Interviewing skills

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Interviewing skills

  1. 1. SELECTION SKILLS http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  2. 2. PROGRAMME OBJECTIVES  Create an understanding of Selection tools and techniques and their appropriateness  Understand competency based selection  Learn interviewing skills  Understand the need for psychometric testing http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  3. 3. LEARNING GRID Unconscious competence IV Conscious competence Practice Unlearning/Review Unconscious Incompetence I III Learning/Training Awareness Conscious incompetence II http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  4. 4. RECRUITMENT & SELECTION             Manpower Planning Setting Specs Advertising/Consultant/Online/Referral Shortlisting CV’s Calling candidates Group Process/Psychometric Testing Interviews Offer letter Joining Induction Training Grooming for productivity http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  5. 5. COMMON ERRORS IN RECRUITING Right person Wrong Person A Selected Not selected B http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  6. 6. Selection Techniques                Interviews Tests - General Ability,special aptitudes Simulation exercise Work Sample Tests Personality questionnaires Interest questionnaires Bio Data Reference Checks Group Discussions Handwriting Analysis etc. Case discussions Presentations On - field accompaniment In tray exercises Assessment Centres (combination of above items) http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  7. 7. Perfect Prediction - Validity 0.7 Assessment Centers (development) 0.6 Work sample Tests Ability Tests Assessment Centers (selection) 0.5 Personality Tests 0.4 0.3 0.2 Structured Interviews Typical Interviews References 0.1 Astrology/Graphology 0 Chance Smith, Gregg & Andrews - 1987 http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  8. 8. RANKING OF SELECTION METHODOLOGIES 1 Patterns of past behaviour 2 TESTS - reported present behaviour 3 Interviews - with many ‘How would you behave in the future’ questions http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  9. 9. WHY DIFFERENT SELECTION TOOLS ?  Any one tool cannot get all the data  Need a set of different tools, which involve testing different faculties and behavior of candidates  Each tool is effective for for a specific set of relevant attributes http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  10. 10. Critical Attribute Physical attribute : e.g. 6 feet tall Attainment : e.g. B.Tech Competency/Talent/Traits : e.g. Achievement Orientation Intuition Charisma http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  11. 11. Competency Any quality or characteristic of a person, which underpins recurring successful performance http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  12. 12. Skills, Knowledge & Talent  Skills : • The How - to’s of the role • Capabilities that can be transferred from one person to another  Knowledge • ‘What you are aware of ‘ • Factual ( things you know) Can & should be taught • Experiential (understandings you have picked up along the way). Less Tangible and therefor much harder to teach  Talent • Recurring patterns of thought feeling behavior,that carve individual minds • If someone does not have the talent as part of his filter , then very difficult for others to inject it. http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  13. 13. The three levels of competencies are  DISTINGUISHING  THRESHOLD  FUNCTIONAL http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  14. 14. A CHECK LIST FOR BEHAVIOURAL INDICATORS Each indicator should:     Describe directly observable behavior, or other specific evidence of an individual’s competency Describe just one piece of behavior of evidence Not to be duplicated under two or more competencies Include a verb phrase i.e. describe action http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  15. 15. THE COMPETENCY PLANNING & ORGANISING Definition : Level 1 - Junior Manager    Manages own time and personal activities Breaks complex activities into manageable tasks Identifies possible obstacles to planned achievements http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  16. 16. THE COMPETENCY PLANNING & ORGANISING Definition : Level 2 - Middle Manager    Produces contingency plans for possible future occurrences Estimates in advance the resources and time scales needed to meet objectives Co-ordinates team activities to make the best use of individual skills and specializations http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  17. 17. THE COMPETENCY PLANNING & ORGANISING Definition : Level 3 - Senior Manager  Identifies longer term operational implications of business plans  Effectively plans utilization of all resources http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  18. 18. THE 12 MOST COMMON COMPETENCIES             Communication Achievement orientation Customer Focus Team work Leadership Planning and organising Commercial awareness Flexibility Developing others Problem solving Analytical thinking Building relationships Source: Competency based Recruitment & Selection by Robert Wood and Tim Payne http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  19. 19. Competencies & Trainability SKILLS TRAITS MOTIVES VALUES COGNITIVE CAPBILITIES Less Conscious Less Trainable More conscious KNOWLEDGE E.g.: Has contacts E.g.: Results orientation,planning abilities http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity More trainable
  20. 20. Critical Attributes for Sales Managers ( Example)        Interpersonal Skills Influencing Skills Results orientation Customer Concern Technical expertise Providing direction Analytical Thinking       Conceptual thinking Information seeking Staff development Team building Planning Decision Making http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  21. 21. Interview Entrevoir ( French) to have a glimpse of http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  22. 22. WHAT IS AN INTERVIEW? A selection procedure designed to predict future job performance on the basis of applicants oral responses to oral enquiries http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  23. 23. OBJECTIVES OF SELECTION IN INTERVIEW 1 Selecting people for jobs by:  Informing applicants about the job   2 Gaining unbiased factual information against the criteria Influencing suitable candidates to accept Demonstrating that the company operates a fair and equitable selection procedure (Public Relations) http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  24. 24. Goodwill Bank  Need a process that will enhance company stature – Fair – Friendly – Rigorous – Respect for individual - Time bound How will a candidate not selected speak of your organisation? http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  25. 25. SELECTION INTERVIEW - EFFECTIVENESS Bottom line Test - Answering Three key questions  Can he do the job (Competence)  Will he do the job  Will he fit in ( Team / Organisation)? ( Match) http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity ( Motivation)
  26. 26. SELECTION INTERVIEW      IF EFFECTIVE Saves Time Better job/person matching Satisfied interviewers/Interviewees Good image / PR Tightening of recruitment process  IF INEFFECTIVE May end up recruiting unfit candidates  Missing suitable candidates  Demotivating suitable candidates from joining http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  27. 27. UNDERSTANDING YOUR APPLICANTS According to research, students have listed the following Organisational characteristics as important to them:            Type of work you would do Type of people you would like to work with Training & development opportunities Chances of promotion Salary Job security Working condition Reputation/image of the organisation Geographical location Hours expected at work Benefits ( Company car, Pension , Loans etc.) http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  28. 28. INTERVIEW PROCESS - REQUIREMENTS Venue INTERVIEW PROCESS CANDIDATE INTERVIEWER Expects •Professionalism •Realistic picture of job & company/organisation •Input on where he stands (process, time scale etc.) •Minimal Wait •Objectivity Needs: • Purpose of I/V • Agreed Criteria • Application form •Time to prepare and judge job and company knowledge •Skills to obtain & evaluate information and make effective judgements • Relaxed and open minded • Right attitude http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  29. 29. List the things you would like to have seen when you last went for an interview. What did you expect from the company ? http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  30. 30. SETTING THE ENVIRONMENT        No disturbance No phone Calls Seating - Neutral ( Perhaps an L shape ) No distraction in the vicinity No ‘Power Statements’ Having water available on the table ( for candidate ) Have stationary ready ( for candidate ) http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  31. 31. Remember  Note taking - minimal , with permission  Stress Interviews - Try to avoid  Politeness - specially to ‘bad’  Airtime - 80 - 20 http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  32. 32. INTERVIEW STRUCTURE 1 2 Opening, rapport building Current & previous roles 3 Aspirations & awareness 4 Education & upbringing 5 Circumstances & interests 6 Closing , wrap up http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  33. 33. Interview - An Information Sorting Model Opening & Rapport Building CA 1 Current & Previous Roles CA2 Aspirations & Awareness Information Sorting Education & Upbringing Circumstances & Interest CA3 CA4 CA5 Closing/Wrap up Assessment http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  34. 34. OPENING, RAPPORT BUILDING  Appropriate recognition  Relaxed Approach  Introduce yourself  Share - Interview purpose » Recruitment process » Job Role ( briefly) » Interview structure & Time  Check Understanding http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  35. 35. Things to look out for in a CV  Organisation of events - Priority accordance  Clarity of depiction and succinctness  Unexplained breaks in Service and Education  Extent of customisation to the job applied  Quality of the CV: mode , spelling errors, verbosity http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  36. 36. QUESTIONING SKILLS http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  37. 37. TYPE OF QUESTIONS         Factual recall Comparison Opinion Case Problems Hypothetical Rhetorical Leading Pumping http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  38. 38. PAST BEHAVIOUR is the single best predictor of future behaviour http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  39. 39. Structure of Questions  Open ended Questions How - What - When - Where - Who - Why  Close ended Questions Do you - Did you - Can you - Will you - Could you Would you - Should you  Prompting/ encouraging expressions Tell me…, Describe … For example?, For instance?, In what sense? How come?, In simpler terms... http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  40. 40. Questioning Pattern Broad Open ended Probe Narrow Close Summarise http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  41. 41. Characteristics of Good Questions      Purposeful Relevant Clear & concise Limited to one idea Neutral in tone & substance http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  42. 42. The quality & value of answer depends on the quality of the question http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  43. 43. QUESTIONS COVERAGE  WHAT Q’s - Elicit information about knowledge, facts/data, opinions  WHY Q’s - Analytical skills , reasoning, logic etc. motivations( what else…How else…, Where else….)  HOW Q’s - Knowledge of functional skills, process/steps ( also analytical skills)  HOW MUCH/HOW WELL Q’s - validating achievements http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  44. 44. THE INTERVIEW FUNNEL START WITH AN OPEN ENDED QUESTION LISTEN NARROW DOWN TO SPECIFIC AREA LISTEN HOW DID THE PERSON GO ABOUT IT LISTEN FIND OUT MOTIVATIONS LISTEN ACHIEVEMENTS LISTEN SUMMARISE AND SEEK AGREEMENT START WITH NEW AREA http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  45. 45. INTERVIEW STRUCTURE 1. Opening - 2. Current & Previous roles 3. Aspiration / Awareness 4. Education & Upbringing 5. Circumstances & Interest 6. Closing What, why, How well Trends, people are not static What, why, how realistic What, why, how well What, why, how well implication - Causes – relate past to present Description Motivation Achievement http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  46. 46. THE PANEL INTERVIEW SOME GUIDELINES  Agree roles & structures  Stick to roles  Do not interrupt  Do not help the candidate  Select lead interviewer  The others listen,take notes ( factual) , ask questions around other key areas and observe non verbal behavior  Follow up at end of a section http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  47. 47. Questioning Technique  Situation  Task  Achievement  Review http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  48. 48. Telephonic Interviews      You cannot see the candidate , so you have to trust only two senses - hearing & intuition Do not short circuit the interview. The process should be the same as a face-to-face interview Follow the interview structure Use the funnel - what, why, how,how well Use many encouraging , prompting expressions ,like … • • • • • •   Yes Tell me more Describe I see For example? In what sense? Keep sentences & discussions short Summarise each section http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  49. 49. INTERVIEW TIPS  Interviewers need to be provided with job description & specification of the requirements of the position to minimize the influence of stereotypes  Interview questions need to be job related  Avoid making quick decisions about an applicant  Avoid giving too much weight to a few characteristics  Try to put the applicant at ease during the interview  Communicate clearly with the applicant  Maintain consistency in the questions asked http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  50. 50. Management Interviewing  Less emphasis on background : more on role and work  Ask about aspirations before role  Easy for candidate to obscure track record through jargon and generalities  A ‘look good, talk good’ candidate may land up interviewing the interviewer - superficial interview may take place  Hence be specific - focus on Critical attributes http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  51. 51. Focus on Roles  Job titles can be misleading  Main areas of job . Principal tasks that you do personally? Why’? How do you divide your time?  Performance criteria,targets,priorities,performance ratings,informal reviews  Focus on relationships - up, down , or with colleagues  Time perspective  Breadth of perception of job relative to entire organisation  Perceived freedom to act  Ability to influence the organisation http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  52. 52. Management skills  How results are achieved and how the candidate handles the process of management  Setting objectives for self and team  Decision making style - alone or team  Resolving conflicts - how and when  Handling customers - relationship based and task based  Resolving issues between internal demands and customer expectations http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  53. 53. Management focus  Motivational style - sort of environment in team. Leading team front or back  Grooming others - spending time for developing people  Investing in self - learning & growing  Monitoring work of self and team  Handling communication & consultation  Influencing others through meetings and presentations http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  54. 54. TYPES OF INTERVIEWS  Unstructured Interview  Situational Interview  Behaviour Description interview  Comprehensive structured interview  Structured behavioural interview  Oral Interview boards http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  55. 55. INTERVIEWING FOR TALENT http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  56. 56. TALENT What is Talent? A recurring pattern of thought, feeling or behavior that can be productively applied http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  57. 57. TALENT According to Gallup there are 3 kinds of talent: 1. Striving : Why of the person 2. Thinking: How of the person 3. Relating : Who of the person http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  58. 58. Talent ( some examples)  Striving • Achiever ( A drive that is internal, constant & self imposed ) • Mission ( a drive to put your beliefs into actions)  Thinking • Responsibility (A need to assume personal accountability for your work ) • Numerical ( An affinity for numbers )  Relating • Relator ( a need to build bonds that last ) • Command ( an ability to take charge ) http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  59. 59. Talent Interview (Points to remember)  This should stand alone  It should be more structured , more focussed, less banter , more questions  Ask him about choices he makes  Let him reveal himself to you http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  60. 60. Talent Interview (Listen for specifics) 1. Always listen for a specific example 2. Give credit only to the person’s top of the mind response 3. Do not probe too much to get response Clues for talent: Rapid learning ability Source of satisfaction After they have been hired , check back to see if the people who subsequently performed well answered your question in a consistent way.This will take time and focus , but are essential to the art of interviewing for talent. http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  61. 61. PSYCHOMETRIC TESTING Psychological tests have been devised and are used primarily for the determination and analysis of individual differences in general intelligence,specific aptitudes , educational achievement , vocational fitness,and non intellectual personality traits. These tests have been used for a variety of psychological , educational cultural , sociological and employment studies of groups and for individuals http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  62. 62. TEST - VARIATIONS       Achievement / Attainment Aptitude Personality Interest Attitude IQ ( Intelligence quotient) http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  63. 63. APPLICATIONS OF PSYCHOMETRIC TESTING       Placement Personnel selection Training & development Career & Succession Planning Diagnosis & recommendation of Performance problems Vocational education and career counseling http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  64. 64. WHY TESTS  To reduce errors • Standardized set of questions • Objective evaluation http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  65. 65. SELECTING TESTS  SOURCES  METRICS  INTERPRETATION http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  66. 66. ONLINE TESTING       Standardization Easy to administer across locations Quick Automatic Reports Does not need interpretation expertise Still requires to be anchored by qualified persons http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  67. 67. REFERENCE CHECKS      Verify claims made by the candidate Confirm selectors perceptions, sensing and inferences Clarify doubts that may have arisen during the selection process Add to understanding through input from referee or any specific area of concern Hear first hand from referee or anything significant about the candidate ( positive or dysfunctional) http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  68. 68. Effective Reference Checks - the Steps  Ensure that the candidate gives references that know him well  Be clear on what you wish to ask the referee  Let the referee know – That his/her input is important – that you care about the candidates career choice / direction – the context of the job that the candidate has applied for  Confirm referee’s extent of familiarity with the candidate  Ask open ended questions to start with  Follow through with pointed questions in your areas of concern  THANK THE REFEREE for the time invested  Do a 360 degree reference check http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  69. 69. ASSESSMENT http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  70. 70. Behavior Assessment Process Evaluate Rate data & behavior to agreed standard Classify Categorize behavior and other data into critical attributes Store Accurately store in memory what happened Observe Carefully watch and listen to what has happened http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  71. 71. ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES  People tend to behave in a consistent way  Understand the context of people’s behavior  Relate information from one source to another http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  72. 72. RATINGS  Excellent - 4 Tremendous amount of data across all sections supporting the indicators. Goes beyond the indicators. A big strength area. This is where the candidate operates from,as a psychological platform ( will be an adjective for him ) http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  73. 73. RATINGS  V Good - 3 A lot of data from at least two three sections, or overwhelmingly in at least one section supporting the indicators. This is the way the indicators are defined. Supports with examples http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  74. 74. RATINGS  Acceptable - 2 Evidence from at least one section of the interview. Supports at least 2/3 of the indicators. Will do. Exhibits data with some examples http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  75. 75. RATINGS  Not acceptable - 1 Shows definite evidence of lack of the indicators. Falls short http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  76. 76. COMMON FAILINGS IN ASSESSMENT  Leniency  The Halo effect  Mirror image  Contrast  Projection http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  77. 77. Happy Interviewing http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity
  78. 78. Dear Colleague, This is a personal invitation from us to you to join our hrcommunity. The hrcommunity virtually connects HR professionals to share current and emerging HR practices, HR resources & HR related information. Be in touch with the best brains in the hrcommunity. To join send a blank e-mail to hrcommunity-subscribe@yahoogroups.com Warm regards,Jayesh & Aruna Moderators – hrcommunity http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hrcommunity

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