And one more trivia question. The answers will be near the end of the presentation.
Insulation: Wrapping It Up
Insulation: Wrapping it up By Shelly Shinevar
Pay attention and you may hear the answers to these questions during the presentation. What is the most dangerous substance used for insulation dating back to the Ancient Greeks and Romans? Insulation reduces average home heating and cooling costs by around what percent?
What is insulation?The term insulation refers to a substance that slows or retards the transfer of heat or sound. Building insulation Acoustic insulation Thermal insulation Electrical insulation Insulated glass
We will focus on building insulation. Building insulation materials are thermal insulation used in the construction or retrofit of buildings. The materials are used to reduce heat transfer and are used in varying combinations to achieve the desired effect (thermal comfort with reduced energy consumption).
Common insulation application inside an apartment.
Thermal insulation in buildings is an important factor in achieving thermal comfort for its occupants. Insulation reduces unwanted heat loss or gain and can decrease the energy demands of heating and cooling systems. In cold climates, the main aim is to reduce heat flow out of the building. In hot conditions, insulation can reduce the heat from solar radiation.
A Brief History of Insulation There is evidence that the Ancient Mayans constructed homes with thick walls to insulate against the heat. The Ancient Egyptians built homes characterized by low roofs, small windows and thick brick walls so heat couldn’t easily enter. The Ancient Greeks used cavity walls to insulate their homes. The Ancient Romans also used cavity walls and insulated heated water pipes with cork.
History continued… Vikings and other northern Europeans insulated their homes with mud chinking. When mixed with horse or cattle dung and straw, the mud was called daub and was better than plain mud. In the Middle Ages, large ornately embroidered or woven tapestries were hung on interior walls to block drafts and soak up dampness. During the Great Depression, residents of the “Dust Bowl” used strips of cloth coated in flour- based glue or paste. City dwellers would stuff newspapers in cracks to keep out the winter chill.
History continued… Asbestos was the main source of industrial and residential insulation throughout the 19th and mid-20th centuries. In the 40’s & 50’s, mineral wool or rock wool started to become popular for insulation. In the mid-70’s, the harmful health effects of asbestos let to a swift decline in its use. With the decline of asbestos, other forms of insulation were found.
Building insulation materials are thermal insulation used in the construction or retrofit of buildings.The materials reduce heat transfer byconduction, radiation or convection.They are used in various combinations toachieve thermal comfort with reducedenergy consumption.
Other types of insulation: Fiberglass – Considered to be the “traditional” choice in home insulation (glass wool/batts & blankets). Batts are precut. Blankets are available in continues rolls. Rock wool/slag wool/mineral wool/stone wool – Made from rock, iron ore, minerals or recycled glass. Styrofoam sheets PVC wraps (Polyvinyl Chloride) Spray polyurethane foam (SPF) Insulating concrete forms, rigid panels & structural insulated panels (SIPs) Paper cellulose (loose-fill) Recycled cotton denim Sheep wool Straw bales Wood fiber
Insulation may be categorized by: Composition (material) Form (structural or non-structural) Functional mode (conductive, radiative, convective) Non-structural forms include batts, blankets, loose-fill, spray foam & panels. Structural forms include insulating concrete forms, structured panels & straw bales.
Factors affecting whichinsulation to use: Climate Ease of installation Durability Ease of replacement Cost effectiveness Toxicity Flammability Environmental impact and sustainability
Insulation no longer used: Urea-formaldehyde foam (UFFI) & panels – releases formaldehyde gas. Asbestos – Can cause cancer in friable form, when fibers are released in the air. Spray polyurethane foam (SPF) – Often uses hazardous chemicals with high toxicity. Fiberglass – Potential cancer risk. Loose-fill cellulose – Low-level toxicity and mold potential.
What is a building envelope? The building envelope is the physical separator between the interior and the exterior environments of a building. The physical components of the envelope include the foundation, roof, walls, doors & windows. The thermal envelope (or heat flow control layer) is usually different than the building envelope.
For windows, InsulatedGlass Units (IGUs) ar e mostoften used: Insulated glazing (IG) also known as double glazing are double or triple glass window panes separated by an air or other gas-filled space to reduce heat transfer across a part of the building envelope. Laminated or tempered glass may also be used. The maximum insulating efficiency of a standard IGU is determined by the thickness of the space containing the gas or vacuum. Gases used include oxygen, nitrogen, argon, krypton or xenon. The double-glazed window was invented in the 1930s and was commonly available in the U.S. in the 1950s.
A sectioned diagram of a fixed Insulated Glazed Unit (IGU):Surface #1 is facing outside, Surface #2 is the inside surface of theexterior pane, Surface #3 is the outside surface of the interior pane,and Surface #4 is the inside surface of interior pane. The windowframe is labeled #5, a spacer is indicated as #6, seals are shown in red(#7), the internal reveal is on the right hand side (#8) and the exteriorwindowsill on the left (#9).
Contractors are installing new energy efficient windows inthe Calhoun County Building as part of the EECBG project.Calhoun County received $351,450 for this Multi-Purposeproject.
What is Building Envelope Thermography? It involves using an infrared camera to view temperature anomalies on the interior and exterior surfaces of the structure. In passive thermography, the features of interest are naturally at a higher or lower temperature than the background. In active thermography, an energy source is required to produce a thermal contrast between the feature of interest and the background.
Thermogram of a traditional building in the background and a “passive house" in the foreground.
What is building science? Building science is the collection of scientific knowledge that focuses on the analysis and control of the physical phenomena affecting buildings. It traditionally includes the detailed analysis of building materials and building envelope systems. This concerns energy consumption, environmental control-ability, sustainability, maintenance and occupant comfort & health.
The U.S. Dept. of Energy has a Building Technologies Program (BTP) to develop technologies, techniques, and tools for making buildings more energy efficient, productive and affordable.
Facts about Energy Efficiency and Insulation Insulation reduces average home heating & cooling costs by around 20%. Insulation currently in place in U.S. buildings reduces the amount of carbon dioxide by 780 million tons each year. For every pound of carbon dioxide emitted in the production of insulation, 330 lbs are avoided by the use of insulation. Insulation saves over 600 times more energy each year than all of the CFLs, Energy Star appliances, and Energy Star windows combined.
What is the most dangerous substance used for insulation dating back to the Ancient Greeks and Romans? AsbestosThe Greeks named asbestos. They also had acommon name for it – crysotile (means goldcloth). Both the Greeks & Romans used it fornapkins, tablecloths and dressed their slaves in it.The Greeks first noticed it caused a “lungsickness” in their slaves.
Insulation reduces average home heating and cooling costs by around what percent? 20%For residential and commercial buildings,energy efficiency through insulation is thesimplest and most cost-effective way toreduce energy use and greenhouse gasemissions.
Which country banned insulation in 1980? CanadaAbout 100,000 people had insulation in their homes.