School health services


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School health services

  2. 2. Introduction• Children between the age of 5-17 years are school age children.• About 30 percent of the population is comprised of this age group. 2
  3. 3. School• School is defined as an educational institution where groups of pupils pursue defined studies at defined levels, receive instructions from one or more teachers, frequently interact with other officers and employees such as principal, various supervisors/ instructors, and maintenance staff etc., usually housed in a single building. 3
  4. 4. School Health• School health refers to a state of complete physical, mental, social and spiritual well being and not merely the absence of disease or Infirmity among pupils, teachers and other school personnel. 4
  5. 5. School Health Services• Ideally School health services refer to need based comprehensive services rendered to pupils, teachers and other personnel in the school to promote and protect their health, prevent and control diseases and maintain their health. But practically, it refers to providing need based comprehensive services to pupils to promote and protect their health, control diseases and maintain their health. 5
  6. 6. SCHOOL HEALTH SERVICES IN INDIA• Before Independence Era• Post Independence Era 6
  7. 7. • 1909, when for the first time medical examination of school children was done in Baroda city.• 1957 when Child Education -Nutrition Education Committee and WHO assisted School Health Education project were set up. 7
  8. 8. • 1960 the Ministry of Health, Government of India, set up a School Health Committee under the chairmanship of Smt. Renuka Ray, the then member of parliament to assess the standard of Health and Nutrition of school children and also to suggest ways and means of improving these.• 1977 when a Centrally Sponsored National School Health Scheme was started. 8
  9. 9. • 1979, the National School Health scheme was handed over to State Governments.• 1981, a Task Force was established by the Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare to study the progress of School Health programme functioning in various states of the country.• 1984-85.Delhi had its own comprehensive school Health Scheme which is continuing. 9
  10. 10. • 1988, a proposal for the comprehensive school health service.• 1989, the Central Health Education Bureau, Directorate General of Health Services, had launched an intensive School Health Education Project.• At present "child to child” and "Youth to child” approaches. 10
  11. 11. AIM OF SCHOOL HEALTH SERVICESThe ultimate aim of School Health Services is to promote, protect and maintain health of school children and reduce morbidity and mortality in them. 11
  12. 12. OBJECTIVES OF SCHOOL HEALTH SERVICES1. The promotion of positive health.2. The prevention of diseases.3. Early diagnosis, treatment and follow up of defects.4. Awakening health consciousness in children.5. The provision of healthful environment 12
  13. 13. GOALS OF SCHOOL HEALTH SERVICES1) To prepare the younger generation to adopt measures to remain healthy so as to help them to make the best use of educational facilities, to utilize leisure in productive and constructive manner, to enjoy recreation and to develop concern for others. 13
  14. 14. 2) To help the younger generation become healthy and useful citizens who will be able to perform their role effectively for the welfare of themselves, their families, and the community at large and country as a whole. 14
  15. 15. NEED FOR SCHOOL HEALTH SERVICES1. School children constitute a vital and substantial segment of population.2. School children are vulnerable section of population by virtue of their physical, mental, emotional and social growth and development during this period.3. School children are exposed to various stressful situations. 15
  16. 16. 4. Children coming to school belong to different socio-economic and cultural backgrounds which affect their health and nutrition status and require help and guidance in promoting, protecting and maintaining their health and nutritional status.5. Children in school age are prone to get specific health problems. 16
  17. 17. PHILOSOPHY OF SCHOOL HEALTH SERVICES1. A healthy child is mentally alert, receptive, will not miss school due to minor sickness and will have better performance in his/her studies.2. Health is not just freedom from sickness or infirmity but the realization of the full potential of the child which has physical, mental, social and spiritual components. 17
  18. 18. 3. Prevention is better than cure; interventions when health breaks down are costly and time consuming.4. School health services will help identify any deviations from normal growth and development, any health problem so that timely, therapeutic, corrective and rehabilitative actions can be taken to im-prove and maintain health and continue studies. 18
  19. 19. 5. While early diagnosis and prompt and adequate treatment is of great importance, follow up care is equally important for effective school health services.6. Rehabilitation of physically and mentally handicapped children can be done and must receive ad-equate attention.7. Health knowledge and skills learnt not only will benefit the child but also it will benefit the school, the parents, family and community. 19
  20. 20. PRINCIPLES OF SCHOOL HEALTH SERVICES1. Be based on health needs of school children.2. Be planned in coordination with school, health personnel, parents and community people.3. Be part of community health services.4. Emphasize on promotive and preventive aspects. 20
  21. 21. 5. Emphasize on health education to promote, protect, improve and maintain health of children and Staff.6. Emphasize on learning through active and desirable participation.7. Be ongoing and continuous programme.8. Have an effective system of record keeping and reporting. 21
  22. 22. COMPONENTS OF SCHOOL HEALTH SERVICESI) Health Promotive and Protective Services1. Wholesome school environment2. Maintenance of personal hygiene.3. Nutritional services4. Physical & recreational activities5. Promotion of Mental health6. Health Education7. Immunization 22
  23. 23. II) Therapeutic Services1. Health appraisal2. Treatment and follow up3. First aid and emergency care4. Specialized health servicesIII) Rehabilitative Services• Care of the handicappedIV) School Health Records 23
  24. 24. SCHOOL HEALTH PROBLEMS• Health problems:-1. Malnutrition2. Infectious diseases3. Intestinal parasites4. Diseases of skin, eye and ear5. Dental caries. 24
  25. 25. • Behavior problem:-1. Antisocial problem: - stealing, lying, gambling, destructiveness, sexual offence.2. Habit disorders: - nail biting, thumb sucking, bed wetting. 25
  26. 26. 3. Personality disorders: - temper tantrum, shyness, day dreaming, and jealousy.4. Educational difficulties: - backwardness in study, school fear, school failure, etc. 26
  27. 27. SCHOOL HEALTH TEAM1. The school principal2. The school teacher3. The parents4. The community5. The children6. The medical officer7. The school health nurse/community health nurse 27
  28. 28. THE SCHOOL PRINCIPAL1. Ensure that school health programme has the approval and support of school administrative authority.2. Setup a school health committee/school health council to work out the school health plan and plan for its implementation.3. Ensure that teachers are adequately trained for health care of school-children. 28
  29. 29. 4. Provide facilities for implementation of school health activities.5. Make sure that proper health records are maintained.6. Ensure that parents are involved and follow up of children is done. 29
  30. 30. THE SCHOOL TEACHER1. Daily inspection of children for personal hygiene and cleanliness;2. Daily observation of children for detecting any evidence of any deviation from normal health, behavior, any communicable disease, malnutrition etc;3. Help in control of communicable diseases; 30
  31. 31. 4. Referral of child having any problem to school health clinic for further action;5. Informing the parents and maintaining follow up;6. Maintaining record of anthropometric measurements and other health record of children;7. Help in providing safe environmental sanitation;8. Giving First Aid and Emergency care to children; 31
  32. 32. 9. Imparting of health education on healthful living habits and behavior etc;10.Participate in investigation of epidemic or any communicable disease etc. 32
  33. 33. THE PARENTS1. They can help in correction of defects if any and follow up of children found sick.2. They can help in formation of good healthful living habits and behaviour.3. Through "Parents- Teachers Association" the parents can be involved in planning, organizing and implementation of school health programme, 33
  34. 34. THE COMMUNITY1. Providing suitable land for school building;2. Providing funds and labour in building proper school;3. Participation in school health committees or councils and contribute in formulation of school health policies and plan;4. Participation in implementation of programme activities.5. Motivating parents to send their children to school and take care of their health etc. 34
  35. 35. THE CHILDREN1. Learn values of medical and health examinations, personal hygiene, good nutrition, environmental sanitation etc.;2. Co-operate in various aspects of school health programme;3. Develop positive habits and healthful living activities as educated upon;4. Extend this knowledge to other members of the family, neighborhood etc. 35
  36. 36. THE MEDICAL OFFICER1. Medical examination of the students;2. Making diagnosis;3. Prescribing treatment;4. Making referral to specialists,5. Ensuring follow up of children;6. Initiating promotive and preventive programme; 36
  37. 37. 7. Inspection of school environment and sanitation8. Holding meetings with parents and teachers;9. Ensuring maintenance of records and reports;10.Evaluation of the programme and redefining programme objectives and activities. 37
  38. 38. THE SCHOOL HEALTH NURSEIs responsible for comprehensive health of the child. She takes care of all the factors which influence the health of the child such as:-1. Biological aspects of the child,2. School and family environment,3. Health knowledge and health attitude of the child and families; 38
  39. 39. 4. Living activities,5. Personal habits,6. Health behavior followed by the child and his/ her family members;7. Family and individual health history;8. Family and community resources and their utilization etc. 39
  40. 40. SCHOOL HEALTH ADMINISTRATION1. School Health Committees2. Primary health centers 40
  41. 41. SCHOOL HEALTH POLICY1. Health center staff is responsible for implementation of school health programme.2. The school health programme is carried out in schools by the health center staff working together with schools administrators/ teachers, local government, parents and community including both agencies and students.3. Priority should be given to school health programme at primary school levels. 41
  42. 42. ASPECTS OF SCHOOL HEALTH SERVICE1. Health appraisal of school children and school personnel2. Remedial measures and follow-up3. Prevention of communicable diseases4. Healthful school environment5. Nutritional services6. First aid and emergency care7. Mental health 42
  43. 43. 8. Dental health9. Eye health10.Health education11.Education of handicapped children12.Proper maintenance and use of school health records. 43
  45. 45. 2) Remedial measures and follow-up3) Prevention of communicable diseases 45
  46. 46. 4. Healthful school environment 46
  47. 47. 5. Nutritional services 47
  48. 48. 6. First-aid and emergency care 48
  49. 49. 7. Mental health 49
  50. 50. 8. Dental health 50
  51. 51. 9. Eye health services 51
  52. 52. 10. Health education 52
  53. 53. 11. Education of handicapped children 53
  54. 54. 12) School Health Records 54
  55. 55. 55