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2 carbohydrates.pdf

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2 carbohydrates.pdf

  1. 1. Carbohydrates Presented by: Dr. Hebatullah Awad Specialist of Clinical Nutrition National Nutrition Institute Member of the European Society of Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition (ESPEN)
  2. 2. Which Contains carb.??
  3. 3. Hints On Biochemistry Of Carbohydrates
  4. 4. Types of carbs… Simple carbs. • Sugars and refined grains • Short chain carbs. • Sweet taste • Easily digested and absorbed • Fast acting Complex carbs. • Starches and whole grain • Long chain carbs. • Starchy taste • Slowly digested and absorbed • Slower in action
  5. 5. Simple carbs… Monosaccharide • Just one sugar • Absorbed and utilized as such • Glucose • Fructose • Galactose • Source of energy • (1gm = 4kcal) Disaccharides • Double sugars • Broken down by digestive enzymes to one sugar • Sucrose (glucose + fructose) • Lactose (glucose + galactose) • Maltose (glucose + glucose) • Source of energy • (1gm = 4kcal)
  6. 6. Complex carbs. (polysaccharides) Starch polysaccharides Non starch polysaccharides (fibers) • Made from long chains of sugar • Digested into small sugars then absorbed as simple sugars. • Source of energy( 1gm = 4 kcal) • Made of long chains of sugar • Can’t be digested or absorbed. • Not a source of energy (1gm = zero kcal)
  7. 7. Functions Of Carbohydrates Source of energy Protein sparing and synthesis Fat oxidation and production Production of Pentoses
  8. 8. 1-Carbs as a source of energy • Carbs are the principle source of energy to the body, it supplies more than 50% of the body caloric needs. • Brain fuel, Glucose is the ultimate brain food also most of Central Nervous System parts are glucose dependant. • Muscles: Carbs are the major source of energy for muscular workout, During exercise glycogen in the muscles breakdown to lactic acid to serve as a source of energy. Also carbs are essential for energy supply in moderate and vigorous exercise in athletes.
  9. 9. 2-Protein sparing and synthesis • Protein sparing: Basically dietary protein shouldn’t be used as a source of energy, because of the other biological functions of protein like muscles building and tissue repair. Therefore adequate intake of dietary carbs acts as an umbrella that protect protein from being used as a fuel. • Synthesis of Non-essential amino acids: Intermediates of carbs metabolism e.g pyruvic acid act as precursors for synthesis of non-essential amino acids
  10. 10. 3- Fat oxidation and storage • Fat oxidation: (too little) Acetyl Co-A is a product of fat oxidation, to get rid of it the body needs adequate amounts of oxaloacetate which is derived from carbohydrates, therefore if fat oxidation occurs in absence of enough carbohydrates, acetyl co-A will accumulate in the body leading to ketosis. • Fat storage: (too much) Consumption of carbs in amounts more than the requirements leads to formation of body fats.
  11. 11. 4- Synthesis of Pentose • Pentose like Ribose are produced during the metabolism of carbohydrates. • Pentose are components of essential body compounds like the DNA,RNA and co-enzymes like NAD and FAD. • Therefore carbohydrates plays an essential role in many biological activities in the body.
  12. 12. Carbs from nutritional point of view Energy • Weight management Blood sugar • Insulin secretion • Blood glucose
  13. 13. Carbs as a source of energy • Carbohydrates being a major source of safe energy to the body , it should contribute to 40-55% of the daily caloric intake. • The minimum required amount of carbs to human being is 50 grams of carbs/day, otherwise ketosis and protein catabolism may occur. • Too much carbs intake leads to storage of fat and increase in body weight.
  14. 14. Carbohydrates and blood glucose Usually blood glucose level rise 5-45 minutes following any food that contain carbohydrates. Why 5 minutes up to 45 minutes? 5 minutes in case the food contains carbs with high glycaemic index,45 minutes if the food contains carbs with low glycaemic index.
  15. 15. What is Glycaemic index?? • It is the variation in increase and fall in blood glucose level, following ingestion of carbohydrate containing food, this variation is known as The Glycaemic index of food containing carbohydrates • The concept of glycaemic index of food is to compare the effect of a given amount of carbs on blood glucose to the effect of the same amount of ingested glucose on the blood glucose level.
  16. 16. High GI Versus low GI foods
  17. 17. Natural sources of carbs • Grains (cereals): rice, wheat, bulger, popcorn, oats. • Pulses (legumes): beans (fava, red, white, black-eyed ), chickpeas, lentils, lupine seeds. • Fruits: orange, banana, mango, apple, dates, kiwi. • Starchy Vegetables (roots): potato, sweet potato, yam, carrots, peas, sweet corn. • Milk : milk, yogurt, ice-cream and pudding.
  18. 18. Grains ..whole and refined •
  19. 19. Grains Whole grains (complex carb) Consists of 3 layers Bran layer: outermost layer rich in fibers. Germ : the embryo, contains antioxidants, healthy fats and vitamin B Endosperm: the largest part of kernel rich in starch, some protein and little vitamins. Examples: Whole wheat, Bulgur, Freekah, Oats, Quinoa, Brown rice. Refined grains (simple carb) Consists of 1 layer: Endosperm: Refining process removes both layers the bran and germ layer, only the endosperm is present, therefore it’s mainly starch. Examples: White flour, White rice, Corn flakes, Pop corn.
  20. 20. Pulses (legumes) …the healthy choice Legumes Are A Good Source Of Complex Carbs They Are Also A Good Source Of Plant Protein & Fibers. They Are Of Low Glycaemic Index, Therefore They Are Optimum Choice For Weight Management And For Diabetics. Examples: Fava Beans, Red Beans, White Beans, Lentils, Chickpeas, Lupine Beans And Black-eyed Beans.
  21. 21. Fruits Healthy Source Of Simple Carbs (Sugars) Rich In Natural Fibers Therefore They Have A Moderate Glycaemic Index. Also Rich In Vitamins, Minerals And Antioxidants. Dried Fruits; Drying Abstracts Water From Fruit Therefore Dried Fruits Have Higher Concentration Of Sugar , Higher Glycaemic Index Juice Is Of High Glycaemic Index, Not A Source Of Fibers Examples: Apples, Banana, Oranges, Watermelon.
  22. 22. Starchy vegetables (tubers) Starchy Vegetables (Tubers ) Are Good Source Of Complex Carbs And Fibers They Are Also Rich In Vitamins And Minerals. Unlike Other Vegetables, Starchy Vegetables Have A High Starch Content (15 Grams Per Serving) Compared To Non Starchy Vegetables (5 Grams Per Serving), Therefore They Have Higher Caloric Content. Starchy Vegetables Are Of Low Glycaemic Index Because Of The Complexity Of Carbs (Starch) And Also Dietary Fibers Delay The Rise Of Blood Glucose. Examples: Potato, Sweet Potato, Yam, Peas, Colcassia
  23. 23. Milk and yogurt Milk Was Found To Be A Source Of Simple Carbs Because Of The Presence Of The Lactose Sugar (Disaccharide) A Cup Of Milk 250 ml Or A Cup Of Yogurt 200 Grams Contains 12 Grams Of Carbs Some People Has What So Called Lactose Intolerance (Deficiency Of Lactase Enzyme Therefore Unable To Digest Lactose) These People Feel Uncomfortable And Gassy After Drinking Milk Other Dairy Products Like Cheese, Butter And Cream Don’t Contain Carbs (Sugar)
  24. 24. Dietary sources of carbs Grains Pulses Starchy veg. Fruits Milk
  25. 25. Dietary sources of Carbs Cakes & bakes Sugar & Honey Jam & Candies Sugary drinks
  26. 26. Carbs And Health Issues Obesity And Weight Management. Diabetes Mellitus. Lactose Intolerance. Gluten Sensitivity.

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