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- 1. HYPOTHESIS TESTING By Shirali, Elmir, Ragim (BBA-020)
- 2. Agenda:• Hypothesis : Meaning, Types, characteristics, sources• Formulation of Hypothesis, Errors in hypothesis testingParametric and Nonparametric testT-test, Z-test, F-test
- 3. What is a statistical hypothesis test?A statistical hypothesis test is a method ofmaking decisions using data, whether froma controlled experiment or an observationalstudy
- 4. What is a statistical hypothesis test?It is an unproven statement orproposition about a factor orphenomenon that is of interest to theresearcher.An important role of a hypothesis is tosuggest variables to be included in theresearch design
- 5. Types:Null Hypothesis (H0) –This hypothesis states that thereis no difference between theparameter and the statistic that isbeing computed.
- 6. Types: Analytical Hypothesis (H1) – Here relationship of analytical variable is found. These are used when one would like to specify the relationship between changes in one property leading to change in another.
- 7. Characteristics of a Hypothesis:• Clarity of concepts – Concepts should not be abstract. If concepts are not clear, precise problem formulation will be difficult leading to difficulty in data collection. Concepts are important because, it means different to different people.• Ability to test – It should be possible to verify the hypothesis. Therefore, a good hypothesis is one in which there is empirical evidence.
- 8. • Specific/Clear – What is to be tested should be clear. The relationship between the variables should be clear or the statistic under verification should be mentioned clearly.• Statistical Tools – Hypothesis should be such that, it is possible to use statistical techniques. Such as Anova, Chi square, t- test or other non parametric tests.
- 9. • Logical – If there is two or more Hypothesis derived from the same basic theory, they should not contradict each other.• Subjectivity – Researchers subjectivity or his biased Judgment should be eliminated from the hypothesis.• Theory – Hypothesis must be supported or backed up by theoretical relevance.
- 10. Steps involved in Hypothesis Testing: Formulate H0 and H1 Select an appropriate test Choose the level of • significance, α Collect data and calculate the test statistic. Determine the probability Determine the critical valueassociated with the test statistic. of the test statistic, TSCRCompare probability with level Determine if TSCR falls into rejection of significance, α or non-rejection region. Reject or do not reject H0. Draw a marketing research conclusion.
- 11. Parametric tests:• These tests are based on some assumptions about the parent population from which the sample has been drawn. These assumptions can be with respect to sample size, type of distribution or on population parameters like mean, standard deviation etc.• Parametric tests are more powerful.• In parametric tests, it is assumed that the data follows normal distributions. Ex: Of parametric tests are Z Test, T-Test and F-Test.
- 12. T test:• T-Test is a univariate test.• Uses t-distribution, which is a symmetrical bell-shaped curve, for testing sample mean and proportion.• Assumes that the variable is normally distributed and the mean is known and the population variance is estimated from the sample.• It is used when the standard deviation is unknown and the size of sample is small (i.e. less than 30).
- 13. X − µ0 ~ N (0,1)Z test - σ/ n• It is a popular test for judging the significance of mean and proportions.• It is used for t-distribution and binomial or Poisson distribution also when the size of sample is very large (more than 30) on the presumption that such a distribution tends to approximate normal distribution as sample size becomes larger.• Testing the hypothesis about difference between two means: This can be used when two population means are given and null hypothesis is H0: P1 = P2.
- 14. F test:• An F test of sample variance may be performed if it is not known whether the two populations have equal variance.• It is used to test the equality of variance of two normal populations i.e. to find whether two samples can be regarded as drawn from normal populations having the same variance.• This test is particularly useful when multiple sample cases are involved and the data has been measured on interval or ratio scale.• If the probability of F is greater than the significance level α, H0 is not rejected
- 15. Non Parametric Tests:• Non Parametric tests are used to test the hypothesis with nominal and ordinal data.• We do not make assumptions about the shape of population distribution.• These are distribution-free tests.• The hypothesis of non-parametric test is concerned with something other than the value of a population parameter.• Easy to compute. There are certain situations particularly in marketing research, where the assumptions of parametric tests are not valid.• Examples are Chi-Square Test, Mann Whitney U Test, Kruskal-Wallis Test, Rank Correlation
- 16. Basic test statistic for a mean: point estimate of µ - target value of µtest statistic = σ point estimate of µ •σ = standard deviation •For 2-sided test: Reject H0 when the test statistic is in the upper or lower 100*α/2% of the reference distribution
- 17. Non Parametric Tests:• Non Parametric tests are used to test the hypothesis with nominal and ordinal data.• We do not make assumptions about the shape of population distribution.• These are distribution-free tests.• The hypothesis of non-parametric test is concerned with something other than the value of a population parameter.• Easy to compute. There are certain situations particularly in marketing research, where the assumptions of parametric tests are not valid.• Examples are Chi-Square Test, Mann Whitney U Test, Kruskal-Wallis Test, Rank Correlation
- 18. P valueThe P value is a probability, withvalue ranging from zero to one.The smaller the p-value, the morestatistical evidence exists tosupport the alternativehypothesis.
- 19. P value• If the p-value is less than 1%, there is overwhelming evidence that supports the alternative hypothesis.• If the p-value is between 1% and 5%, there is a strong evidence that supports the alternative hypothesis.• If the p-value is between 5% and 10% there is a weak evidence that supports the alternative hypothesis.• If the p-value exceeds 10%, there is no evidence that supports the alternative hypothesis.
- 20. BBA, any questions? ;)
- 21. Thanks for Attention! References: • Moore, David S. 2002. The Basic Practice of Statistics, 2nd edition • Schervish, M (1996) Theory of Statistics, p. 218. Springer • Shirali Orujlu • Ragim Abdullayev • Elmir Huseynov

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