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How to write a project report?

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How to write a project report?

  1. 1. Writing project reports Dr.A.Joycilin Shermila Associate Professorof English Annammal College of Education Thoothukudi
  2. 2. What is a report? • A report is a systematic, well organised document which defines and analyses a subject or problem, and which may include: – the record of a sequence of events – interpretation of the significance of these events or facts – evaluation of the facts or results of research presented – discussion of the outcomes of a decision or course of action – conclusions – recommendations
  3. 3. Steps to be followed in an effective report • Determine the objective of the report, i.e., identify the problem. • Collect the required material (facts) for the report. • Study and examine the facts gathered. • Plan the facts forthe report. • Prepare an outline for the report, i.e., draft the report. • Edit the drafted report. • Distribute the draft report to the advisory team and ask for feedback and
  4. 4. TYPES OFREPORTS • Research Report • Business Report • Scientific Report • Routine Report • Investigation Report • Project Report • Director’s Report
  5. 5. Report structure • Title page • Table of Contents • Abbreviations and/orglossary • Acknowledgements • Abstract • Introduction • Body • Conclusion • Bibliography
  6. 6. Writing is not easy - Why ? You do not know where to start. You do not know what to include. You are not sure what to exclude. You do not have all the information. You do not know how to structure it. You do not know where to stop……
  7. 7. Ideas for a Good Project Report ∗ Don’t ask a question ∗ Don’t use first or second person – I, you, we ∗ Don’t use qualifiers that make you sound uncertain such as might, may be, perhaps, etc. ∗ Don’t use absolute qualifiers that mean everything, all, none, always, never. These are too hard to prove!
  8. 8. Ideas for a good project report Contd… ∗ Don’t use “to be” verbs – am, are, is, was, were, be, being, been. They aren’t descriptive enough. ∗ Do use relative qualifiers which show real- world variation such as often, primarily, frequently, too often, regularly, some, many, most. These are much easier to prove!
  9. 9. Avoid some aspects of informal English • don't (do not!) use contractions (eg it's, he'll, it'd etc): always use the full form (it is/has, he will, it would/had). • don't use colloquial language or slang (eg kid, a lot of/lots of, cool) • always write as concisely as you can, with no irrelevant material or “waffle”. • generally avoid "phrasal verbs" (e.g. get off, get away with, put in etc): instead, use one word equivalents.
  10. 10. Avoid some aspects of informal English contd… • be more precise. • avoid overuse of brackets; don’t use exclamation marks or dashes; avoid direct questions; don’t use “etc”. • always use capital letters appropriately and never use the type of language used in texting!
  11. 11. FEATURES OFREPORTWRITING • Good Report has – »clarity of Thought »is complete and Self-explanatory »is Comprehensive but Compact »is Accurate in all Aspects »has Suitable Format for readers »Supports Facts and is Factual » has an Impersonal Style
  12. 12. FEATURES OFREPORTWRITING Contd… • Good Report has –a Proper Date and Signature –has a Reference to Relevant Details –follows an Impartial Approach –has all Essential Technical Details –is presented in a Lucid Style –is a Reliable Document –is arranged in a Logical Manner
  13. 13. Editing checklist General layout Is the title page clear, accurate and complete? Is the contents page clearly laid out and accurate? Do you have a margin of about 1"/2.5cm? Are yourlines spaced as perthe instruction? Are all pages numbered, if necessary? Have you avoided unnecessary use of bold, italic and colourtype? Have you used a standard font (Times, Arial etc)? Is it large enough?
  14. 14. Text organisation Does the introduction show understanding of the question? Are all the sentences complete? Are all the paragraphs adequately developed? Do all the sections have clearheadings? Are tables and figures properly integrated into the text? Are all tables and figures titled, with source if necessary? Is there a clearand adequate conclusion or summary?
  15. 15. Introduction • What is the setting of the problem? This is, in other words, the background.. • What exactly is the problem you are trying to solve? This is the problem statement. • Why is the problem important to solve? This is the motivation. • How is the rest of the report organized?
  16. 16. Technical sections • Outlines/flow: For sections which may be huge, have a rough outline at the beginning of that section. • Use of figures: Wherever necessary, explain all aspects of a figure and do not leave the reader wondering as to what the connection between the figure and the text is. • Terminology: Define each term/symbol before you use it, or right after its first use. Stick to a common terminology
  17. 17. Planning and research • Decide the basic framework. • With the main topic or question as a central focus, jot down the initial thoughts and group these together. • Mind Mapping technique will be useful. Start to divide key ideas from subsidiary information, and if anything is irrelevant then delete it. • From the prior knowledge (from reading and lectures) form a fairly basic structure.
  18. 18. Planning and research Contd… • Try not to gather too much information. Reject anything which is not 100% relevant. • When making notes, try to summarise the main points as concisely as possible. • Remember to make a comprehensive record of any sources consulted in order to be able to correctly reference these. • Make a record of the research methods you used.
  19. 19. Coherence • Does it all make sense? (especially to another person) • Do sentences, paragraphs and sections run together smoothly? • Is everything relevant? • Is the language as concise as possible?
  20. 20. Grammar, spelling & punctuation • Have you carefully checked for the type of grammar mistakes you tend to make? • Have you used verb tenses consistently? • Have you used the spellchecker? • Have you checked the spelling yourself? • Does your punctuation make your writing easierto read?
  21. 21. Referencing • Are all your sources always acknowledged? • Is your referencing accurate and consistent? • Is your list of references complete and in the correct format? • Do all your references appear in your bibliography/list of references? • Are the beginning and the end of quotes clearly indicated?
  22. 22. Style • Have you avoided colloquial language? • Have you avoided personal language where necessary? • Is your language as clear and as concise as possible? • Is your vocabulary varied, but always appropriate?
  23. 23. Overall • Coherence • Grammar, spelling & punctuation • Referencing • Style
  24. 24. Common Mistakes in Report Writing
  25. 25. Any Question