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Section ii chap 1 Chemistry of Life

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Section ii chap 1 Chemistry of Life

  1. 1. Section II - Cytology Chapter 1 The Chemistry of Life
  2. 2. Composition <ul><li>Inorganic – substances that do not contain carbon. </li></ul><ul><li>Organic – substance containing carbon and its compound or derivation. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Naturally Occurring Elements in the Body ELEMENTS SYMBOL % Wt. In the BODY Oxygen O 65 Carbon C 19 Hydrogen H 10 Nitrogen N 3 Calcium Ca 2 Phosphorus P 1 Potassium K 0.5 Sulfur S 0.3 Sodium Na 0.2 Chlorine Cl 0.2 Magnesium Mg 0.1 Manganese Mn 0.1 Iron Fe 0.1 Copper Cu 0.1 Iodine I 0.1
  4. 4. Different Macrominerals Minerals Sodium (Na) Potassium (K) Chlorine (Cl) Sulfur (S) Phosphorus (P) Calcium (ca) Magnesium (mg) Maintains the proper osmotic balance in the body, and for nerve stimulation Muscular relaxation and maintains irritability of the nerves Maintains proper osmotic balance in the body and synthesis of Hydrochloric acid in the stomach Bone formation, Important constituent of Nucleic Acid and plasma membrane and energy reservoir Protein synthesis and detoxification reaction Bone & teeth formation, blood clotting, and muscular contraction Important in CHO and protein synthesis and a co-factor in some oxidation reaction Functions in the Body
  5. 5. Zinc (Zn) Iron (Fe) Selenium (Se) Iodine (I) Manganese (Mn) Cobalt (Co) Copper (Cu) Fluorine (F) Different Trace Elements Synthesis of Hemoglobin, associated with the cytochromes of the cell Important in fat metabolism Proper functioning of the Thyroid gland Red blood cell production, Components of Vit. B12 Formation of Urea, important in Kreb’s cycle, activates many enzymes Synthesis of melanin, component of many enzymes Component of bone and teeth, prevents tooth decay Functions in the Body Minerals Wound healing and fertilization.
  6. 6. 2. WATER <ul><li>Universal solvent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hydrophilic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medium for metabolic activities </li></ul><ul><li>Lubricant </li></ul><ul><li>Sense stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>Raw material for photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Shock absorber </li></ul><ul><li>Polar Molecule </li></ul><ul><li>H H </li></ul><ul><li>:O: </li></ul>
  7. 7. 3. ORGANIC MOLECULES <ul><li>A. Hydrocarbon </li></ul><ul><li>B. Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>C. Protein </li></ul><ul><li>D. Lipids </li></ul><ul><li>E. Nucleic Acid </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Monomer – single unit </li></ul><ul><li>Polymer – repeated unit </li></ul><ul><li>CH 4 </li></ul><ul><li>CH 3 CH 3 </li></ul><ul><li>CH 3- CH 2 CH 3 </li></ul><ul><li>CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 </li></ul>
  9. 9. Hydrocarbon Alkane Single bond C n H 2n + 2 Alkene Double bond C n H 2n Alkyne Triple Bond C n H 2n - 2 Alkadiene 2 (=) C n H 2n – 2 Methane Ethane Ethene Ethyne Propane Propene Propyne Propadiene Butane Butene Butyne Butadiene Pentane Pentene Pentyne Pentadiene Hexane Hexene Hexyne Hexadiene Heptane Heptene Heptyne Heptadiene
  10. 10. Alkane <ul><li>Methane - CH 4 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>/ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H – C – H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>/ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethane – C 2 H 6 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>/ / </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H - C – C – H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>/ / </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Propane – C 3 H 8 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H H H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>/ / / </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H – C – C – C – H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>/ / / </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H H H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Butane – C 4 H 10 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H H H H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>/ / / / </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H – C – C – C – C – H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>/ / / / </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H H H H </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Alkene <ul><li>Ethene - C 2 H 4 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H H </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>/ / </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H – C = C – H </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Propene – C 3 H 6 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H H H </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>/ / / </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H – C – C = C - H </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>/ </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Butene – C 4 H 8 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H H H H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>/ / / / </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H – C 1 = C 2 – C 3 – C 4 – H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>/ / </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1- Butene </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H H H H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>/ / / / </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H – C 4 – C 3 = C 2 – C 1 – H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>/ / </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 - butene </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Isoalkane C n H 2n + 2 <ul><li>Isobutane </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CH 3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>/ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H 3 C – CH – CH 3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Isohexane </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CH 3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>/ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CH 3 – CH – CH 2 - CH 2 – CH 3 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Alkyne <ul><li>Ethyne – C 2 H 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H – C C – H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Propyne = C 3 H 4 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>/ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H – C – C C – H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>/ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Butyne – C 4 H 6 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>/ / </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H – C 1 – C 2 – C 3 C 4 – H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>/ / </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1-butyne </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>/ / </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H – C 1 – C 2 C 3 - C 4 – H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>/ / </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2-butyne </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Alkadiene Cyclic (-2H) <ul><li>Butadiene </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H H H H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>/ / / / </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H – C = C – C = C – H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.3 butadiene </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hexadiene </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H H H H H H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>/ / / / / / </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H – C = C – C = C –C – C – H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>/ / </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1,3 Hexadiene </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>cyclohexene </li></ul><ul><li>cyclopropane </li></ul>
  15. 15. Exercises <ul><li>1.) 1 Pentyne </li></ul><ul><li>2.) 2 Heptene </li></ul><ul><li>3.) Cyclopropene </li></ul><ul><li>4.) 1,2 pentadiene </li></ul><ul><li>5.) Cyclohexane </li></ul><ul><li>6.) 3 hexyne </li></ul><ul><li>7.) 2,4 octadiene </li></ul><ul><li>8.) Cyclobutene </li></ul><ul><li>9.) Isopentane </li></ul><ul><li>10.) Isobutyl alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>1. CH=C-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 3 </li></ul><ul><li>2. CH 3 -CH=CH-CH 2 -CH CH 2 -CH 3 </li></ul><ul><li>3. </li></ul><ul><li>4. CH 2 =C=CH-CH 2 -CH 3 </li></ul><ul><li>5. </li></ul><ul><li>6. CH 3 -CH 2 -C=C-CH 2 -CH 3 </li></ul><ul><li>7. CH 3 -CH=CH-CH=CH-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 3 </li></ul><ul><li>8. </li></ul><ul><li>9. CH 3 -CH 2 -CH-CH 3 </li></ul><ul><li>/ </li></ul><ul><li>CH 3 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Carbohydrate <ul><li>A. Monosaccharide – simplest sugar </li></ul><ul><li>C n (H 2 O) n </li></ul>No. of C atoms Gen. Formula Triose 3 C 3 H 6 O 3 Glycerol Tetrose 4 C 4 H 8 O 4 threose Erythrose Pentose 5 C 5 H 10 O 5 Ribose Deoxyribose Hexose 6 C 6 H 12 O 6 Glucose, fructose, Galactose,mannose
  17. 17. Triose Tetrose
  18. 18. Pentose
  19. 19. Hexose GLUCOSE GALACTOSE FRUCTOSE
  20. 20. Hexose <ul><li>Glucose – Blood sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Galactose – Brain sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Mannose – Bitter sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Fructose – Fruit sugar, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>grape sugar, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sweetest sugar, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20x sweeter than table sugar </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. GLUCOSE FRUCTOSE MANNOSE GALACTOSE H – C = O H - C – OH HO - C – H H - C – OH H - C – OH H – C - OH H H H – C – OH C = O HO - C – H H - C – OH H - C – OH H – C - OH H H – C = O HO - C – H HO - C – H H - C – OH H - C – OH H – C - OH H H – C = O H - C – OH HO - C – H HO - C – H H - C – OH H – C - OH H
  22. 22. Haworth Structure
  23. 23. Disaccharides <ul><li>Lactose – milk sugar </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-galactose & glucose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Maltose – malt sugar </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- 2 glucose units </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sucrose – cane sugar </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>– table sugar </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>– glucose and fructose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Polysaccharides – storage molecule <ul><li>Cellulose – plants </li></ul><ul><li>Starch - plants </li></ul><ul><li>Glycogen – animal starch </li></ul><ul><li>Chitin – the hard covering of insects, spiders and shrimps and cell walls of mushroom </li></ul>
  25. 25. PROTEIN TYPE FUNCTION EXAMPLES Structural Support Collagen, elastin and keratin Storage Stores a.a. Albumin in egg white, casein in milk Transport Transport of subs Hemoglobin Hormonal Coordinates activities Insulin, adrenalin, glucagons Receptor Response to stimuli Receptors w/in the nerve cell Contractile Movement Actin and myosin for muscular contraction Defensive Protection & immunity Different antibodies Enzymatic Hasten chem’l rxn Digestive enzymes
  26. 26. Protein <ul><li>Consist of several amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Amino acid – is the building blocks of protein. </li></ul><ul><li>Gen Formula </li></ul><ul><li>H </li></ul><ul><li>/ </li></ul><ul><li>R – C – COOH </li></ul><ul><li>/ </li></ul><ul><li>NH2 </li></ul><ul><li>Two Types of Protein </li></ul><ul><li>1. Complete protein – it contains all the essential amino acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Egg. Milk, Brain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Incomplete protein – it lacks an essential amino acid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gelatine </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Types of Amino Acid <ul><li>Essential AA – acids that the body cannot synthesize, so it must be incorporated in the diet </li></ul><ul><li>PVT. MAT HILL </li></ul><ul><li>Non-essential AA – acids that the body can synthesize. </li></ul>
  28. 28. 10 ESSENTIAL AA
  29. 29. Protein synthesis <ul><li>Dehydration is the process by which proteins are synthesized. </li></ul><ul><li>Dipeptide – 2 amino acids bonded together </li></ul><ul><li>Tripeptide – 3 amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Peptide bond – bond present in protein. </li></ul>
  30. 30. LIPIDS <ul><li>These are nonpolar molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>Insoluble in water but soluble in ether, benzene and chloroform. </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build cell parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protective covering that cushions organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent heat loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important component of hormones </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Types of Fatty Acid <ul><li>Saturated fatty acid = contais single bond </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General Formula </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C n H 2n+1 COOH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Unsaturated fatty acid = contains double bond </li></ul>
  32. 32. SATURATED UNSATURATED <ul><li>Butyric – C 3 H 7 COOH </li></ul><ul><li>Caprylic – C 5 H 11 COOH </li></ul><ul><li>Caproic – C 7 H 15 COOH </li></ul><ul><li>Capric – C 9 H 19 COOH </li></ul><ul><li>Lauric – C 11 H 23 COOH </li></ul><ul><li>Myristic – C 13 H 27 COOH </li></ul><ul><li>Palmitic – C 15 H 31 COOH </li></ul><ul><li>Stearic - C 17 H 35 COOH </li></ul><ul><li>Oleic – C 17 H 33 COOH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains a double bond </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Linoleic- C 17 H 31 COOH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains 2 double bonds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Linolenic – C 17 H 29 COOH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains 3 double bonds </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Difference of Fat Glycerol and Long chain saturated f.a. (C 7 -C 17 ) Solid at room temperature Oil Glycerol and Long chain unsaturated f.a. or short chain saturated f.a. (C 3 -C 5 ) Liquid at rm temperature Wax Monohydric alcohol and long chain f.a. Solid a room temperature
  34. 34. Structure of Fat/Oil
  35. 35. Phospholipids <ul><li>Consist of two parts: </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrophilic head – which composed of choline, phosphate, and glycerol </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrophobic tail – which is composed of two fatty acid chains. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Phospholipids
  37. 37. Steroids <ul><li>Composed of four fused rings. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples are the Cholesterol, testosteron </li></ul>
  38. 38. NUCLEIC ACID <ul><li>Composed of nucleotides. </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleotides - are the building blocks of nucleic acids, or the monomer </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleodtides – consist pf sugar, base and phosphate </li></ul><ul><li>The two types </li></ul><ul><li>1. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) </li></ul><ul><li>2.Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) </li></ul>
  39. 39. Nitrogen Base <ul><li>1. Pu rine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>G uanine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A denine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Py rimidine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C ytosine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U racil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T hymine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Complementary base pair </li></ul><ul><li>1. A denine- T hymine </li></ul><ul><li>2. A denine- U racil </li></ul><ul><li>3. C ytosine- G uanine </li></ul>
  40. 40. Complementary base pair
  41. 41. RNA vs DNA Sugar Base Structure Function Phosphate Ribose Deoxyribose A, U, C, G A, T, C, G Single Stranded Double Stranded Synthesis of Protein Carrier of genetic material PO 4 -3 PO 4 -3
  42. 43. <ul><li>End of Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Exam next meeting….. </li></ul>

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