The Green Consumer - Market Research Report


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Marketing research conducted for Green Event, an online seller of compostable flatware, to determine and define target green consumer. Research resulted from conducting focus groups and online surveys to determine four-level greenness scale to define green consumers.

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The Green Consumer - Market Research Report

  1. 1. Green Event Final Report Researchers: May Abughazalah Shital Kadakia Erin Lanphier Date: December 5, 2011 Recipient: Nanette Leuschel1
  2. 2. Table of ContentsIntroductory Remarks 3Section A – Focus Group Findings & Interpretations 4 Focus Group Summary 4 Focus Group Findings 4 Focus Group Interpretations 9Section B –Survey Findings & Interpretations 11 Survey Summary 11 Survey Findings 12 Survey Interpretations 14Section C– Recommendations 21Appendix 26 Appendix A – Focus Group Questions 26 Appendix B – Focus Group Key Quotes 27 Appendix C – Limitations 30 Appendix D – Survey Questions 31 Appendix E – Survey Respondent Demographics - Customer 37 Appendix E – Survey Respondent Demographics – Non-Customer 41 Appendix F – Greenness Level Calculation Methodology 45 Appendix G – Website Technical Analysis and Recommendation 46 Appendix H – Non-customer Survey Definitions of Environmentally 48 Friendly Products2
  3. 3. Introductory RemarksGreen Event is a San Francisco-based online retailer and wholesaler of compostable plates, cups,utensils and napkins. The company was founded by Nanette Leuschel and John Oppedahl in February2008 and since March 2009 is solely owned by Nanette. The company’s mission is to “play a small partin advancing the green movement; address global warming by offering ‘disposables’ made from plantsrather than plastic; and divert organic waste away from ocean litter and landfills and into compost”.The retail operation is Green Event and the web address is Through the website, consumers can purchase a la carte products orreception, wedding and picnic packages. The website features product information, orderingcapabilities, a blog and other educational information about the environment. Products can be shippedto customers via United Parcel Services ground service or made available for local pickup at their SanFrancisco warehouse. Green Event also has a Facebook fan page and utilizes Constant Contact as theire-newsletter that contains announcements and environmental blogs and articles.Green Event has a customer list of about 344 individuals and organizations. However, no customeranalysis had been performed. Based on customer information collected at the time of sale, andprovided for preliminary analysis, the following information was determined: ● Individual customers: ○ Approximately 314 individual customers purchased from Green Event and only 6% or 18 were repeat customers. ○ 24 customers live in the city of San Francisco (this group became our customer contact list for the focus groups). ○ About 28% of individual customers live in California indicating that majority of her customers live outside of California in about 30 states. ● Organizations and foundations: ○ The organizations and foundations list had about 30 customers with about one third or 10 repeat customers. ○ A little over half of these customers were in California with 53% or 16 organization/foundation customers and the remaining came from about 13 other states.No demographic or other information is known or available to Green Event and thus there was no clearunderstanding of which Green Event customers are, their product preferences and concerns nor theirattitudes and behaviors toward environmentally friendly products. The purpose of our research was tounderstand these questions about Green Event customers and to develop a customer and target marketprofile.This report contains the findings and interpretations based on focus group interviews and onlinesurveys, which were conducted and analyzed by our team as part of a project for an MBA MarketingResearch Class. We conducted focus group interviews to determine the behavior of consumersregarding environmentally friendly products. From the study we gained insight into the attitudes,3
  4. 4. knowledge, values and beliefs of green-minded consumers and developed a greenness scale todistinguish between these differences. We then conducted an online survey to further refine ourunderstanding of consumers and the differences between Green Event customers and non-customers.Note: Go Mega Green is a division of Green Event that sells the same compostable products in bulkquantities. This sister website ( and company were not part of our study or analysis.4
  5. 5. SECTION A – FOCUS GROUPFINDINGS & INTERPRETATIONS:Focus Group SummaryThe purpose of the focus group was to gain insight into the attitudes (values/beliefs, knowledge andbehaviors) toward environmentally friendly products, specifically compostable products. Through thefocus group, we sought to develop a profile of the Green Event customer and better understand thecustomers’ purchasing behaviors.For our focus group, we targeted both Green Event customers (SF Bay area customers) and green-minded participants from our personal networks. We conducted two focus groups (each with 4participants) in a conference room at the University of San Francisco. Additionally, we conducted twoindividual phone interviews. As a thank you, participants received samples of Green Event products.Our questioning route opened with general questions on environmentally friendly products andnarrowed down to specific questions about compostable products. The questions were unstructured toencourage conversation among the participants. Additionally, we posed a scenario to understand theirdecision making process and underlying buyer behaviors.Our findings centered around three key themes: 1) product knowledge and awareness 2) values andbeliefs and 3) consumer purchase behaviors.Focus Group FindingsWe organized our findings around three key themes 1) product knowledge and awareness, 2) values andbeliefs 3) consumer purchase behaviors. We provided illustrative quotes where relevant.1. Product Knowledge and AwarenessWe categorized our focus groups’ knowledge and awareness findings into environmentally friendlyproducts and compostable products. We grouped these findings based on how participants definedthese products, the types of products used and how they gained knowledge about these products.Environmentally friendly productsAll participants in the focus groups were aware of environmentally friendly products.Definition:Participants had a wide range of words and phrases to define an environmentally friendly product. Themost frequently mentioned words included: recycled, reusable, recyclable, compostable, energyefficient, and organic.One participant defined environmentally friendly products by the designation on the package or product- “any product with an eco-mark.”Other less frequently mentioned words and phrases included: biodegradable, “no harm to theenvironment”, non-toxic, chemical free, sulfate free and “products that contained minimal packaging”.5
  6. 6. Products:Cleaning products, household and personal items and organic food were the most commonly purchasedenvironmentally friendly products.Eco-friendly brands mentioned by participants included national brands such as Method, SeventhGeneration, Whole Foods, and Starbucks.One participant also mentioned organic clothing as a product occasionally purchased but also made itclear she was “not entirely sold on it, I feel like it has a huge water impact that may not be balanced outby the other things.”Sources:Knowledge about environmentally friendly products was acquired through various sources: ● Personal sources: Recommendations from family, friends and trusted coworkers. ● Commercial sources: Local restaurants, hardware stores (Fredericks and Cole’s) and local grocers (Rainbow and Whole Foods) that advertise locally grown or sourced products, product packaging and point-of-sale displays. ● Public sources: websites (, blogs, newsletters, advertisements, books, specialist magazines, San Francisco municipal programs, logo or city law and dwelling requirements helped deepen awareness of products as well as environmental impacts. ● “I have always been concerned about trash and the volume of trash that is created. It was probably when San Francisco as a municipality started to encourage composting – individual residential composting and composting in public places (individual bins, restaurants, take- out containers).” ● Experiential sources: handling, examining and personal experience with products. ● Work Environment: For two participants, their job influenced the depth of their knowledge. Both worked for environmentally focused entities and their views expressed demonstrated their level of consciousness and active involvement in how they lived and purchased or not purchased goods.Compostable ProductsAll participants in our focus groups were aware of compostable products but several did not have anunderstanding of the various product types, ingredients, sourcing, benefits and availability.Definition:A few participants defined composting as “the green bin” and something that Starbucks and thecafeteria does. Other descriptions included biodegradable and “it turns into fertilizer”.Product:Most participants did not view compostable as a product but rather food scraps that are thrown away incomposting bins.A few participants were aware about dinnerware and flatware and compostable bags.Two participants were customers of Green Event and had previously purchased compostabledinnerware and flatware.6
  7. 7. Knowledge:Knowledge about composting was varied and gained through a variety of sources: ● Family: One participant learned about composting from his mother ● Personal Experience: Starbucks was one vendor specifically mentioned as practicing composting since they have implemented compost bins in their shops. Others mentioned the cafeteria and local restaurants that provide compostable plates and utensils. A couple of participants stated that they currently or had previously composted on their own. ● “If I see someone else not compost correctly I will fish stuff out of the compost.” ● One participant expressed confusion - “it’s really confusing to me.”Similarly, knowledge about compostable dinnerware was varied and gained through a variety of sources. ● A few were aware that compostable dinnerware could be made from corn, starch and sugar cane. ● A couple of participants had experience using compostable dinnerware in restaurants and found the utensils and straws easily breakable (some demonstrated this after receiving sample products). ● A few participants that were aware of plates and utensils were surprised to hear from other participants that clear cold beverage cups can be made from compostable material. ● One participant provided an explanation of the different numbering designations on plastic products.2. Values and BeliefsOur focus group questions were designed to gain insight into our participants’ values and beliefs theyheld for the environment.All participants expressed concern for the environment.● “I care”● “It’s something I personally believe in”Several participants expressed the belief that they have some degree of personal responsibility to takecare of the environment.● “If I buy eco-friendly products I feel less guilty”A majority of the participants believe that engaging in environmentally friendly behaviors helps theenvironment.● “When I purchase eco-friendly products I feel like I have done something to help the green movement”Several participants expressed that engaging in environmentally conscious behaviors was personallysatisfying.● “I feel like I have done something good when I purchase eco-friendly products…”Several participants believe that environmentally friendly products benefit their health.● “It benefits my health and gives me other private benefits”● “It benefits my health because when I buy something that is non-toxic, it is healthier for me”Those with family, friends or colleagues who actively engage in environmentally friendly behaviorsexpressed that this was a positive influence on their values and behaviors towards the environment.7
  8. 8. 3. Consumer Purchasing BehaviorsIn the focus group, we presented a scenario where the participants were planning a picnic for friendsand family. Their role was to provide the dinnerware and utensils for the picnic. We asked them todescribe their process of acquiring these products. In addition to the scenario presented, we askedthem about their purchasing behaviors towards environmentally friendly products.Our behavioral findings are categorized into the 5 stages in the consumer decision process: 1. Problem recognition - perceiving a need 2. Information search – seeking value 3. Evaluation – assessing value 4. Purchase decision – buying value 5. Post-purchase behavior – value in consumption or use1. Problem recognition - perceiving a needThe buying process starts with recognizing a problem or need (e.g. I need utensils and I need plates forthe picnic) or responds to a marketing stimulus (e.g. you pass Starbucks and are attracted by the aromaof coffee).Generally, our participants purchased environmentally friendly products on an as-needed basis. ● When they had run out of the particular product (generally applied to household goods – paper products, personal care, cleaning products, food) ● When they were in need of a new appliance ● When they need supplies for a particular event2. Information search – seeking valueOur findings related to where participants obtained information on environmentally friendly productsare noted in the section “Product Knowledge and Awareness” above.3. Evaluation – assessing valueParticipants cited a wide range of objective attributes to assess the value of environmentally friendlyproducts including: product quality and durability, product ingredients, product source, packaging (howthe product was packaged and shipped) and whether the product was recycled, recyclable, compostableand/or biodegradable.From a subjective standpoint, several participants expressed emotive value toward environmentallyfriendly products (refer to the section Values and Beliefs above).Of the participants who were aware of the difference between recyclable and compostable products,the majority stated they would purchase compostable over recyclable primarily because of theresources required to recycle.Several participants noted they were concerned with the amount of energy used to producecompostable products.● “ I will prefer compostable because when you recycle you use other resources to treat it but compostable products have only one cycle to treat”● “ Recycled needs to be sorted then collected then treated so it involves more processes”8
  9. 9. One individual stated she would avoid purchasing compostable products made out of edible foods.It should be noted that two participants with superior environmental impact knowledge stated theywould chose to bring reusable plates and utensils rather than purchase compostable products becausereusable products were least impactful to the environment.4. Purchase decision – buying valueFor the majority of participants, the decision to purchase an environmentally friendly product was mostfrequently influenced by price, convenience and availability.For a few individuals, price did not factor into the decision to purchase an environmentally friendlyproduct.● “If the prices are the same or close I would prefer to buy the greener product because it makes me feel good”Most participants cited that they prefer to purchase products available locally rather than purchase theproducts online. However, if the products were not available in the store(s) they frequent, they wouldbe open to purchasing the product online.A few respondents were particularly concerned with product ingredients. For one individual, if theproduct were made with ingredients that could be used as a human food source (e.g. corn) theindividual would not purchase the product. Another participant would not purchase the product if theproduct ingredients were not disclosed.Product packaging (the type and amount of materials used to package the product) significantlyinfluenced the decision to purchase a product for a few participants.Additionally, several participants were able to recall particular brands (Method, 7th generation) theyregarded highly. They were willing to pay a bit more for these products and would either wait until theproduct was in stock locally or would purchase the product online.5. Post-purchase behavior – value in consumption or useThe final stage is the post-purchase evaluation of the decision. Generally, the decision not to purchase aparticular environmentally friendly product again or the intent to seek an alternative was based on theperformance – quality and durability of the product.9
  10. 10. Focus Group InterpretationsOur findings suggested that our participants, as consumers, fell across four levels of “greenness” basedon their knowledge, feelings and behaviors toward environmentally friendly products and activities.Based on our interpretations, we developed a profile of the consumer’s purchasing behavior towardenvironmentally friendly products.Four Levels of Greenness:Level 1 - Oblivious ConsumerLevel 2 - Conceptually Aware Environmental ConsumerLevel 3 - Occasional Environmental ConsumerLevel 4 - Environmental ActivistThe Level 1 Oblivious Consumer has a basic knowledge of environmentally friendly products andbehaviors such as recycling but does not actively seek additional information or consciously purchaseenvironmentally friendly products. We did not have Level 1 consumers in our focus groups.The Level 2 Conceptually Aware Environmental Consumer values the environment and does notwant to cause harm to the environment. This consumer does not consciously seek out and purchaseenvironmentally friendly products. On occasion, this consumer engages in environmentally friendlyactivities such as recycling, water and energy conservation and using public transportation. However,the lack of environmentally friendly product knowledge accounts for the gap between the Level 2consumer’s values and behaviors (why the Level 2 consumer does not consciously purchaseenvironmentally friendly products).The decision to purchase a particular product (environmentally friendly or not) is primarily determinedby: a) price and b) convenience and availability. Use of environmentally friendly products is primarilylimited to third-party provided products (e.g., compostable take-out containers and flatware, Starbuckscoffee cups, etc.) When they do purchase environmentally friendly products it is because the productwas available at the point of purchase and priced similarly to alternative products. Environmentallyfriendly product attributes (e.g., recyclable, made from recycled material, compostable, biodegradable,etc.) are not factored into the purchasing decision. It is highly likely that the Level 2 consumer wouldnot appropriately dispose of compostable products.The Level 3 Occasional Environmental Consumer consciously values the environment, understandsthe negative impacts humans have on the environment. This consumer regularly engages inenvironmentally friendly activities such as recycling, water and energy conservation and using publictransportation. This consumer periodically purchases environmentally friendly products and has likelyreplaced a number of common household products with environmentally friendly alternatives.This consumer has an above average knowledge of environmentally friendly products. Brand isimportant to this consumer and will impact their purchasing decision. Some purchases are motivated bythis consumer’s desire to be “hip” and “trendy”. To gain product knowledge, this consumer first looks topersonal recommendations and word of mouth over commercial resources. Occasionally this consumerwill research environmentally friendly companies, brands or products. Traditional marketing efforts mayprompt this consumer to try the product and/or research more about the product.The decision to purchase an environmentally friendly product is primarily influenced by: a) quality, b)availability/convenience and c) price. The consumer will choose the environmentally friendly alternative10
  11. 11. if one of a similar price is available and convenient. The primary product attribute considered whenevaluating a purchase is quality. Environmentally friendly product attributes (e.g., recyclable, madefrom recycled material, compostable, biodegradable, etc.) are taken into consideration but would notnecessarily be the decisive factor in a purchasing decision.The Level 4 Environmental Activist Consumer is very passionate and highly concerned with theenvironment. This consumer has superior knowledge about environmentally friendly products andhabitually engages in environmentally friendly activities (recycling, composting, water and energyconservation, use of public transportation, etc.). This consumer thinks about the environmental impactof every action, and will choose the most environmentally friendly approach.This consumer regularly researches environmentally friendly products using a wide variety of resources.This consumer has replaced a significant number of common household products with environmentallyfriendly alternatives. This consumer will continue to purchase environmentally friendly products on aconsistent basis and will switch brands only if a more environmentally friendly alternative is found.Often the environment is a dimension of this consumer’s employment.For this consumer, purchasing decisions are made with a high degree of perceived relevance andpersonal importance as well as an extensive evaluation process. This consumer will research theenvironmental effects of products prior to purchase and choose the environmentally friendly alternativeregardless of price. Product attributes are the primary factors(s) in a purchasing decision. Notehowever that product attributes considered encompass the entire product lifecycle (source, ingredients,production methods, packaging and distribution). Traditional marketing efforts will likely have little tono influence on purchasing decisions unless the message is regarding environmental impactimprovements that catches the buyer’s attention.11
  12. 12. SECTION B – SURVEY FINDINGS &INTERPRETATIONS:Survey Summary:The survey was intended to deepen our understanding of the green-minded consumer and develop acustomer and market profile. Green Event customers and non-customers were surveyed in twoseparate surveys using Constant Contact.The results from our customer respondents show that the typical Green Event customer is a Non-Hispanic/White female, between 41 to 50 years old, with an undergraduate degree and either works inbusiness or is retired and lives in the Bay Area. Additional customer findings include education andincome levels between male and female customers where in both cases; men were more highlyeducated and earned more than female customers.We were able to study respondent’s green-mindedness and developed a psychographic profile of threeof our four greenness levels. The survey results suggest that Green Event customers are primarily Level4 while non-customers are Level 3 and Level 2. Our findings present a significant opportunity for GreenEvent to target the Level 2 and Level 3 customer. Consumers in both Levels are aware ofenvironmentally friendly products and are more likely to purchase them if they are of good quality,convenient and comparably priced to traditional products. Level 3 customers are more likely topurchase Green Event products than Level 2.Respondents’ knowledge came from several sources including: family, friends, websites, blogs, and pointof sale. A significant difference noted between customers and noncustomers was the sources ofenvironmental information customers used. We found that customers tend get such information frommagazines and newsletters. We think Green Event can appeal to the Level 2 and Level 3 potentialcustomer by allowing casual browsers to join the newsletter mailing list, advertising on otherenvironmental sites and partnering with other environmental bloggers.We found that noncustomers shop more frequently at large grocery stores, health food stores andconvenience stores rather than online. While Green Event is based online, there may be an opportunityto advertise at local health food stores.Types of Questions AskedOur survey had 23 questions that encompassed ranking, rating, sorting, choice and category scale toolsto learn about consumer’s attitudes across the following categories: ● Green Values and Beliefs (affective) ● Green Product Awareness and Knowledge (cognitive) ● Consumer Behavior (behavioral) ● Demographic Questions(Refer to Appendix D, for Survey Questions)12
  13. 13. Survey Findings:Survey Respondent DemographicsPlease refer to Appendix E for detail on all customer and non-customer survey respondents.Product and Place AttributesProduct:In order to understand the customers and noncustomers’ behavior towards compostable products, weasked them to identify 3 of the most important attributes that they would consider important whenpurchasing such products, amongst a list of various attributes. Below is a list of the attributes they hadto choose from: ● Brand ● Compostable ● Convenience/availability ● Ingredients ● Price ● Product Packaging ● Quality/Durability ● Style (color, size, shape) ● Source (where the products were made)The results were as follows: Non-Attributes Customers CustomersBrand 2 3Convenience 6 16Ingredients 9 4Price 5 15Product Packaging 3 9Quality/ Durability 8 10Style 4 2Source 6 4Other 2 0Place:When it came to place, we wanted to understand, the places that were the most common, when buyingcompostable products. We gave our respondents a series of physical and virtual places where they hadto pick the top 3 most common places they shopped. Below is a list of places they had to choose from: ● Large Grocery Stores ● Big Box Retailers/Superstores ● Local Bodega/ Community store ● Membership Warehouse ● Convenience Store13
  14. 14. ● Green or Health Food Grocery ● Online ● I Do Not Purchase ● OthersThe results were as follows:Locations Customers Non-CustomersLarge Grocery Stores 14 32Big Box Retailers/Superstores 4 22Local Bodega/ Community store 5 9Membership Warehouse 2 7Convenience Store 0 11Green or Health Food Grocery 16 17Online 8 12I Do Not Purchase 0 2Others 1 414
  15. 15. Survey InterpretationsGreen Event Customer ProfileThe following are the key findings from Green Event Customer respondents.Respondents: Majority are female (65%).Age: Majority are between 51 to 60 years. However, majority of female customers are younger thanmale customers. Female customers are between 41 to 50 years old while most male customers arebetween 51 to 60 years old. There were no customers below the age of 36.Ethnicity: Almost all customers are Non-Hispanic White.Education Level: All Green Event customers are highly educated and majority obtained at least anundergraduate degree. Male customers are more highly educated than female customers.Occupation: Majority of customers were split evenly between business, professional services andretired. The dominant female occupation was in business or retired while professional services were thedominant occupation for males. Females also held a wider range of occupations overall.Income: Household income levels varied widely among customers. Majority of customers earnedbetween $50K to $99K followed by earners of income between $100K and $149K and over $200K.The Typical Green Event Customer Profile: Based on survey respondents, a typical Green Event customeris a Non-Hispanic/White female, between 41 to 50 years old, with an undergraduate degree and eitherworks in business or is retired. She also earns between $50K and $99K and is a Level 4 on the greennessscale (see below).Greenness levelSee Appendix F for calculation methodology for greenness level. After calculating all the respondents’results and matching their results to the four categories in order to determine each respondent’s levelof greenness, we found the following interesting results:Green Events customers have a high level of greenness since the majority of respondents (64%)obtained a Level 4 in their environmental friendly attitude (Refer to graph below). As for the non-customers we notice a slight decrease in the dominating level of greenness with Level 3 occupying themajority of their respondents level.15
  16. 16. Greenness Level Non-Customer Customer Total 46 20 LEVEL 4 8 14 LEVEL 3 26 6 LEVEL 2 12 Level 1 0 0We can interpret from this data that Green Events customers have a higher sense towards practicing agreen lifestyle than the non-customers. Yet, non-customers still obtained a considerably high level ofgreenness overall, since the majority scored a level 3 in greenness.We also notice that neither group had a level 1 oblivious consumer, which means that overall bothgroups have a considerably high level of awareness and practice in environmentally friendly lifestyle.Compostable Product AttributesAttributesWe asked respondents to choose the top 3 attributes they consider when purchasing a compostableproduct. The findings are: Other Source Style Quality/ Durability Non Customers Product Packaging Customers Price Ingredients Convenience Brand 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%Brand plays the least important role in influencing the purchasing behavior for both customers and non-customers.16
  17. 17. Overall, ingredients, quality/durability, source and convenience are the top factors that influencepurchasing decisions for customers. For non-customers, the top factors that influence purchasingdecisions were convenience, price, quality/durability and product packaging.Customers care most about ingredients while non-customers place little emphasis on ingredients.Quality Composting Product Quality Perception No Opinion Well Below Average Below Average Average Non Customers Above Average Customers Well Above Average 0% 20% 40% 60%With respect to quality, responses are divided between non-customers and customers. Non-customersdo not perceive compostable products to be of high quality. 50% of respondents ranked quality asaverage and 30% had no opinion about the quality. We can interpret from this that since non-customersare not very familiar with compostable products, they might either have no response or rank itaccording to their perception.On the other hand, 65% of customers rated compostable product quality as above to well aboveaverage. From this result we can interpret that that their positive perception may be from experiencewith Green Event products.17
  18. 18. Sources of Information Total Source of Environmental Info. Others 9 No info sought 15 Retail (POP) 32 Friends or Family 36 Schools 3 Groups 7 Number of Responses Websites 35 Subscriptions 20 Blogs 12 0 10 20 30 40 Source of Environmental Info. (Customer/Non-Customers) Others No info sought Retail (POP) Friends or Family Schools Groups Non-Customers Websites Customers Subscriptions Blogs 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%The primary source of information on environmentally friendly products is from personal sourcesfollowed by public sources such as websites and commercial sources. The source that varied mostbetween customers and non-customers is subscription magazine/newsletter.Based on the data, we can interpret that Green Event customers are more involved in seekinginformation from publications (magazine/newsletter subscriptions). This indicates that Green Event’snewsletters and other publications are a great source of information for customers and should becontinued.Furthermore, friends or family are also an important source of information and potentially influence forboth customers and noncustomers.18
  19. 19. Place Others I Do Not Purchase Online Green or Health Food Grocery Non-Customers Convenience Store Customers Membership Warehouse Local Bodega/ Community store Big Box Retailers/Superstores Large Grocery Stores 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%The two primary sources for environmentally friendly products for customers are large grocery stores(70%) and green or health food grocery stores (80%).Customers are more willing to shop online than non-customers. From these results we can interpretthat online shopping is not a very familiar source to purchase compostable products because it may notbe as convenient. Compostable products are usually used for occasional events such as picnics, familybarbeques, etc. These events are usually planned haphazardly, so people tend to go to the nearestphysical place to purchase for convenience and to save time. Online purchasing usually takes more timefor delivery and requires prior planning in order to receive the products on time.19
  20. 20. Age and Greenness Level Age Distribution by Greenness Level 50 + 40 - 49 30 - 39 Under 30 55% Level 4 18% 14% 14% 9% Level 3 16% 47% 28% 8% Level 2 0% 50% 42%We found a strong relationship between age and greenness level. We found that the median andaverage ages of our respondents increased with the greenness level. Additionally, the vast majority ofthe Level 4 respondents were over the age of 40. Our findings support our hypothesis that the mean andaverage age increases in with the greenness level because with age and related life changes (family,education, relationships, employment) comes a greater awareness and knowledge of environmentalconcerns and exposure to various environmental or green trends over time.Income and Greenness Level Income Distribution by Greenness Level 45% 42% < $50,000 $50,001 to $99,999 25% 22%22% 23% 19% 19% $100,000 to $149,999 17% 17% 13% 14% $150,000 to $199,999 9% 6% 5% 5% > $200,000 0% 0% No Answer Level 2 Level 3 Level 420
  21. 21. We initially hypothesized that people with greater incomes (and thus more resources) would be morelikely to fall into a higher greenness level. However, we did not find a strong relationship betweenincome and greenness level. Respondents were distributed across all income levels. Our findingssuggest that household income level does not relate to an individuals’ greenness level.However, we cannot draw any significant conclusions about the relationship between greenness leveland income because there are other socio-economic factors that may influence the relationship. Forexample, based on our Level 4 respondents, it appears that those with smaller incomes are more“green”. But, without considering the respondents’ age and occupation, we do not know if theseindividuals are retired and therefore have a fixed income and/or alternative income sources.Alternatively, 42% of the Level 2 respondents reported high-income levels (above $100K) yet; we knowthat some of those respondents are students. One may hypothesize that students are also more likelyto score higher on the greenness level.21
  22. 22. SECTION C – RECOMMENDATIONS:Based on the focus group and survey findings, Green Event has a tremendous opportunity to grow thebusiness. The results show that the typical Green Event customer is a Non-Hispanic/White female,between 41 to 50 years old, with an undergraduate degree and either works in business or is retired andlives in the Bay Area. She also earns between $50K to $99K and is a Level 4 on the greenness scale.There is tremendous opportunity for Green Event to expand its target market to Level 2 and Level 3individuals. These markets are green-minded individuals who value quality, convenience, availabilityand price. We believe Green Event can address each of these needs with slight modifications betweeneach segment.In order to maximize web traffic, we recommend using appropriate keywords such as recyclable, non-toxic and biodegradable to market the business (see complete list of phrases in Appendix H). Inaddition, Green Event should advertise on blogs and other green websites to drive further traffic.Providing educational information on the Green Event website as well as with each product shipmentcan help Level 2 and Level 3 customers properly dispose products and well as increase their overallawareness. Level 4 customers actively seek out this information and not providing adequate and easilyaccessible information on ingredients and sourcing of product may deter them from purchasing.Level 2 and Level 3 buyers value convenience and availability and visibly advertising the option for localcustomer pick up may be a huge attractive feature for potential Bay Area customers. This may alsoincentivize Level 4 customers who are concerned over the carbon footprint of shipping packages.Another way to make Green Event products accessible is to advertise in local health food stores wherenoncustomers are more likely to shop for environmentally friendly products.We believe Green Event is losing out entirely on a target customer – businesses. Because Green Eventdoes sell bulk products through Go Mega Green, we recommend it actively pursue relationships withbusinesses (wedding/event planners, non-profit organizations, catering companies, event venues,municipalities,) which are likely to purchase in bulk and make repeat purchases.Below are additional recommendations. They are grouped into category recommendations and ratedfor level of effort and impact. They dots reference the recommendation number and the colorreferences the categories in the table following the chart.Our team thanks Green Event for the opportunity to work with them, for their cooperation in providingcustomer access and for providing goody bags. We wish them the best of luck in growing their businesswith a deeper understanding of their consumers.22
  23. 23. Ref. Level of #& Description Effort ImpactcolorWebsite 1 1. Use search engine optimization (SEO) keywords from focus M H group and survey findings to improve hit ratio – (Refer to Appendix G for more details) In order to optimize the content of your website you need to ensure you give your valuable content the best chance possible of drawing traffic from the web through capitalizing on the following: - The main taglines linked to your website are the following: Eco Friendly Party Supplies | Compostable Plates | Eco Friendly Coffee Cups | Earth Friendly Disposable Flatware | Green Garbage Bags | Environmentally Responsible Products. Our recommendation is to optimize on simpler terms such as compostable, biodegradable, environmentally friendly, which appeared in the survey as key words to describe compostable products. 23
  24. 24. Ref. Level of #& Description Effort Impactcolor - Linking domain: Your website is currently not linked to any other website. A way to create traffic is to link your website into other high traffic green websites such as,,, etc. 2  Add product reviews or customer testimonials to the website M M 3  Improve presentation of product information on website - L M ingredient list, sourcing and disposal (improve user experience, streamline, easier to find and read, etc.) 4  Provide information about how products are packaged and sent L M to people 5  Provide additional links to environmental sites for customers to L M learn more – organize, consolidate and make more reader friendly 6  Use blog to show ideas where products can be used, displayed or L-M M disposed 7  Post videos demonstrating quality, compostability and disposal L-M M of products 8  Create all-in-one website ( combining M-H M-H mega green site with green event reduce costs (hosting, maintenance and advertising), improve website analytics, save time, drive more traffic to one site, etc.) o Do not advertise - .biz sites are generally perceived negatively because spammers have used .biz extensions. Additionally, most consumers do not think to use a .biz extension and people looking for you at find a totally different site. o Redirect traffic from and to o Cancel hosting for and and redirect traffic from those sites to GreenEventShop.comBusiness 9  Advertise in local stores, bodegas, grocers and “green” shops – M M-H flyers posted on windows or available on counters o Examples: Haight Street Market, Rainbow Grocers, Cole Hardware, Party Planning Stores, Stationery Stores, etc. 10  Sell smaller packages of product in locally owned H H shops/bodegas/grocers o Grocers (Haight Street Market, Rainbow Grocers, etc.) o Hardware stores (Cole Hardware) o Paper or party planning stores o Shops/businesses that cater to pick-nickers (Cowgirl Creamery, General Store Healdsburg, etc.) 11  Participate in trade shows and expos for weddings, green events, M H 24
  25. 25. Ref. Level of #& Description Effort Impactcolor etc. 12  Target food trucks to be an exclusive provider of compostable H H products 13  Target small caterers to be an exclusive provider of compostable H H products 14  Advertise on blogs and other green websites - current customers M M are already engaged in these sites and advertising on them will create brand awareness and drive traffic from non-customersBranding 15  Introduce product labeling indicating products are compostable M-H L (on the product itself – eg. Raised stamp) 16  Use branded label to increase product awareness and build L M brand quality (on the product and packaging) 17  Offer option to customize product for special events (weddings, M-H L-M birthdays, etc.) – e.g., hand stamping products o Susty Party - 18  Create a catchy tag line for promotions – why? L L o Green Event may be confused with other types of event catering services o Celebrate responsibly may be misconstrued with alcohol consumption 19  Use branded label on packaging and products to increase L M product awareness and build brand equity 20  Partner with green and/or party planning bloggers to have M-H M product reviews or promote your product – may require free product give-away in exchange for publicityCustomer Relationship Management 21  Implement customer relationship management initiatives such M H as: o Customer satisfaction surveys regarding on-line experience (website design, navigation, and order placement, payment) o Customer satisfaction regarding product (quality, durability, satisfaction, receipt of product) o Collect demographic information about customers more frequently to better understand current customer and monitor changes/shifts/trends over time Note: strategies can be implemented with Social Media 22  Offer a percentage off on next purchase or referral code for L M-H friends and family to expand market and customers 23  Leverage twitter to send out factoids on green habits, products, L L-M party ideas, promotions, questions, etc. 24  Promote Green Event with Facebook Ads M M-H o Build awareness: Reach a large audience with a widely 25
  26. 26. Ref. Level of #& Description Effort Impactcolor targeted ad campaign o Drive sales: Offer special deals and giveaways in your ad campaign to bring people to your website o Grow you fan base: Encourage people to like your page by offering valuable benefits for engaging o o _Guide_FINAL.pdf 25  Continue to leverage the Facebook site to host content (blogs, M L articles, features 26
  27. 27. APPENDIXAppendix A – Focus Group Questions 1. How do you define environmentally friendly products? 2. What types of environmentally friendly products do you purchase? 3. On average, how often do you purchase environmentally friendly products? 4. Who or what factors influence your decision to purchase environmentally friendly products? Scenario You are planning a picnic for friends and family, you must provide dinnerware and flatware. Describe your process to provide dinnerware and flatware? ● Where would you purchase these products? ● What kinds of products are these? (Paper, plastic, compostable, recyclable, name brand, whatever is on sale?) ● What would influence your decision to purchase these products? ● Would you purchase these products on-line? Why or why not? ● How did you learn about these products? ● What attributes would be important to you? (Color, size, customization) 5. What do you know about composting? 6. Do you compost? 7. What do you know about compostable dinnerware and flatware? 8. Assume now you have a choice between purchasing compostable or recyclable dinnerware and flatware for your picnic– which would you choose and why? 9. Assume you have a choice between purchasing compostable or recyclable dinnerware and flatware for your picnic, but can only purchase these products on-line – which would you choose and why? (Is it “less green”, increased cost, convenience?) 10. What would make purchasing compostable dinnerware and flatware more attractive? 11. Is there anything else you would like to add or share about your purchasing behaviors or attitude toward environmentally friendly products and companies?27
  28. 28. Appendix B – Focus Group Key QuotesQuestion # Participant QuotesQ1 ● “Non-Toxic materials that create less waste” ● “Any product with an Eco mark” ● “Something that makes as low of an impact as possible on the environment...sulfate free items or something that has a minimal amount of packaging”Q2 ● “If the prices are the same or close I would prefer to buy the greener product because it makes me feel good” ● “ If the price is the same I would buy a biodegradable product, because it will make me feel better”Q3 ● “The products are becoming more and more available but I do not consciously buy them” ● “ The product are readily available, the more they are available the more I am willing to buy” ● “ I buy two or three times a month” ● “Whenever possible ... it’s something I personally believe in so whenever there’s an option for an environmentally friendly product, even if it’s a little more expensive, that will be something that I get”Q4 ● “It benefits my health and gives me other private benefits... I care” ● “When I purchase eco-friendly products I feel like I have done something to help the green movement” ● “I feel better about myself when I buy environmentally friendly products” ● “It benefits my health because when I buy something that is non-toxic, it is healthier for me” ● “For efficiency reasons and because I care about the environment” ● “If I buy eco-friendly products I feel less guilty” ● “ I don’t buy to many environmentally friendly products but I recycle” ● “It’s something I personally believe...” ● “I’m willing to pay a higher price for something that’s more environmentally conscious especially if it’s something that focuses on the chain of the product” ● “When I buy something online if I don’t know how it’s going to be packaged, sometimes I will bother calling them and asking them how this stuff comes”Scenario ● “ I will see what is being served and accordingly I will base what is served with I will need to buy” ● “It depends on how many people coming, if there are allot of people I would go to28
  29. 29. Costco” ● “If there is a small number 5-6 I would get my own but if larger I would buy it” ● “ I would buy from the closest place” ● “Matching quantities is important when I make my decision” ● “Maybe for the glass, I would care about the color and shape, but others it’s not really important” ● “I tell them to bring their own cups, bring your own mugs, bring your own bottled water”Q5 ● “I have always been concerned about trash and volume of trash that is created. It was probably when San Francisco as a municipality started encouraging composting – individual residential composing…and public places – individual bins and restaurants.” ● “It’s really confusing to me” ● “I know the definition but I don’t know what to but there” ● “ It is a green bin” ● “Starbucks has a composting bin that I use” ● “My mom used to compost to grow vegetable at home” ● “Oh yeah….even if I have to pick apart something so I can put some of it in compost and some of it in recycle or if I see someone else not compost correctly I will fish stuff out of the compost”Q6 ● “Well I know it takes a long time for it to compost…it does take a while to compost because it does have a high environmental impact…but most of the compostable stuff is made out of starch and it’s something that’s fairly unusable anyway …unlike corn which is an actual viable food source some of the starch stuff uses other byproducts that aren’t edible or usable so it also helps on that environmental impact.”Q7 ● “Ultimate criterion – it can be disposed in such a way that it is not around forever in a landfill.” ● “I would choose compostable because what matters most to me, what I am concerned most with is the end result – something that is not around forever.” ● “ I will prefer compostable because when you recycle you use other resources to treat it but compostable products have only one cycle to treat” ● “ I would do recycle based on the principle of reusing the product” ● “ I have no idea which one to choose” ● “ Recycled needs to be sorted then collected then treated so it involves more process” ● “ Compostable requires allot of research to come up with the product” ● “I think it’s better than buying something like plastic forks but at the same time, if you do think about it, you can do something like buy metal flatware that’s just your29
  30. 30. picnic flatware”Q8 ● “Instinct is that it will be difficult to find these products in stores so I go online first. Basically what I do is research it online and find out where to buy it.”Q9 ● “ Functionality it should work the same as the normal product” ● “Just if I knew that it was not coming from food sources, that would be the only thing for me it’s not even about price”Q10 ● “ It’s not very easy to convince my wife to compost because its time consuming” ● “Because I enjoy nature and I have seen what harm toxic products do. It is a minimal gesture I can do to contribute to help the environment”Product ● “They break easily”feedback ● “ Its low quality paper so its compostable” ● “ It’s not white that’s why its not recycled” ● “ The plate and cup are ok but the fork and knife are not good”30
  31. 31. Appendix C – Focus Group and Survey LimitationsIn conducting the focus groups and survey, we faced several limitations as respect to participants andquestions.Participants:Focus Group: ● In order to reach a minimum number of participants, we had to fall back on a couple of convenient participants due to last minute cancellations. ● Additional participants may have added more perspective or support to our findings. ● Only two Green Event customers able to participate in the focus group. This is too small of a representation to make conclusive recommendations. ● We may have gained additional insight if we could have conducted separate focus groups with customers of Green Event and non-customers ● There were no Level 1 participants in any of our focus groups so the perspective of this consumer is not accounted for in our findings. This may have been a result of our initial screening. ● A few participants’ contradicted themselves throughout the focus group discussion and may have been a result of the differing levels of environmental knowledge, awareness and behavior of other participants in the focus group. ● Participants in the individual interviews may have given different responses if they were part of the focus group. ● Not all participants were fully engaged in the focus group conversation.Survey:  Survey respondents comprised of our personal network of family, friends and colleagues.  Respondents may not be a representative sample of the target population.Questions:Focus Group: ● Not all questions were consistently asked during every focus group or interview. This may have contributed to gaps in our findings and biased our interpretations. ● Only one focus group had participants provide feedback on Green Event products. Since physical attributes of the products were not explored with all participants, this may have limited our findings regarding quality and durability of compostable products. ● The inexperience of interviewer(s) and affirmative reactions to participant responses may have influenced responses by participants. ● Some questions were not very clear to participants and needed further illustration or clarification through examples from the moderator.Survey:  Response errors by respondents are possible due to simple errors or misunderstanding or misinterpreting survey questions.31
  32. 32. Appendix D – Survey Questions 1. How do you define environmentally friendly products? Please provide a few words or attributes that define or describe environmentally friendly products.---------------------------------------PAGE BREAK -------------------------------------------- 2. Please indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with the following: ATTITUDES TOWARD Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly NATURAL RESOURCES Disagree Agree Id be willing to ride a bicycle or use public transportation to go to work/school to reduce air pollution. I would purchase an environmentally friendly car in my budget. I try hard to conserve energy (use less heat in the winter and use less air conditioning in the summer.) I strive to conserve water in my home.---------------------------------------PAGE BREAK -------------------------------------------- 3. Please indicate the frequency to which you participate in the following: PRODUCTS Always Usually Sometimes Rarely Never I buy products in refillable or reusable containers. I read labels to see if contents are environmentally safe. I often buy products just because they were safer for the environment. I make a special effort to buy products with environmentally friendly packaging. I change my choice of product for ecological reasons.---------------------------------------PAGE BREAK -------------------------------------------- 4. Please indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with the following:32
  33. 33. KNOWLEDGE/AWARENESS Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree I am aware of recycling programs in my area. I am aware of composting programs in my area. I understand the environmental phrases and symbols on product packages. I feel that I am very knowledgeable about environmental issues.---------------------------------------PAGE BREAK -------------------------------------------- 5. Please indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with the following: VALUES/BELIEFS Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree I become upset when I think about the harm being done to the environment. Recycling is important to save natural resources. I believe composting will reduce pollution. Recycling is too much trouble for me. It is trendy to be environmentally friendly. Keeping separate piles of garbage for recycling and or composting is too much trouble for me. I think environmentalists exaggerate the seriousness of environmental problems. Most of the environmentally safe products I use are too hard to find. Composting is too much trouble for me. I am very concerned about how climate change will affect future generations.---------------------------------------PAGE BREAK --------------------------------------------33
  34. 34. 6. Where do you get your information about environmentally friendly products? Please select your top three (3) sources of information ○ blogs ○ subscription magazines/newsletter ○ websites ○ groups ○ school ○ friends or family ○ retail (at the point of purchase) ○ I don’t actively seek information on environmentally friendly products ○ other: ________________---------------------------------------PAGE BREAK -------------------------------------------- 7. Where do you primarily shop for environmentally friendly products? Please select your top three (3) sources ○ large grocery store ○ local bodega/community store ○ convenience store ○ big box retailer/superstore ○ membership warehouse ○ green or health food grocery ○ online ○ I do not purchase environmentally friendly products ○ other:_________________---------------------------------------PAGE BREAK -------------------------------------------- 8. Of the following, which factors are most likely to influence your decision to purchase environmentally friendly products? Please select your top three (3) or more factors. ○ Biodegradable ○ Brand ○ Compostable ○ Convenience/availability ○ Ingredients ○ Price ○ Product Packaging ○ Quality/Durability ○ Recyclable ○ Style (color, size, shape) ○ Source (where the products were made) ○ Other: _________________---------------------------------------PAGE BREAK -------------------------------------------- 9. Do you purchase environmentally friendly products online? ○ Yes ○ No If respondent answered “no” skips to question 1234
  35. 35. ---------------------------------------PAGE BREAK -------------------------------------------- 10. How often do you purchase environmentally friendly products online? ○ Always ○ Usually ○ Sometimes ○ Rarely ○ Never 11. When searching on-line for environmentally friendly products, what search terms or key words do you use? (open ended)---------------------------------------PAGE BREAK -------------------------------------------- 12. Do you know what composting is? ○ Yes ○ No 13. Please indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with the following: KNOWLEDGE/AWARENESS Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly COMPOSTABLE PRODUCTS disagree Agree I feel that I am very knowledgeable about compostable products. I understand how to dispose of compostable products. I know where I can purchase compostable products.From a quality standpoint, do you Well Above Average Below Well No opinionconsider compostable products to be: above average average below average average 14. Have you purchased compostable products? ○ Yes ○ No ○ I don’t know If respondent answers “no or I don’t know, please skip to question 17---------------------------------------PAGE BREAK -------------------------------------------- 15. What kind of compostable products have you purchased? ○ compostable dinnerware (cups, plates, bowls, utensils/cutlery) ○ compostable bags (garbage, waste or shopping bags) ○ compostable paper (toilet paper, tissue paper, wrapping paper, paper towels) ○ compostable take-out containers ○ compostable other:________________35
  36. 36. 16. Of the following, what are the factors that influenced your decision to purchase compostable products? Please select your top three (3) factors. ○ Brand ○ Convenience/availability ○ Ingredients ○ Price ○ Product Packaging ○ Quality/Durability ○ Style (color, size, shape) ○ Source (where the products were made) ○ Other---------------------------------------PAGE BREAK -------------------------------------------- 17. What is your zip code 18. What is your gender? ○ male ○ female 19. What is your age? ________ 20. What is your ethnic identity? ○ American Indian/Alaska Native ○ Asian ○ Black/African American ○ Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander ○ Non-Hispanic White ○ Hispanic/Latino ○ Middle Eastern ○ I prefer not to answer ○ other: __________________--------------------------------------PAGE BREAK -------------------------------------------- 21. What is the highest level of education you have completed ○ some high school ○ high school diploma ○ some college/university ○ undergraduate degree ○ graduate or higher degree 22. What is your household income? ○ less than $50,000 ○ $51,000 to 99,999 ○ $100,000 to $149,999 ○ $150,000 to $199,99936
  37. 37. ○ above $200,000 23. What is your occupation? (Select One) ○ Business ○ Education ○ Government ○ Nonprofit (community and social services) ○ IT ○ Professional Services (healthcare, engineering, etc.) ○ Agriculture (farming, fishing, forestry, etc.) ○ Service Industry (restaurant, hospitality, etc.) ○ Military ○ Arts, design, entertainment, sports ○ Student ○ Stay at home parent ○ Other: _____________________37
  38. 38. Appendix E – Survey Respondent DemographicsCustomer DemographicsRespondents: There were a total of 20 customer respondents that completed the online survey. Sixadditional respondents only partially completed the survey and their results are not included. Of the 20customer respondents, 65% are female with the remaining 35% are male. Gender 35% Male Female 65%Age: Green Event Customer Age 10 9 8 7 6 5 Female 4 Male 3 2 1 0 under 30 31 - 40 41 - 50 51 - 60 61 - 70 71 - 80 over 80 ● Customer respondents’ ages ranged from 36 to over 80 years with female customers ranging 36 to over 80 years old while the age range of male customers is 49 to 70 years old.38
  39. 39. ● The average age of all customer respondents is 55.5 years. The average age of female customer respondents is 54.2 years while the average age of male customer respondents is 58 years. ● The median age of all customer respondents is 56.5 years. The median age of female customer respondents is 52 years and the median age of male customer respondents is 57 years. ● Majority of customers were between 51 to 60 years but majority of female customers were younger than male customers, between the ages of 41 to 50 years compared to most male customers where they ranged between 51 to 60 years old.Ethnicity: Ethnic Identity 5% White Hispanic/Latino 95% ● Almost all customers, 95%, identified themselves as Non-Hispanic/White. Five percent identified as Hispanic/Latino. ● Sixty-five percent are female Non-Hispanic/White and 5% is Hispanic/Latino. ● All male customers are Non-Hispanic/White. ● Note, two customer respondents who specified their ethnic identity, as Caucasian were included as Non-Hispanic/White in our results. An additional customer responded as European and they too were included in our results as Non-Hispanic/White.Education level: Educational Level 50% 15% Female Male 25% 0% 5% 5% Some Undergraduate Graduate degree or college/university degree higher39
  40. 40. ● All customer respondents have at least a high school diploma. ● Five percent of customers attended some college and comprised only male customers ● Fifty-five percent of customers have obtained an undergraduate degree. Fifty percent of female customers obtained an undergraduate degree compared to five percent of male customers. ● Forty percent of customers have a graduate or higher degree. Fifteen percent of female customers obtained a graduate degree or higher compared to 25% of male customer respondents.Occupation: Customer Occupations 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% Female 5% Male 0% ● Customer respondents were evenly split between their occupations in business, professional services or retirement with 25% in each. ● The remaining occupational categories each had 1 customer respondent and were in education, information technology, arts/sports/entertainment and stay at home parent. ● Female customers had a wider range of occupations where 15% each were in business or retired and another 10% were in professional services. The remaining occupations noted by female customers had 5% each in education; information technology, arts/sports/entertainment and stay at home parent. ● Male customers were mainly in professional service, which accounted for 15%. The remaining male customer respondents were evenly distributed between business and retirement with 10% in each.40
  41. 41. Income: Income Levels 11% less than $50,000 22% $50,001 to $99,999 34% $100,000 to $149,999 11% $150,000 to $199,999 22% above $200,000 ● Two customer respondents (1 female and 1 male) did not disclose their income level. This means only 18 out of 20 responses were recorded. ● Thirty-three percent made between $50K and $99K in household income. ● Twenty-two percent each who had incomes between $100K and $149K and over $200K. ● Eleven percent had incomes of less than $50K and $150K to $199K. ● Twenty-two percent of female customers had an income level of $50K to $99K followed by 17% making over $200K. Eleven percent in each made incomes of $100K to $149K and $150K to $199K. Only 6% of females made less than $50K per year. ● Eleven percent each of male customer respondents made incomes of between $50K to $99K and $100K to $149K. Six percent each had incomes of less than $50K and over $200K.Residence: ● Two customer residences could not be identified. ● Thirteen customer respondents live in the Bay Area and the remaining live in Washington or Southern California.41
  42. 42. Non-customer DemographicsRespondents: There were a total of 46 non-customer respondents that completed the online survey.Partially completed survey results are not included. Of the 46 non-customer respondents, 57% arefemale and 43% are male.Gender: 43% Male 57% FemaleAge: 100% 90% 80% 70% 46% 50% 60% 50% Female 40% Male 30% 50% 20% 40% 0% 0% 10% 0% 4% 10% 0% 0% 0% 0% 30 and 31 to 40 41 to 50 51 to 60 61 to 70 71 to 80 over 81 underNon-customer respondents’ ages ranged from 19 to 64 years old. The age range of female non-customers is 21 to 64 years while the age range of male non-customers is 19 to 50 years old. Theaverage age of all non-customer survey respondents is 32 years. The average age of female non-customer respondents is 32 years while the average age of male customer respondents is 33 years.Majority of non-customers were under 40 years old for both female and male.42
  43. 43. Ethnicity: Ethnic Identity 4% 2% 18% Non-Hispanic/White Asian 50% Middle Eastern Did not answer 26% Hispanic/LatinoThere was one non-customer respondent who specified their ethnic identity as Hispanic/White and wasincluded as Hispanic/Latino in our results. Taking this into account, non-customers were more ethnicallydiverse than customers. Non-customers are mainly Non-Hispanic/White followed by Middle Eastern,followed by Asian then Middle Eastern.Education Level: 38% 46% Female Male 55% 45% 15% 0% Some college Undergraduate degree Graduate degree or higherAll non-customer respondents have at least attended some college and majority has an undergraduateor higher degree. Similar to the customer respondents, more male customers had obtained a graduateor higher degree than females.43
  44. 44. Occupation: 100% 90% 80% 70% 50% 60% 50% 40% 30% Female 45% 12% 19% 20% 8% 4% 4% Male 10% 20% 4% 10% 10% 10% 5% 0% 0%Majority of non-customers worked in business. This was followed by professional services, students,and the service industry. A few non-customers each worked in information technology, thegovernment or were a stay at home parent. Female non-customer respondents were mostly in business.This was followed by students and working in professional services. This compares to the customerswhere majority of females either worked in business or were retired. Male non-customer worked inbusiness, service industry or were students.Income Levels: 22% 27% less than $50,000 $50,001 to $99,999 $100,000 to $149,999 $150,000 to $199,999 9% 22% above $200,000 20%Twenty-seven percent of non-customers had household incomes over $200K. This was followed by 22%in non-customers earning less than $50,000 and between $50K and $99K.44
  45. 45. Residence: Residence 2% 2% 4% 2% California 5% unknown/foreign Colorado 8% Maryland 51% DC Illinois 26% Michigan New YorkTwenty-six percent of non-customer residences could not be identified. Fifty-one percent of non-customers respondents live in California (mostly in the Bay Area) and the remaining live in Colorado,Maryland, DC, Illinois, Michigan and New York.45
  46. 46. Appendix F –Greenness Level Calculation MethodologyIn order to determine the level of greenness for each of our survey respondent customers and non-customers, we used the definitions identified in our focus group results, and assigned a set of scores foreach level: Level 1 - Oblivious Consumer (5 - 10) Level 2 - Conceptually Aware Environmental Consumer (11 - 15) Level 3 - Occasional Environmental Consumer (16 - 20) Level 4 - Environmental Activist (21 - 25)We then assembled all the questions in the survey that evaluated our respondents according to 5 areasof environmentally friendly behavior: 1) Attitude towards natural resources (question 2) 2) Purchasingbehavior of environmentally friendly greenness level (question 3) 3) Knowledge and awareness aboutenvironmentally friendly products (question 4) 4) Values and beliefs (question 5) Knowledge andawareness regarding compostable products (question 13).Each of the above questions were to be rated from 1 to 5, 1 having the least knowledge or usage rateand 5 having the most knowledge or usage rate. Each question was also broken down into severalstatements pertaining to the category being evaluated, and it was as follows: ● Question 2 had 4 statements with a maximum possible score of 20. ● Question 3 had 5 statements with a maximum possible score of 25. ● Question 4 had 4 statements with a maximum possible score of 20. ● Question 5 had 10 statements with a maximum possible score of 50. ● Question 13 had 3 statements with a maximum possible score of 30.After calculating the total for each question, the result of that total would then be divided by thenumber of statements in that question, which then resulted in a score from 1 to 5 for each question.From this, the maximum amount a respondent would get from this greenness scale would be 25.Each respondent’s score was calculated, and then evaluated according to the categories mentionedabove in order to identify their greenness level.46
  47. 47. Appendix G – Website Technical Analysis andRecommendations:A. Technical Analysis: - Number of Objects: The total number of objects on this page is 26, which by their number will dominate web page delay. Consider reducing this to a more reasonable number. Above 20 objects per page the overhead from dealing with the actual objects (description time and wait time) accounts for more than 80% of whole page latency. See Figure II-3: Relative distribution of latency components showing that object overhead dominates web page latency in Website Optimization Secrets for more details on how object overhead dominates web page latency. Combine, refine, and optimize your external objects. Replace graphic rollovers with CSS rollovers to speed display and minimize HTTP requests. Consider using CSS sprites to help consolidate decorative images. Using CSS techniques such as colored backgrounds, borders, or spacing instead of graphic techniques can reduce HTTP requests. Replace graphic text headers with CSS text headers to further reduce HTTP requests. Finally, consider optimizing parallel downloads by using different hostnames or a CDN to reduce object overhead. - Total Number of Images: The total number of images on this page is 24; consider reducing this to a more reasonable number. Recommend combining, replacing, and optimizing your graphics. Replace graphic rollover menus with CSS rollover menus to speed display and minimize HTTP requests. Consider using CSS sprites to help consolidate decorative images. Use CSS techniques such as colored backgrounds, borders, or spacing instead of graphic techniques to reduce HTTP requests. Replace graphic text headers with CSS text headers to further reduce HTTP requests. Finally, consider optimizing parallel downloads by using different hostnames to reduce object overhead. - Total Website Size: The total size of this page is 113260 bytes, which will load in over 20 seconds on a 56Kbps modem - or 27.77 seconds on a 56Kbps modem. Consider reducing total page size to less than 100K to achieve sub 20-second response times on 56K connections. Be sure to provide feedback for pages over 100K by layering your design to display useful content within the first two seconds. Consider optimizing your site. - Image Size: The total size of all your images is 97377 bytes, which exceeds 50K. Consider optimizing and creatively cropping your images, and combining them where appropriate. Even better, replace graphic text and form controls with styled text to eliminate unnecessary HTTP requests. Ideally each image should be less than 1160 bytes, to easily fit into one TCP-IP packet.B. Website Score SummaryWebsite Grade 80Moz Rank 4.2 52Indexed Pages This number is the approximate number of pages on that are stored by search47
  48. 48. engines. Web crawlers for the major search engines will visit the website periodically and look for new content to index. Generally, the more pages found on your site by search engines, the better.Traffic Rank 11,224,242 Your website has an Alexa rank of 11,224,242 which is in the top 36.09 % of all websites.Blog Grade 73 Based on a measurement of the traffic levels to your blog and the number and quality of links pointing at it.Linking Domains Not Available48
  49. 49. Appendix H – Non-customer Survey Definitions ofEnvironmentally Friendly Productsrecyclablebiodegradablenon-toxicless paper, plastic, no chemicals, natural ingredientsAll the products which don’t use tree as raw materials and are degradable and do not omit poisonousgases are environment friendly products.products that inflict minimal or no harm on the environmentRecyclableNaturalOrganicNo ToxinHealthyNo pollutionNontoxic, biodegradableCompany name, green brand, reputationrecyclablerecycledno harm when disposed ofnon-toxicNatural ingredients, bio-degradable, re-fill or recycle packagingdont make pollution, easy in recycling, help other products to be greenProducts whose side effects do not have unintended environmental impacts.Minimal impact to the environment during development, production and transportation. Manufactured ofcomponents that are safe, biodegradable or recyclable using energy-efficient processes.Products that do not harm the environment, reduce wasteRecyclableCompostableOrganicNon-toxicLow carbon footprintEvidence of low emissions, waste reduction, low water pollutants (or efforts to treat water) in theproducts production processesSustainable materialsRecyclableLow qualityIt can help the earth, save energy and with the solar system, and the pollution and the air we us live longer and stay healthier49
  50. 50. Environmental friendly for me is as follows:a) recyclableb) reusablec) does not harm treesd) does not pollute oceans/seas or air when manufacturinge) Does not affect the natural habitat where animals live(1) Sustainably produced(2) Recyclable content (where applicable)(3) Uses alternate (when applicable) components and ingredients to toxic or environmentally dangerous,or environmentally scarce items.Source: sustainable/renewable resources, non-toxic materialsDisposal: biodegradableMinimal impact on the environmentNatural ingredients that wont cause harm to the environment either by their usage or disposal; alsoideally biodegradable packagingclean, green, easy on environmentGreen, clean, biodegradable, recyclable...usually dont work as well.Products that do not harm the environment during production or use.In my experience, eco-friendly products tend to have an unfortunate pairing of being simultaneously moreexpensive and less effective. Per the latter point, recycled paper towels are less absorbent.toxin-free, biodegradable, compostable, recycledRecycled, biodegradable, green, multi-purposenatural, organic, biodegradable, non-toxicNon-toxic, safe for use around people & pets.greencleanearth-friendlynon-toxicProducts that are bio degradable. Without chemicals.biodegradable packaging, organic, pesticide free, no hormones, recyclable,anything that will not cause unnecessary waste causing pollution of any sort and made from naturalresources and not harmful chemicals would qualify as environmentally friendly to meProducts that reduce waste and are manufactured with consciousness.Products like eggs that are sold in 100% recycled cartons. Eggs from farms grown on organic farms.SAFE, NON-TOXIC, ODORLESS, GREEN, LOW CARBON IMPACT, LONG LASTING, LIMITED PACKAGINGGreen... non-chemical. Natural. Anything that wont hurt the environment if I pour it on the lawn.They are products that do not harm the environment or the person using them. They are free of toxinsand things that pollute the air or water.Clean, pure, something that can go back into the environment post-consumer without having an impacton the environment.Low waste, minimum packaging, produced locally, nonhazardous to environment, production has lowimpact to environment, natural ingredients50
  51. 51. Environmentally friendly products are those that do not hinder your health when you use them and aremade from natural sources. They are made in an efficient way and can be disposed of in an equallyefficient way.Using recycled or reclyable materials. Using products that have lower emissions, energy usage or a smallercarbon footprint than other alternative productsProducts that take a minimal toll on the environment from sourcing materials, to how the product isassembled, to how it is shipped, to its usage and of chemicals, dyes, other harsh additivesnatural, naturally from the earthdoesnt take a lot of energy to makeminimal or no harm on the environment- Comprised of recycle material- doesnt harm environment with its waste (e.g., use of detergent doesnt harm the sewers, water...)- reduces carbon footprintProducts that do not use harsh chemicals and where no damage has been done to the environment or thepeople involved in the production of the product.51