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Facilitating Strategies in MOOC discussion

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Oral Presentation in IVACS 2018

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Facilitating Strategies in MOOC discussion

  1. 1. Linguistic Resources for facilitating the Discussion Forums in MOOCs Shi Min Chua Institute of Educational Technology (IET) Centre for Research in Education and Educational Technology (CREET). Faculty of Wellbeing, Education and Language Studies The Open University The 9th Inter-Varietal Applied Corpus Studies (IVACS) Conference, 14 Jun 2018
  2. 2. MOOCs CoursesOpen OnlineMassive Large number of learners -registered learners: up to 40000 -learners who take part in the discussion: up to 5000 -Free -No pre-requisite -No face-to-face -Asynchronous -various subjects -evolving learning design
  3. 3. Post Reply
  4. 4. Online Discussion as a Space Technological Affordance Learning Content ● Dialogic Spaces (Wegerif, 2010): Promote reflection and thinking skills ● Cybernetic Space (Krippendorff, 2011): Artefacts and Recurrent Practices ● Space for Learning (Walsh & Li, 2013): Positive and Focused ● Mental Space in Discourse (Fauconnier,1994): Contextual and situational factors ● Affinity space (Gee, 2004): All people could shape and reshape Language
  5. 5. Learners’ Perception on MOOC Discussions (Khe, 2018) ● Interaction with teaching staff ● Most common or up-voted questions ● Interaction with peers ● Sharing information ● Arrogant, oppressive and impolite comments ● Overwhelming Online Discussion (Cavanagh, 2007) ● Fragmented, more posts rather than threaded replies
  6. 6. Methods Corpus Driven Corpus Based To Create Expand Join Close down How Facilitators Use Linguistic Resources Dialogic space Keywords Analysis
  7. 7. Corpus Abbreviation Number of Social Learners Number of Learners' Comments Number of words contributed by learners Number of Facilitators Number of Facilitators' Comments Number of words contributed by facilitators Technology 609 7848 444440 13 571 28446 History 994 23108 1357658 5 1379 56555 Technology 1968 10310 418999 6 1018 43014 Linguistics 2199 14949 1103306 21 7164 342405 Social Sciences 5722 41175 2325367 11 2988 123806 Finances 637 10033 820829 5 363 32427 Management 934 8415 444294 6 691 16373 Astronomy 1986 24084 929592 8 1339 54180 Health 3788 30923 1443443 5 260 10364 Sciences 1344 8408 419278 5 735 56297 Healthcare 1320 10518 706377 7 391 8872 Geography 2004 14344 792637 7 809 43319 Sum 23505 204115 11206220 99 17708 816058
  8. 8. Keyword Analysis Reference corpus: Learners’ comments Cut-off criteria ● p-value for the log-likelihood ratio test is < 0.000000000001 (Flowerdew, 2015) ● Keyness indicator: Bayes Factor > 10 (Wilson, 2013) ● Normalized frequency > 5 per 100,000 (McEnery, 2016) ● Dispersion Measure, Gries’ Deviation of Proportion (Gries’ DP, Gries, 2008; Lijffijt & Gries, 2012) < 0.30 137 Keywords found ● functional grouping ● individual keywords
  9. 9. Interactivity ● you, your, yourself, we, us Names Discourse Particles ● hi, yes, thanks, please, sorry Thanks for all your thoughtful comments this week! Thank you for sharing this link on colour illusions! thanks for your thoughts, it is great to read personal insight. Sugar is an ingredient in food that does not <…> Pronouns
  10. 10. ● point, points, pointing, comment, comments, question, discussion, post, feedback, answer, questions, pointing, reply, discussed, posted ● click, check, button, materials, download, page, link, videos, section, text, pdf, fixed, sections, website Meta-language Conceptual Objects Referential Discussion-related Logistics and Learning Materials Course and MOOCs ● mooc, futurelearn ● issue, issues, topic, case, research, researchers ● week, weeks, later, next, coming Hopefully you will see in the last part of week 4 how the ‘skilled jobs’ issue and technological change can be dealt with in different ways. <…> we 'll keep coming back to this question of who was more healthy <…>
  11. 11. Stance Expression ● might, 'll, can, will, want, 'd Speech Act Positive Evaluation Modality Hedging Expression Booster Emotions ● suggest, mean, ask, suggestion, referring, asking ● sounds, sure, thoughts, find ● indeed, just, exactly, directly ● right, fine, good, great, interesting ● glad, worry, afraid Uncertainty  welcoming alternatives Expanding dialogic space Certainty  no alternatives Contracting dialogic space
  12. 12. ● if, e.g., example, examples, terms, i.e., meantime, then,, dependsConnectors Punctuation ● ),'(-:!?" Grammatical Particles Uncategorized ● here, this, that, there, the, these, are, is, be, 's, do, on, for ● let, hear, hope, note, see, look, using, try, collect, uses, option, b, different, what, two, available, free
  13. 13. Questions ● 3901 instances of ? ● 95% in the replies ● Types of Questions (Athanasiadou, 1990; Kleinke, 2012) ● Keywords: question, what ● Lexical Bundles ● do you think that, 49 instances ~ 60 per million words ● what do you think, 47 instances ~ 58 per million words do you think…? ● 262 instances ~ 321 per million words ● 246 in their reply to learners’ posts
  14. 14. Learner A: …. Learner B: My comment to Learner A is the same regarding the TV. Why on earth can we not have one device to include all functions. My thoughts are money. Facilitator: What kind of features do you think such a remote control should have? Learner B: Now you have put me in a corner. So I will have a go. On, Off, Program Change, Volume, Menu all at the top…… Facilitator: A disappointing news item on the ALT mailing list today, ….<url>… Sadly this will also set a US legal precedent, so we'll probably see a great deal more free and open content disappearing. So now its all completely inaccessible - to everyone :-( So a question <...> Do you think such freely-provided 'open content' should be taken down if it isn't captioned <…>?<...> Learner A: <…> Learner B: <…>
  15. 15. If-conditionals ● Pedagogic illustration, projecting, demonstration (O’Keeffe & Walsh, 2012) There are browser extensions that support pop-up translations for specific languages. <…> If you search for "Google Translate" on the Mozilla Addons site, you'll find extensions or add-ons that use Google Translate. ● Relevance (Warchal, 2010) If you are fascinated by votives, my colleagues at <…>run a blog which features information and analysis from all around the world: <…> Hi, if you have just joined the <…> MOOC I would like to extend a warm welcome to you all. Please don't hesitate to get stuck in <…> If you, 1907 instances If !you, 2038 instances Excluding “whether”
  16. 16. If-conditionals ● Arguments from multiple perspectives (Dancygier & Sweetser, 2009) Learner A: How interesting! You would think that a nitrogen fixing plant would be beneficial. Facilitator: Nitrogen fixation is useful for the plant itself if the soil is N poor and is useful for rotations in cropland but less useful if its N fixing abilities mean that it can out-compete native flora. ● Counter-arguments <…> Facilitator: <…>plus the interesting point that, if it was so bad, it's very odd that only Thucydides mentioned it! ● Counter-factual <…> Facilitator: If it was clear that people were paying 32%, 42% or 47% I wonder if there would be a lot more pressure to decrease tax rates.
  17. 17. Conclusion ● Interactivity – Name, pronoun, discourse particles ● Meta-language – discussion, course, conceptual objects, learning materials, reference ● Stance Expression – modals, hedges, speech acts, boosters, emotion, positive evaluation ● Questions, if-conditionals Intertextuality Focused Positive Open up to other voices: conversation space Open up to other arguments mental space
  18. 18. Acknowledgement ● Dr Caroline Tagg, Prof Mike Sharples, Prof Bart Rienties ● Leverhulme Trust ● Course Providers ● shimin.chua@open.ac.uk

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