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  1. 1. The history of Australia refers to the history of the area and people of the Commonwealth of Australia and its preceding Indigenous and colonial societies. Aboriginal Australians are believed to have first arrived on the Australian mainland by sea from Maritime Southeast Asia between 40,000 and 70,000 years ago. The artistic, musical and spiritual traditions they established are among the longest surviving such traditions in human history. The first known landing in Australia by Europeans was by Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606. Twenty-nine other Dutch navigators explored the western and southern coasts in the 17th century, and dubbed the continent New Holland. Macassan trepangers visited Australia's northern coasts after 1720, possibly earlier. Other European explorers followed until, in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook charted the east coast of Australia for Great Britain and returned with accounts favouring colonisation atBotany Bay (now in Sydney), New South Wales.
  2. 2.  A First Fleet of British ships arrived at Botany Bay in January 1788[1] to establish a penal colony. In the century that followed, the British established other colonies on the continent, and European explorers ventured into its interior. Indigenous Australians were greatly weakened and their numbers diminished by introduced diseases and conflict with the colonists during this period.  Gold rushes and agricultural industries brought prosperity. Autonomous Parliamentary democracies began to be established throughout the six British colonies from the mid-19th century. The colonies voted by referendum to unite in a federation in 1901, and modern Australia came into being. Australia fought on the side of Britain in the two world wars and became a long-standing ally of the United States when threatened by Imperial Japan during World War II. Trade with Asia increased and a post-war immigration program received more than 6.5 million migrants from every continent. Supported by immigration of people from more than 200 countries since the end of World War II, the population increased to more than 23 million by 2014, and sustains the world's 12th largest national economy.
  3. 3. 12 Top-Rated Tourist Attractions in Australia Australia is a land of dreams. From the sacred legends of the aboriginal Dreamtime when the great spirits conjured the coral reefs, rainforests, and scorched, red deserts, to armchair travelers who describe Australia as their dream destination, the Land Down Under deserves all the hype. The world's smallest continent and largest island, Australia is almost the same size as the United States, but with a population the size of New York State and some of the quirkiest wildlife on the planet.
  4. 4. Sydney Opera House Mention "Sydney, Australia" and most people think of the Opera House. Shaped like huge shells or billowing sails, this breathtaking building on Sydney's Bennelong Point graces the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is one of the world's great architectural icons. The location is stunning. Water surrounds the structure on three sides and the Royal Botanic Gardens border it to the south. Danish architect, Jørn Utzon won an international competition for its design, but withdrew from the project after technical and financing problems. Construction was finally completed in 1973 at a cost ten times the original budget. By this time Utzon had left the country never returning to see his magnificent creation.
  5. 5. Sydney Opera House
  6. 6. Great Barrier Reef  Visible from outer space, the World Heritage-listed Great Barrier Reef is one of the largest living structures on the planet. In 1975 the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park was established to protect its fragile ecosystems, which include more than 3,000 coral reefs; 600 continental islands, including the beautiful Whitsunday group; 300 coral cays; and inshore mangrove islands. One of the seven wonders of the natural world, the park stretches for 2,300 km along the state of Queensland, on Australia's east coast (that's about the distance between Mexico and Vancouver). Diving and snorkeling are spectacular. The astounding array of marine life includes soft and hard corals, more than 1,600 species of tropical fish, sharks, dugongs, dolphins, turtles, rays, and giant clams. Those who prefer to stay dry can view the reef from underwater viewing stations and glass bottom boats. On the mainland, Cairns, Port Douglas, and Airlie Beach are the main launching points for tours.
  7. 7. Great Barrier Reef
  8. 8. Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park  Deep in the heart of the Australia's Red Centre, Uluru(formerly Ayers Rock), is one of the most photographed natural wonders in the country. The striking red monolith forms the centerpiece of Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park, a World Heritage Area jointly managed by Parks Australia and the traditional landowners, the Aṉangu people. Uluru, meaning "shadowy place" in the local aboriginal dialect, rises to a height of 348 m from the surrounding plain with most of its bulk hidden beneath the earth's surface. Also in the park are the red dome-shaped rocks called Kata Tjuta (the Olgas). As the sun dips in the sky, visitors gather to watch Uluru and Kata Tjuta transform in the shifting light. A great way to appreciate these sacred structures is to join a tour around the sites led by Aboriginal guides and rangers.
  9. 9. Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park
  10. 10. Sydney Harbour Bridge  Along with the Opera House, the Sydney Harbour Bridge is one of Australia's most famous icons. Affectionately called "the Coathanger", this impressive feat of construction is the largest steel arch bridge in the world. It was completed in 1932, 40 years before the Sydney Opera House. Rising 134 m above the harbor, the bridge spans 500 m connecting Sydney's north shore to the central business district. In addition to the pedestrian path, two railway lines extend over the bridge as well as eight lanes for road traffic, the direction of which can be switched to accommodate traffic flow.
  11. 11. Sydney Harbour Bridge
  12. 12. Blue Mountains National Park  A UNESCO World Heritage Site, beautiful Blue Mountains National Park lies 81 km west of Sydney and is a popular day trip from the city. Named for the blue haze emanating from the many eucalyptus trees, this stunning park protects more than 664,000 acres of bush land and encompasses dramatic gorges, waterfalls, aboriginal rock paintings, and 140 km of hiking trails. The most famous attractions in the park are the towering sandstone rock formations called the Three Sisters. Other highlights include the Katoomba Scenic Railway, the world's steepest, which whisks passengers down the Jamison Valley through a cliff side tunnel into an ancient rainforest. Hiking, abseiling, rock climbing, mountain biking, and horseback riding are all popular things to do in the park.
  13. 13. Blue Mountains National Park
  14. 14. Bondi Beach  Bronzed bodies, blond sand, backpackers, and surf - throw it all together and you get one of the world's most famous beaches. Only 15 minutes by car from the city center, Bondi Beach is home to one of the oldest surf life-saving clubs in the world. It's also a great spot for a seaside stroll or picnic. The scenic Bondi to Bronte coastal walk begins at the southern end of the beach and follows the coastline for 6 km along sandstone cliffs. Shops, cafes, and restaurants lie across the street from this famous coastal strip, and the beach is a hotspot on Christmas Day and New Year's Eve. Tourists and locals alike visit the Sunday markets and frolic at the ocean pool and skate park. Strong rip tides often sweep unsuspecting swimmers out to sea, especially at the southern end of this kilometer-long strand, so swimmers should stay between the flags. There's a reason the Aussies made a reality TV show called "Bondi Rescue."
  15. 15. Bondi Beach
  16. 16. Kakadu National Park  Kakadu National Park, in the Top End or the Northern Territory, is a World Heritage Site and one of the planet's great wilderness areas. Covering more than 19,840 sq km, Kakadu is the largest national park in Australia and the second largest in the world. Within its borders lie monsoon rainforests, mangrove swamps, rivers, gorges, ancient rock paintings, wetlands, and waterfalls as well as an astounding diversity of wildlife. In addition to the many mammals and reptiles, more than 300 different species of birds make their home here, and visitors may spot saltwater crocodiles prowling the wetlands. Visitors can view the park's diverse ecosystems by car, air, on foot via the vast network of hiking trails, or by boat on the rivers or floodplains. During the wet season (Nov-April), many roads and attractions close due to heavy flooding.
  17. 17. Kakadu National Park
  18. 18. INTRODUCTION:  Building innovation with technologies in school education is providing Australian educators with the opportunity to reconceptualise teaching and learning in the 21st century. Inquiry-based, project-based and personalised learning pedagogies that include technologies aimed at building innovation capabilities in students are emerging in Australian schools, and they are being promoted through government policies.
  19. 19.  In the 21st century Australia’s capacity to provide a high quality of life for all will depend on the ability to compete in the global economy on knowledge and innovation.  As a foundation for success in all learning areas, it states that students will have the essential skills in literacy and numeracy and be creative and productive users of technology, especially ICT.
  21. 21. Education in Australia Australia enjoys a worldwide reputation for academic excellence, offering internationally recognized qualifications with immediate employment and career development opportunities. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) currently ranks Australia's education as the eighth best in the world and, according to UNESCO figures, Australia has one of the highest ratios of enrolment in primary and secondary education in the world.
  22. 22. The Education Structure The educational structure in Australia follows a three tier model that includes primary education (primary schools), followed by secondary education (secondary schools/high schools) and tertiary education (universities and/or Vocational Education and Training). Schools can be classified according to sources of funding and administrative structures. There are three such categories in Australia: Government schools (also known as public schools or state schools) Catholic schools
  23. 23. •The most prestigious, wealthiest and oldest universities in Australia are known as the Group of Eight (Go8). •Most students are Commonwealth supported, which means that they are only required to pay a part of the cost of tuition, called the "student contribution", while the Commonwealth pays the balance. •In addition, qualified students may be entitled to Youth Allowance or Austudy payments to assist them financially while they are studying. These support payments are means and assets tested. Further assistance is available in the form of scholarships.
  24. 24. Technology in Australia Australia is known for adopting new technologies at a faster rate than most other countries in the world; for example, it entered the new millennium with one of the highest rates of internet access in the world. Scientists and researchers from Australia have been responsible for many major breakthroughs and technological developments around the world. In fact, Australia boasts eights Nobel Prize recipients—not bad for a country with a population of about 19 million.
  25. 25. Australia has a tradition of world class research and development, which has benefitted millions around the world. Australia also boasts the world famous Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), the largest government research and development agency in Australia. It is one of the largest and most diverse research institutions in the world, and is involved in more than 750 research activities with scientific organizations and agencies in more than 80 countries. It conducts research in fields such as health, agribusiness, information technology, manufacturing, sustainable energy, mining and minerals, Research in Australia
  27. 27. The most prestigious, wealthiest and oldest universities in Australia known as the Group of Eight (Go8).
  28. 28. A research laboratory designed to enhance interactivity and collaborative research. Digitally rendered concrete panels on the side and back elevations symbolize the research work of the school through simplified icons of molecules and codified representations of the DNA strand.
  29. 29. University of Melbourne is a public school. It’s consistently ranked among the leading universities in the world, with its international peers placing it in the top 20 worldwide, and employers placing it in the top 10. In the recent Times Higher Education rankings of the world’s top 200 universities, Melbourne ranked top in Australia and 36 in the world.
  30. 30. The University of Queensland, also known as UQ, is a public university located in Brisbane, Australia. Founded in 1909, it is the oldest university in Queensland and the fifth in the nation. The world’s first cervical cancer vaccine was pioneered at UQ.
  31. 31. Founded in 1949, the UNSW boasts a matriculation of 40,000 students, 7,000 of which are students from around the world from more than 130 countries. Programs offered at the UNSW include 600 undergraduate and 300 postgraduate courses.
  32. 32. The University of Sydney is the oldest tertiary institution in the whole of Australia and was founded in 1850. Many graduates from the University of Sydney are leaders, both nationally and on the world stage, in government, business, industry, the arts and sporting arena.
  33. 33. University of Monash claim to be Australia’s “most internationalized university” is well supported by facts: The eight campuses of the University are spread out over a huge geographic span that includes Malaysia, South Africa, and Prato in Italy, not to mention the campuses in Australia.
  34. 34.  The University of Western Australia (UWA) was established in February 1911. To date UWA has produced close to 100 Rhodes Scholars and a Nobel Prize winner.
  35. 35. The University of Adelaide is consistently ranked within the top 1% of universities worldwide. Established in 1874, it is the third oldest university in Australia.
  36. 36. Facilities
  37. 37. Top Universities in Australia 2015/16  Australian National University (ANU)  Ranked joint 19th in the world alongside King’s College London, Australian National University (ANU) is located in the country’s capital, Canberra, and is the only university to have been created by the Parliament of Australia. It is particularly highly regarded for its politics, linguistics, geography and science courses.
  38. 38. University of Melbourne  The University of Melbourne is currently ranked 42nd in the world, and has been ranked especially well for its education, accounting, psychology and medicine degrees.
  39. 39. University of Sydney  Ranked 45th in the world, the University of Sydney’s main campus in the inner-city suburbs has also been ranked in the top 10 of the world’s most beautiful universities by The Daily Telegraph.
  40. 40. University of New South Wales (UNSW)  Also located in Sydney, UNSW is ranked joint 46th in the world alongside fellow Australian institution, the University of Queensland. It is a founding member of the Group of Eight, a coalition of top universities in Australia with a core focus on research, and of Universitas 21, a leading global network of research universities.
  41. 41. University of Queensland (UQ)  Also joint 46th in the world rankings, the University of Queensland (UQ) is primarily located in Brisbane and is the oldest university in Queensland, having been founded in 1909. It has produced many notable alumni, including Geoffrey Rush and Nobel Laureate Dr Peter Doherty.
  42. 42. Monash University  Ranked 67th in the world, Monash University in Victoria was named after the prominent Australian general Sir John Monash and is home to major research facilities such as the Australian Stem Cell Center.
  43. 43. University of Western Australia (UWA)  The University of Western Australia (UWA), located in Perth, is ranked 98th in the world rankings this year and is another research-intensive university. Its campus is known for its vibrant social, cultural and sporting life as well as its beauty.
  44. 44. University of Adelaide  Ranked joint 113th in the world alongside the University of Science and Technology of China, the University of Adelaide is the third oldest university in Australia and is a member of the Group of Eight.
  45. 45. University of Technology, Sydney (UTS)  Ranked 218th in the world, climbing 46 places from last year’s ranking, UTS attracts students from all over the world. With over 37,000 students in total, it is one of the largest universities in Australia.
  46. 46. Macquarie University  Another Sydney-based institution, Macquarie University is ranked joint 229th in the world alongside Victoria University of Wellington, and is home to 11,000 international students from over 100 countries, making it one of the most international universities in the world.
  47. 47.  More top universities in Australia…  11. University Of Wollongong – ranked joint 243rd in the world.  12. University of Newcastle – ranked joint 256th in the world.  13. Queensland University of Technology (QUT) – ranked joint 263rd in the world.  14. Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) – ranked joint 273rd in the world.  15. Curtin University – ranked joint 284th in the world.  16. University of South Australia (UNISA) – ranked 288th in the world.  17. Deakin University – ranked joint 324th in the world.  18. Griffith University – ranked joint 329th in the world.  19. University of Tasmania – ranked 379th in the world.  20. James Cook University – ranked joint 387th in the world.
  48. 48.  21. La Trobe University – ranked joint 394th in the world.  22. Bond University – ranked 501-550 in the world.  23. Flinders University – ranked 501-550 in the world.  24. Swinburne University of Technology – ranked 501-550 in the world.  25. Charles Darwin University – ranked 551-600 in the world.  26. Murdoch University – ranked 551-600 in the world.  27. University of Canberra – ranked 551-600 in the world.  28. Victoria University – ranked 601-650 in the world.  29. University of New England – ranked 651-700 in the world.  30. University of Western Sydney – ranked 651-700 in the world.  31. Charles Sturt University – ranked 701+ in the world.  32. Edith Cowan University (ECU) – ranked 701+ in the world.  33. University of Southern Queensland – ranked 701+ in the world.