Viva presentation

8,602 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Business
0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
8,602
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
90
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Viva presentation

  1. 1. An Assessment of Environmental Impact of Sugar Mills in District Rahim Yar Khan, Punjab, Pakistan. A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Degree of M. Phil in Zoology. By Saghir Ahmad Roll No. 1 Session 2005-2007 INSTITUTE OF PURE AND APPLIED BIOLOGY BAHAUDDIN ZAKARIYA UNIVERSITY, MULTAN
  2. 2. <ul><li>In Pakistan, 77 Sugar mills constitute the second most important industry sharing 16% in agricultural economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Of these 38 are in punjab,32 in Sindh,6 in NWFP 1 in AK. </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar mills use various chemicals during processing which include Calcium Hydroxide, polyelectrolyte, limestone, phosphoric acid, sulphur dioxide, caustic soda, HCl and Lead sub acetate etc. </li></ul><ul><li>It is high time to keep an eye on our habitat and assess whether some sort of pollution is being caused by sugar industry or not. </li></ul>
  3. 3. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES <ul><li>The study was structured to ascertain the impact of growing Sugar Industry on natural resources including soil and water. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Materials and Methods <ul><li>Area of Study : </li></ul><ul><li>JDW Sugar Mills, N 28.41.40.4″ </li></ul><ul><li>E 70.44.41.9″ </li></ul><ul><li>Humza Sugar Mills, N 28.41.40.5″ </li></ul><ul><li>E 70.44.42.1″ </li></ul><ul><li>United Sugar Mills, N 28.34.39.9″ </li></ul><ul><li>E 7019.18.7″ </li></ul><ul><li>Ettehad Sugar Mills, N 28.15.01.1″ </li></ul><ul><li>E 70.02.25.5″ </li></ul>
  5. 5. KEY: JDW Sugar Mills Hamza Sugar Mills United Sugar Mills Ettehad Sugar Mills
  6. 6. JDW Sugar Mills
  7. 7. Sampling Sites <ul><li>Water Sampling (site I, II, III, IV, V) </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Sampling (site I, II, III, IV, V) </li></ul><ul><li>Fig. Saghir at site III of Humza Sugar Mills </li></ul>
  8. 8. Saim- Nullah near Humza Sugar Mills
  9. 9. Sampling Duration and Analysis <ul><li>May 2007 to April 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>S & W Testing Lab. Multan </li></ul><ul><li>S & W Testing Lab. R Y KHAN </li></ul>
  10. 10. Figure 1: Showing average monthly variation of EC in water at JDW Sugar Mills.
  11. 11. Figure 2: Showing monthly variation of Ca++, Mg++ in water at JDW Sugar Mills.
  12. 12. Figure 3: Showing monthly variation of sodium in water at JDW Sugar Mills (Pvt.) Limited
  13. 13. Figure 4: Showing Monthly variation of Bi-carbonate in water at JDW Sugar Mills.
  14. 14. Figure 5: Showing monthly variation of sodium absorption ratio (SAR) in water at JDW Sugar Mills.
  15. 15. Figure 6: Showing monthly variation of Chloride in water at JDW Sugar Mills.
  16. 16. Figure 7: Showing monthly variation of EC in water at Humza Sugar Mills
  17. 17. Figure 8: Showing monthly variation of Ca++, Mg++ in water at Humza Sugar Mills
  18. 18. Figure 9: Showing monthly variation of Chlorides in water at Humza Sugar Mills
  19. 19. Figure 10: Showing Monthly variation of sodium in water at Humza Sugar Mills.
  20. 20. Figure 11: Showing monthly variation of SAR in water at Humza Sugar Mills.
  21. 21. Figure 12: Showing monthly variation of Bi-carbonates in water at Humza Sugar Mills.
  22. 22. Figure 13: Showing monthly variation of overall Parameters in water at United Sugar Mills.
  23. 24. Figure 15: Graph showing monthly depth wise (6” – 48”) EC comparison in soil samples taken from JDW Sugar Mills effluent sites. EC at 6” EC at 12” EC at 18” EC at 24” EC at 30” EC at 36” EC at 48” Figure 15: Graph showing monthly depth wise (6” – 48”) EC comparison in soil samples taken from JDW Sugar Mills effluent sites. Depth wise
  24. 25. pH at 6” pH at 12” pH at 18” pH at 24” pH at 30” pH at 36” Depth wise Figure 16: Graph showing monthly depth wise (6” – 48”) pH comparison in soil samples taken from JDW Sugar Mills effluent sites.
  25. 26. DISCUSSION <ul><li>Water EC =Salinity </li></ul><ul><li>Water Salinity @ Calcium, Magnesium, Bi-carbonates, Chlorides, Sodium &SAR </li></ul><ul><li>pH @ CO 2 , Bicarbonates, carbonates, hydroxyl ions, Calcium & Magnesium etc </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar Mills produce effluents CO 2 Bicarbonates, carbonates, hydroxyl ions, Calcium & Magnesium etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Water pollution >>>>seepage + irrigation>>> Soil Pollution. </li></ul>
  26. 27. CONCLUSION <ul><li>Habitat degradation, </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological Imbalance, </li></ul><ul><li>Desertification. </li></ul>
  27. 28. RECOMMENDATIONS <ul><li>It is evident from the results that effluents these sugar mills are polluting the nearby natural resources. </li></ul><ul><li>NEQS must be enforced on the basis of “Acta non Verba” </li></ul>
  28. 29. QUESTIONS ?

×