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  1. 1. Punjab College Of TechnicalEducation Report On HTML 5
  2. 2. 1. IntroductionHTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language is the predominant markup language for web pages.HTML elements are the basic building-blocks of WebPages. HTML is written in the form of HTMLelements consisting of tags, enclosed in angle brackets like <html>, within the web page content. HTMLtags normally come in pairs like <h1> and </h1>. The first tag in a pair is the start tag, the second tag isthe end tag. In between these tags web designers can add text, tables, and images.The purpose of a web browser is to read HTML documents and compose them into visual or audible webpages. The browser does not display the HTML tags, but uses the tags to interpret the content of the page.HTML elements form the building blocks of all websites. HTML allows images and objects to beembedded and can be used to create interactive forms. It provides a means to create structureddocuments by denoting structural semantics for text such as headings, paragraphs, lists, links, quotes andother items. It can embed scripts in languages such as JavaScript which affect the behavior of HTMLWebPages. 2. HistoryIn 1980 physicist Tim Berners-Lee who was a contractor at CERN proposed and prototyped ENQUIRE,a system for CERN researchers to use and share documents. In 1989 Berners-Lee wrote a memoproposing an Internet-based hypertext system. Berners-Lee specified HTML and wrote the browser andserver software in the last part of 1990. In that year Berners-Lee and CERN data systems engineer RobertCailliau collaborated on a joint request for funding but the project was not formally adopted by CERN. Inhis personal notes from 1990 he lists "some of the many areas in which hypertext is used" and puts anencyclopedia first.The first publicly available description of HTML was a document called HTML Tags, first mentioned onthe Internet by Berners-Lee in late 1991. It describes 20 elements comprising the initial, relatively simpledesign of HTML. Except for the hyperlink tag these were strongly influenced by SGML guide, an in-house SGML based documentation format at CERN. Thirteen of these elements still exist in HTML 4. 3. MarkupHTML markup consists of several key components, including elements and their attributes, character-based data types, character references and entity references. Another important component isthe document type declaration, which triggers standards mode rendering. <html> <head> <title>Hello HTML</title> </head> <body> <p>Hello World!</p>
  3. 3. </body> </html> 3.1. ElementsHTML documents are composed entirely of HTML elements that, in their most general form have threecomponents: a pair of tags, a "start tag" and "end tag"; some attributes within the start tag; and finally, anytextual and graphical content between the start and end tags, perhaps including other nested elements.The HTML element is everything between and including the start and end tags. Each tag is enclosed inangle brackets. 3.2. AttributesMost of the attributes of an element are name-value pairs, separated by "=" and written within the start tagof an element after the elements name. The value may be enclosed in single or double quotes, althoughvalues consisting of certain characters can be left unquoted in HTML Leaving attribute values unquoted isconsidered unsafe. In contrast with name-value pair attributes, there are some attributes that affect theelement simply by their presence in the start tag of the element, like the is map attribute forthe image element. 3.3. Data typesHTML defines several data types for element content, such as script data and style sheet data, and aplethora of types for attribute values, including IDs, names, URIs, numbers, units of length, languages,media descriptors, colors, character encodings, dates and times, and so on. All of these data types arespecializations of character data. 4. Versions i> November 24, 1995  HTML 2.0 was published as IETF RFC 1866. Supplemental RFCs added capabilities ii> January 1997  HTML 3.2 was published as a W3C Recommendation. It was the first version developed and standardized exclusively by the W3C, as the IETF had closed its HTML Working Group in September 1996 iii> April 1998  HTML 4.0was reissued with minor edits without incrementing the version number. iv> January 2008  HTML5 was published as a Working Draft (link) by the W3C.
  4. 4. 5. HTML 5HTML5 is a language for structuring and presenting content for the World Wide Web, a core technologyof the Internet. It is the fifth revision of the HTML standard and as of August 2011 is still underdevelopment. Its core aims have been to improve the language with support for the latest multimediawhile keeping it easily readable by humans and consistently understood by computers and devices webbrowsers, parsers etc. HTML5 is intended to subsume not only HTML4, but XHTML1and DOM2HTML particularly JavaScript as well.The Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG) began work on the newstandard in 2004, when the World Wide Web Consortium(W3C) was focusing future developmentson XHTML 2.0, and HTML 4.01 had not been updated since 2000. In 2009, the W3C allowed theXHTML 2.0 Working Groups charter to expire, and decided not to renew it. W3C and WHATWG arecurrently working together on the development of HTML5.Even though HTML5 has been well known among web developers for years, it became the topic ofmainstream media in April 2010 after Apple Incs CEO Steve Jobs issued a public letter titled "Thoughtson Flash" where he concludes that with the development of HTML5, Adobe Flash is no longer necessaryto watch video or consume any kind of web content. This sparked a debate in web development circleswhere some suggested that while HTML5 provides enhanced functionality developers must consider thevarying browser support of the different parts of the standard as well as other functionality differencesbetween HTML5 and Flash. 6. LogoOn 18 January 2011, the W3C introduced a logo to represent the use of or interest in HTML5. Unlikeother badges previously issued by the W3C, it does not imply validity or conformance to a certainstandard. As of 1 April 2011, this logo is official. When initially presenting it to the public, the W3Cannounced the HTML5 logo as a "general-purpose visual identity for a broad set of open webtechnologies, including HTML5, CSS, SVG, WOFF, and others". Some web standard advocates,including The Web Standards Project, criticized that definition of "HTML5" as an umbrella term,pointing out the blurring of terminology and the potential for miscommunication. Three days later, theW3C responded to community feedback and changed the logos definition, dropping the enumeration ofrelated technologies. The W3C then said the logo "represents HTML5, the cornerstone for modern Webapplications"
  5. 5. . 7. MarkupHTML5 introduces a number of new elements and attributes that reflect typical usage onmodern websites. Some of them are semantic replacements for common uses of generic block (<div>)and inline (<span>) elements, for example <nav> (website navigation block), <footer>or <audio> and <video> instead of<object>. Some deprecated elements from HTML 4.01 have beendropped, including purely presentational elements such as <font> and <center>, whose effects areachieved using Cascading. There is also a renewed emphasis on the importance of DOM scripting (e.g.,JavaScript) in Web behavior.The HTML5 syntax is no longer based on SGML despite the similarity of its markup. It has, however,been designed to be backward compatible with common parsing of older versions of HTML. It comeswith a new introductory line that looks like an SGML document type declaration, <!DOCTYPE html>,which triggers the standards-compliant rendering mode. As of 5 January 2009, HTML5 alsoincludes Web Forms 2.0, a previously separate WHATWG specification. 8. FeaturesIn addition to specifying markup HTML5 provides some new features along with its previous features.The new features provided by HTML5 are given below. 8.1. CANVASHTML5 defines the <canvas> element as “a resolution-dependent bitmap canvas that can be used forrendering graphs, game graphics, or other visual images on the fly.” A canvas is a rectangle in your pagewhere you can use JavaScript to draw anything you want. HTML5 defines a set of functions thecanvas API for drawing shapes, defining paths, creating gradients, and applying transformations.
  6. 6. 8.2. VideoHTML5 defines a new element called <video> for embedding video in your web pages. Embedding videoused to be impossible without third-party plugins such as Apple QuickTime or Adobe Flash.The <video> element is designed to be usable without any detection scripts. You can specify multiplevideo files, and browsers that support HTML5 video will choose one based on what video formats theysupport.Browsers that don’t support HTML5 video will ignore the <video> element completely, but you can usethis to your advantage and tell them to play video through a third-party plugin instead. Kroc Camen hasdesigned a solution called Video for Everybody! that uses HTML5video where available, but falls back toQuickTime or Flash in older browsers. This solution uses no JavaScript whatsoever, and it works invirtually every browser, including mobile browsers. 8.3. Local storage
  7. 7. HTML5 storage provides a way for web sites to store information on your computer and retrieve it later. The concept is similar to cookies, but it’s designed for larger quantities of information.Cookies are limited in size, and your browser sends them back to the web server every time it requests anew page which takes extra time and precious bandwidth. HTML5 storage stays on your computer, andweb sites can access it with JavaScript after the page is loaded. 8.4. WEB WORKERSWeb Workers provide a standard way for browsers to run JavaScript in the background. With webworkers, you can spawn multiple “threads” that all run at the same time, more or less. These“background threads” can do complex mathematical calculations, make network requests, or access localstorage while the main web page responds to the user scrolling, clicking, or typing. 8.5. Offline Web ApplicationsReading static web pages offline is easy: connect to the Internet, load a web page, disconnect from theInternet, drive to a secluded cabin, and read the web page at your leisure. But what about webapplications like Gmail or Google Docs? Thanks to HTML5, anyone (not just Google!) can build a webapplication that works offline.
  8. 8. Offline web applications start out as online web applications. The first time you visit an offline-enabledweb site, the web server tells your browser which files it needs in order to work offline. These files can beanything — HTML, JavaScript, images, even videos. Once your browser downloads all the necessaryfiles, you can revisit the web site even if you’re not connected to the Internet. Your browser will noticethat you’re offline and use the files it has already downloaded. When you get back online, any changesyou’ve made can be uploaded to the remote web server. 8.6. GEOLOCATIONGeolocation is the art of figuring out where you are in the world and (optionally) sharing that informationwith people you trust. There is more than one way to figure out where you are — your IP address, yourwireless network connection, which cell tower your phone is talking to, or dedicated GPS hardware thatcalculates latitude and longitude from information sent by satellites in the sky.Geolocation support is being added to browsers right now, along with support for new HTML5 features. 8.7. MICRODATAMicrodata is a standardized way to provide additional semantics in your web pages. For example, you canuse microdata to declare that a photograph is available under a specific Creative Commons license. Asyou’ll see in the distributed extensibility chapter, you can use microdata to mark up an “About Me” page.Browsers, browser extensions, and search engines can convert your HTML5microdata markup into
  9. 9. a vCard, a standard format for sharing contact information. You can also define your own microdatavocabularies.The HTML5 microdata standard includes both HTML markup and a set of DOM functions. There’s noharm in including microdata markup in your web pages. It’s nothing more than a few well-placedattributes, and search engines that don’t understand the microdata attributes will just ignore them. But ifyou need to access or manipulate microdata through the DOM, you’ll need to check whether the browsersupports the microdata DOM API 9. Difference Between HTML4 And HTML5 HTML4 HTML5Elements like nav, header were not present. It brought new element for web structure like nav, header etcIt was lack of rules of parsing so it is difficult Strictly parsing rules introduced in html5 soto handle error. handle the error.No multimedia supported without third party It inbuilt multimedia element in html5 like Audio, video, convas. It contains attributes like control menu, spellThese controls were not present check etc. 10. Websites using HTML5  YouTube uses HTML5,  Google wave, a collaboration tool from Google uses several html5 tags  Only some of the browser only supports HTML5 features currently