsWindows XPWindows XP is an operating system produced by Microsoft for use onpersonal computers, including home and business desktops, laptopsand media centers. First released to computermanufacturers on August 24, 2001, it is thesecond most popular version of Windows,based on installed user base. The name"XP" is short for "eXPerience", highlightingthe enhanced user experience.Windows XP, the successor to Windows 2000 and Windows ME, wasthe first consumer-oriented operating system produced by Microsoftto be built on the Windows NT kernel. Windows XP was releasedworldwide for retail sale on October 25, 2001, and over 400 millioncopies were in use in January 2006. It was succeeded by WindowsVista in January 2007. Direct OEM and retail sales of Windows XPceased on June 30, 2008. Microsoft continued to sell Windows XPthrough their System Builders (smaller OEMs who sell assembledcomputers) program until January 31, 2009. On April 10, 2012,Microsoft reaffirmed that extended support for Windows XP andOffice 2003 would end on April 8, 2014 and suggested thatadministrators begin preparing to migrate to a newer OS. The NT-basedversions of Windows, which are programmed in C, C++, andassembly, are known for their improved stability and efficiencyover the 9x versions of Microsoft Windows.
Microsoft WindowsWindows VistaWindows Vista is an operating system released in several variations byMicrosoft for use on personal computers, including home and businessdesktops, laptops, tablet PCs, and media centerPCs. Prior to its announcement on July 22, 2005,Windows Vista was known by its codename"Longhorn". Development was completed onNovember 8, 2006, and over the following threemonths, it was released in stages to computerhardware and software manufacturers, businesscustomers and retail channels. On January 30,2007, it was released worldwide and was made available forpurchase and download from Microsofts website. The release ofWindows Vista came more than five years after the introduction of itspredecessor, Windows XP, the longest time span between successivereleases of Microsoft Windows desktop operating systems. It wassucceeded by Windows 7, which was released to manufacturing onJuly 22, 2009 and released worldwide for retail on October 22, 2009.New features of Windows Vista include an updated graphical userinterface and visual style dubbed Aero, a new search component calledWindows Search, redesigned networking, audio, print and display sub-systems, and new multimedia tools including Windows DVD Maker.Vista aimed to increase the level of communication between machineson a home network, using peer-to-peer technology to simplify sharingfiles and media between computers and devices. Windows Vistaincluded version 3.0 of the .NET Framework, allowing softwaredevelopers to write applications without traditional Windows APIs.
Microsoft WindowsWindows 7Windows 7 is an operating system produced by Microsoft for use onpersonal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops,netbooks, tablet PCs, and media center PCs;Windows 7 was released to manufacturing onJuly 22, 2009, and reached general retailavailability worldwide on October 22, 2009,less than three years after the release of itspredecessor, Windows Vista. Windows 7s servercounterpart, Windows Server 2008 R2, wasreleased at the same time. Windows 7 issucceeded by Windows 8, released on October 26, 2012.Unlike Windows Vista, which introduced a large number of newfeatures, Windows 7 was intended to be a more focused, incrementalupgrade to the Windows line, with the goal of being compatible withapplications and hardware with which Windows Vista was alreadycompatible. Presentations given by Microsoft in 2008 focused onmulti-touch support, a redesigned Windows shell with a new taskbar,referred to as the Superbar, a home networking system calledHomeGroup, and performance improvements. Some standardapplications that have been included with prior releases of MicrosoftWindows, including Windows Calendar, Windows Mail, WindowsMovie Maker, and Windows Photo Gallery, are not included inWindows 7; most are instead offered separately at no chargeas part of the Windows Essentials suite
Microsoft WindowsWindows 8Windows 8 is the current release of the Windows operating system,produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including homeand business desktops, laptops, tablets, andhome theater PCs. Development of Windows 8started before the release of its predecessor in2009. Its existence was first announced at CES2011, and followed by the release of three pre-release versions from September 2011 to May2012. The operating system was released tomanufacturing on 1 August 2012, and wasreleased for general availability on 26 October 2012Windows 8 introduces significant changes to the operating systemsplatform, primarily focused towards improving its user experience onmobile devices such as tablets to rival other mobile operating systemslike Android and iOS, taking advantage of new or emergingtechnologies like USB 3.0, UEFI firmware, near field communications,cloud computing and the low-power ARM architecture, new securityfeatures such as malware filtering, built-in antivirus capabilities, a newinstallation process optimized for digital distribution, and support forsecure boot (a UEFI feature which allows operating systems to bedigitally signed to prevent malware from altering the boot process),the ability to synchronize certain apps and settings between multipledevices, along with other changes and performance improvements.