Two New York City policeofficers help an injured womanaway from the lobby at theWorld Trade Center after theFebruary 26, 1993 terroristbombing (AP Photo)
“Security experts admit the US disastercould have occurred because of a lackof technology needed to analyse andintegrate data from disparate sources.Federal officials are now investigatingthe future use of business intelligenceand enterprise application integration(EIA) technologies” INFOWORLD 13September 2001
Columbia’s Lesson"The findings of the commission were quiteclear and symptomatic of what happens inorganizations."Jorge Lopez, VP of cross-industry research at GartnerG2.Columbia Accident Investigation Board
Recommendations from the Gartner G2• Executives: Be humble. Face difficult situations withcandor. Seek and listen to input, test assumptions,objectively assess situations and develop scenarios.• Use proven criteria for systematically involving those withthe relevant information, expertise, and perspective indecisions, with disciplined problem solving.• Establish a process, culture and system for knowledgemanagement to insure usable and accessible institutionallearning and memory to support crucial decisions.
MIT Technology Review (March 2003) says the CIA, FBIand other intelligence agencies can’t “connect the dots”because of their: • well known inability to communicate • analysts’ out of date tool kits • insistence on obtaining their own intelligence and buying their own technology. As a result: • Not a significant fraction of the $38 billion annual budget for homeland defense goes toward building information sharing capacity or analysis integration. • We have not yet begun to mobilize our society’s strengths in information, intelligence and technology.
If only we had this…And we started We coulddoing this…. achieve this…
An effective national security program may demand at a shared level:1. Establishing institutional and constituency objectives.2. Enterprise strategies for getting there – without delay…3. …..shattering the stovepipes.4. Learning to use the tools, technologies, work and program development and delivery practices that we have developed and acquired.5. Becoming more adaptive and responsive to need.Bottom Line: We don’t need yet more linear, single process, non-interoperable “solutions” that deal only with what has been
What shared and integrated policinglooks like, and demands• Shared purposes n Business structure and• Linked or aligned missions, mandates and programs function• Common and compatible business / operational models and processes• Defined relationships (who works with n Relationship whom, and how) Management• Shared information and knowledge, with rules to govern that sharing n Knowledge Management• Common or compatible methods and the systems supporting those n Methods methods• Shared standards in technology, equipment and data n Systems and data
IT - nuts, bolts, plastic and pipes that - inthe hands of people - and well managed - can be useful in helping operations and program delivery.IM - useful information products gathered and shared to help support operations, or gathered as a result of operations.KM - managing personal and organizational know-how so that relationships (of all kinds) get identified, and used so that the quality of decision-making goes up.
KM beyond tools and artifacts Simply stated, Knowledge Management is about what needs to be known to achieve organizational objectives, and the relationships and decision-making that go into realizing those objectives.KM is not about product management, tools and transport. That is the domain of IM/IT.
Potential Finding: PersonalKnowledgen Issue: significant level of uncertainty around risk management, liabilities, potential consequencesn Solution: u Institute a risk management system u Create a form u Give everyone a set of manuals. Punish the unknowing, the uncaring and those who fail u Institute regular lectures, CBTs, training and certification, conference attendance u Encourage people to talk about the issues: reward individual enquiry and learning, success stories
Potential Finding: OrganizationalKnowledgen Issue: don’t know who does what, who is related to whomn Solution: u Build a portal u Buy an expertise locator system u Publish an employee newsletter u Give everyone an org chart u Turn Intranet into a chat forum u Have people introduce themselves
KM’s Key Stakeholdersn The data, information, and technology functions; Human Resources, training and OD. u Functions that have a real strategic need to know and are striving for business alignment and responsivenessn Governance. The structures and processes related to organizational decision-making.n Ethics and Transparency. Managing the organization in a manner consistent with legal requirements, good management practices and in a manner that is open to partners and stakeholders.
Knowledge What one has, when information, people and process are brought together for effective application in helping achieve results.
Knowledge Management shouldbe seen as….The enterprise-wide definition, establishment, operationand continuous improvement of the organization and itscapability; its information and knowledge; and itscollaborative information technologies – all directedtowards ensuring the organization remains firmlyfocused on operational effectiveness.
KPMG’s 2002/03 European KM Survey(top 500 orgs in UK, France, Germany,Netherlands) • KM is used by these organizations to: • Realize synergies between units (83%) • Accelerate innovation (63%) • Achieve higher customer added value (74%) • Reduce costs (67%) • Improve quality (70%) • Reduce risk exposure (26%) • 50% report clear financial benefits
KPMG’s 2002/03 European KM Survey(top 500 orgs in UK, France, Germany,Netherlands)• 50% of these companies spend up to 2% of their budget on Knowledge Management.• 6% spend between 4% and 8% of their budget on KM• 78% believe they are currently missing out on business opportunities by failing to successfully exploit available knowledge.
Some KM practitioners feel that, ˜ KM is embedded in (communities of) practice – It is the way we do things. It is not an add-on. You become a ‘knowledge centered’ organization. ˜ Everyone does KM - from mail rooms to board rooms and police officers to city hall. ˜ Much of what is important in KM cannot be measured and trying to make it measurable means we pay attention to the wrong things ˜ We understand better what KM is not: it is neither simply ‘improved communications’, ‘better training’, nor ‘new technology’.
AFM Is A Core Component of AKO Army Knowledge AKO Vision Online • 27,000 + Users Transform the Institutional • The Army’s Intranet Army into an information-age, networked organization that leverages its intellectual capital Army • Averages to better organize, train, equip, 65,000 visits Home per day and maintain a strategic land Page • The Army’s combat Army Force. Public Website ArmyActionable Flow Model Decisions • In use at HQDA and the Army Force Decision Packaging Management School Knowledge HQDA Data Sharing Initiative Specialized Data Professional Judgment Sharing Integrated Data Business Views Operational Data (Synchronized Data) FORCES Intelligence Initiative Analysis / Inference • 37 Army databases Information consolidated by DISC4 SOURCE Context AKO Pilot Projects Data Staff Officer’s Personnel Finance Knowledge PEO C3S Tool
U.S. Government KM Spending isincreasing……………….investment spending on KM at annual rate of 9%from 2003 to 2008. (From initial investment of $820million to $1.3 billion).At the time of 9/11, information sharing among federalagencies was limited.Department of Homeland Security charged withchanging that.Significant investments expected in Departments ofHomeland Security, State, and Justice
Goals for boosting spending in the KM areainclude:‑ More efficient distribution of informationamong federal agencies‑ Administrations push to consolidateredundant systems for e‑government.‑ Mining of the massive amounts of data fromagencies data warehouses and getting it tothe relevant parties who can then extractactionable information.