Diagnosis Of Pulpal Pathology In Pedodontics


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A brief presentation of UG level about diagnosis of various pulpal pathology in pediatric dentistry

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Diagnosis Of Pulpal Pathology In Pedodontics

  1. 1. By: Shirin IV year Part I BDS KMCT Dental College
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • Dental pulp may be defined as, “ a special organ with a unique environment of the unyielding dentin surrounding a resistant,resilient soft tissue of mesenchymal origin reinforced with a ground substance.” • It has a close relationship between its peripheral cells,the odontoblasts and the dentin thereby making it a functional entity sometimes refered to as „pulp-dentin complex‟. • The dental pulp is a delicate connective tissue liberally interspersed with tiny blood vessels,lymphatics,nerves, & undifferentiated CT cells. • The enclosure of the pulp tissue within the rigid calcified walls of dentin precludes the excessive swelling of tissue that occur in hyperemic phases of inflammation in other tissues. • Pulpal injury  frequently irreversible & painful
  3. 3. Normal Pulp • Asymptomatic • Exhibits mild to moderate transient response to thermal & electric pulpal stimuli, which subsides almost immediately with ceasation of the stimuli. • No pain on percussion or palpation. • R/G  clearly delineated canal that tapers toward the apex. no evidence of canal calcification. intact lamina dura.
  4. 4. CLASSIFICATION OF PULPAL DISEASES (Grossman’s Classification) A. Pulpitis i)Reversible Pulpitis ii)Irreversible Pulpitis a)Hyperplastic Pulpitis b) Internal resorption B. Pulp degeneration-Pulp Calcification C. Pulp Necrosis
  5. 5. Reversible Pulpitis • “Mild to moderate inflammatory condition of the pulp caused by noxious stimuli , in which the pulp is capable of returning to the uninflammed state following removal of the stimuli.” • A Clinical diagnosis based on subjective & objective findings. • C/F :  due to direct or indirect injury to pulp increased response to cold ,hot or sweets Thermal stimuli cause quick, sharp & transient hypersensitive response which lasts for a moment & subsides soon after removal of stimuli.  respond to electric pulp tester at a lower level of current than that of adjacent normal teeth.  Associated teeth usually show deep carious lesions,large metallic restorations(particularly w/o adequate insulation), or restorations with defective margins.
  6. 6. Irreversible Pulpitis • “Persistant inflammatory condition of the pulp,which is symptomatic or asymtomatic caused by a noxious stimulus.” • A Clinical diagnosis based on subjective & objective findings. • Normally continuation of reversible pulpitis resulting in progressive damage to pulp. • May be acute ,subacute or chronic. • Clinically, acutely inflammed pulp symptomatic & chronically inflammed asymptomatic • Pain occurs as a result of increase in intrapulpal pressure due to inflammatory exudates. • C/F : Irreversible pulpitis may be symptomatic or asymptomatic Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis spontaneous intermittent or continuous paroxysms of pain Sudden temperature changes induce prolonged episodes of pain.
  7. 7. There may be prolonged painful response to cold which can be relieved by heat & painful response to heat which is relieved by cold. Continuous spontaneous pain may occur by change in posture Pain may be moderate to severe depending on severity of inflammation. May be sharp or dull ; localized or referred ; intermittent or constant. Characteristics Potentially reversible Irreversible Pulpitis Pain Momentary-dissipates readily after removal of stimulus Continuous,persistent,throbbing,int ermittent Stimulus Require external stimulus spontaneous Pulp Sensibility Testing Not reliable in primary & young permanent teeth unreliable Percussion - ve May be +ve in advanced cases Referred pain - ve Common finding Postural variation - ve Common finding Color of tooth no change Present-due to tissue lysis & intrapulpal hemorrhage Radiographic findings Normal periapex Widening of PDL space
  8. 8. Asymptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis  May develop on conversion of a symptomatic irreversible pulpitis into a quiescent state,probably because the inflammatory exudate was quickly vented --- large carious exposure / previous traumatic injury that resulted in painless pulp exposure of long duration.  Chronic Hyperplastic Pulpitis (Pulp Polyp) •a unique form of pulpitis wherin the inflammed pulp instead of perishing by continued suppuration,reacts by excessive & exuberant proliferation into the occlusal surface. •Characterized by development of granulation tissue,covered by epithelium,that protrude out of pulpal chamber •Occurs in teeth with extensive carious exposure of pulp,asstd with long standing ,low grade irritation. •Usually asymptomatic but pain may present during mastication.
  9. 9. Internal Resorption • “Idiopathic slow or fast progressive resorptive process occuring in dentin of the pulp chamber or pulp canal of the tooth.” •Exhibit no additional symptoms other than existing pulpitis. •Crown may appear as pink  „ ,when resorption is in coronal portion. •Resorption involving the root canal appears as round to oval R/L area that extends from pulp canal.
  10. 10. Pulpal Necrosis • Associated with death of the pulp. • Tooth becomes non-vital. • May result from untreated irreversible pulpitis or may occur immediately after a traumatic injury that disrupts the blood supply to the pulp. • Necrotic remnants may be liquefied or coagulated. • May be asstd with periapical abscess. • Crown of the tooth may be discolored. Pulpal necrosis presented as apersistent greyish discoloration of crown bcessation of root development & periapical radiolucent lesion -after traumatic injury.
  11. 11. DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES • Diagnosis is the process of identifying a medical condition or disease by proper evaluation of signs & sypmtoms & from the results of various diagnostic procedures. • Diagnostic procedure should follow a consistent & logical order & include review of medical & dental histories ,radiographic examination & clinical examination. • Pulp is the essence of the tooth. It is the structure that makes the tooth vital. • An understanding of the possible underlying pathological process ,combined with an exact assessment of pain history & appropriate clinical tests should aid the practitioner in determining the nature of the pulpal inflammation. • Operative diagnosis  there are instances when a final diagnosis can be reached only on direct evaluation of pulp tissue & decission about treatment can be made accordingly. eg:
  12. 12. • History • Recollecting -1st step towards establishing a diagnosis. • May not determine treatment but may influence modification in treatment modalities as according to the person‟s health status. • Detailed history of pain • Extra-Oral Examination • For localized swelling,changes in color or bruises,abrasions,cuts or scars & similar signs of disease,trauma or previous T/t. • Enlarged lymphnodes important in denoting spread of infection. • Intra-Oral Examination • Examination of oral mucosa for any abnormality • Carious lesions ,discolorations & other obvious abnormalities asstd with the teethshould be noted. • Coronal Evaluation  by using a mouth mirror & explorer and possibly a fiber optic light source. Suspected tooth carefully & thoroughly examined for caries,defective restoration,discoloration,enamel loss or defects that allow direct passage of stimuli to pulp. • Pulpal Evaluation Clinical condition of the pulp evaluated by thermal stimuli,percussion,palpation & vitality tests.
  13. 13. • Pulpal Evaluation + History+ R/G findings Diagnosis • The various pulpal evaluation methods are: i) Pulp testing ii) Percussion iii) Radiographs Dental Pulp Testing • A useful & essential diagnostic aid in endodontics • An investigation that provide valuable diagnosis & treatment planning information. • Help in the assessment of pulp health based on its qualitative sendory response. • 3 types Pulp vitality testing assessment of pulp‟s blood supply eg: Laser Doppler Flowmetry Pulse oximetry Pulp sensibility testing assessment of pulp‟s sensory response. eg: Thermal & electric pulp testing Pulp sensitivity condition of pulp being very responsive to stimuli.
  14. 14. • Conventional Pulp Testing Method Technique/Material Symptom/Interpretation 1. Thermal Cold Heat •Ethyl chloride,ice,air blast •Hot water,heated gutta parcha (used for location of symptomatic tooth) •Hypersensitivity/subsiding pain- reversible pulpitis. •Lingering pain-irreversible pulpitis •No response-pulpal necrosis 2.Electirc •Odontometer •Respond to lower level of current- reversible pulpitis •Respond to higher level of current- Irreversible •No response-necrosis 3.Percussion •Vertical •Lateral •Apical periodontitis(irreversible pulpitis if due to caries) •Lateral periodontal space inflammation 4.Radiograph •IOPA •Furcation involvement /thickening of the PDL space-indicates periapical infection(usually accompanied with irreversible pulpitis) Pulp sensibility tests unrelaible in children,recently traumatized & multi rooted teeth.
  15. 15. • Newer Methods • Laser Doppler Flowmetry • Developed in 1970s to measure the velocity of RBCs in capillaries. • A non-invasive,objective,painless alternative to traditional neutral- stimulation methods promising test for children. • Vital teeth-produce regular signal fluctuations • Non-vital teeth-no synchronous signals;produced irregular fluctuations or very steep spike traces that are attributed to a movement artefact. • Useful in assessment of post-traumatized incisors aswell. • Pulse Oximetry • Direct measurement of pulp circulation-real measure of pulp vitality. • Pulp oximetry-completely objective estimates blood oxygen saturation levels by measuring & comparing amplitudes of the ratios of transmitted infra-red with red light. • The ratio varies with relative fractions of oxygen saturated to unsaturated Hb & is used to calculate oxygen saturation. • Capable of evaluating the blood vasculature status within a tooth & therefore pulp vitality. • Disadvantage – dependance on a pulsatile blood flow
  16. 16. • Duel Wavelength Spectrometry • Measures blood oxygenation change within the capillary bed of dental tissue & tus not dependent on a pulsatile blood flow. • Hughes Probeye Camera • Used in detecting temperature change as small as 0.1 C ,hence ,been used to test pulp vitality experimentally. Odontometer Laser Doppler Flowmeter
  17. 17. Pulse Oximeter
  18. 18. CONCLUSION Before initiating treatment one must first assemble all the information regarding signs,symptoms & history. That information is then combined with results from the clinical examination & tests to obtain the diagnosis. Determination of the etiology of the patient’s chief complaint & a correct diagnosis is are paramount prior to a recommendation of an endodontic therapy or any treatment. A diagnostician must have a working knowledge of examination procedures ,a knowledge of pathosis .its radiographic & clinical manifestations ,an awarness of various modalities of treatment and above all a questioning mind . A methodical & disciplined approach,along with a good measure of patience ,will help establish an accurate diagnosis.
  19. 19. REferences • Textbook Of Pedodontics by Shobha Tandon,2nd Edition. • Principles & Practice Of Pedodontics by Arathi Rao • Shafer’s Textbook Of Oral Pathology,6th Edition • Review article –Dental Pulp Testing by Eugene Chen & Paul V.Abbott ;International Journal Of Dentistry,Vol. 2009,Article ID 365785 • Clinical Update on Pulpal & Periradicular Diseases by Naval Post Graduate Dental School,December 2005 • Various Internet sources