Coaching Pedagogy Presentation Tom Shepherd u3045331 Alleviating Bullying via Physical Activity
Bullying:Background• Bullying is described as aggressive behavior normally characterized by repetition and imbalance of power (P.K. Smith, P Brain 2000)• is the use of force or coercion to abuse or intimidate others. The behaviour can be habitual and involve an imbalance of social or physical power (E Bennet 2006)• Bullying is when a person is “exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other persons.
Types of Bullying• Physical• Verbal• Emotional• Sexual• Racial
Cyber Bullying• Cyber bullying" is when a child, preteen Where it occurs? or teen is tormented, threatened, -Social Media Websites harassed, humiliated, embarrassed or -Cell Phones otherwise targeted by another child, -Emails preteen or teen using the Internet, -Home phone calls interactive and digital technologies or mobile phones.• Trend was noticed when “i-generation” “cyber bullying can occur started, strongly associated with social 24hrs in comparison to media programs such as Myspace, school hour Facebook, Msn bullying, there is no escaping it for some victims”
Effects of Bullying• Psychological: Stress, Severe anxiety- Mood swings- Irritability- Panic attacks- Loss of self-esteem- Depression- Suicidal thoughts• In some circumstances, prolonged victimization of bullying can lead to extreme mental effects and fatal events such as Columbine and other American School Shootings.
Dealing with Bullies• School Based Plans- Whole School student contracts outlining positive behaviours towards others with consequences if breached. Zero tolerance is critical- Guests Speakers/Assemblies- Courses of Anti-bullying techniques taught to the teachers.
P.E.A.C.E• KidsMatter Primary is P: Preparation underpinned by decades of E: Education solid research about mental A: Action C: Coping health and wellbeing and E: Evaluate the benefits of social and emotional learning in schools• Program put in by Australian Government to try and reduce incidents of bullying and Violence.
Ways of dealing with Bullying: The Bully• Why they Bully? How to change a Bully?- Need of power/Social -Research shows that “bullies” dominance can meet their needs in more- Rewarded with attention positive ways. Creating and popularity amongst opportunities for Bully to be other peers powerful in positive ways.- Satisfaction from physical hurting others. - Provide the bully with an opportunity to “captain/lead” in a sport game
Changing the Bully• “The challenge of leadership is to be strong, but not rude; be kind, but not weak; be bold, but not bully; be thoughtful, but not lazy; be humble, but not timid; be proud, but not arrogant; have humor, but without folly” Ralph Walder Emerson• Recent studies have shown altering the environment in which a “bully” can receive their needs. Sport activities can achieve this by using the need of power of the bully, to lead or captain in a game, they can learn how to use the need of power in a “team” orientated environment and still feel the satisfaction of being powerful.
Changing the Bully Cont’d• Behavioural Changes Karate is a prime example of a from Playing Sport sport that can help diffuse bullying.- Teamwork skills- Decision making- Communication Through sport, a bully can effectively change his/her bullying ways to more positive leadership skills. With the dramatic change in the bully, the development of these critical life skills can help them become successful in their career latter in life.
Ways of dealing with bullying: The victim• Why they are Bullied? How Physical activity can help? Physical activity can generally- Kids are generally bullied help people who are suffer from due to the fact that they depression, anxiety and stress of are different in some kind all ages. of way. (Physically, Ethnicity, Religion, illnesses)- How to deal with it?- Counselling, approaching adults such as teachers, parents or other adult figures in their life.
Dealing with bullying: The victim Cont’d• How Physical activity can Victims of bullying can engage help alleviate bullying? in regular physical activity, to help ease the pain. Studies- Mood enhancement have proven that pre teens and- Releasesendorphins teenagers suffering from- Activation of muscles, helps bullying can help enhance trigger release of endorphins moods, self esteem and thoughts. in brain- Alters brain focus off feeling isolation, depression and fear
What us as teachers/coaches can do• Teacher/coaches based Plans- Create Positive Environment!!!- Reinforce Positive behaviours- Be a Positive Role model• Try to have adult figure around at times when bullying is most likely.• Teach other kids to be a positive bystander/witness• Educate about the risks of social media and cyberbullying• Lastly a ZERO TOLERANCE FOR BULLYING!
References• Websites- Carruthes, C. (2006). Psychological effects of Exercise. Retrieved April 2, 2013, from http://www.beginnertriathlete.com/cms/article-detail.asp?articleid=734- Boggle, J. (n.d.). Forms of bullying. Retrieved April 2, 2013, from http://www.hartdistrict.org/ranchopico/counseling/rancho%20pico%20website_files/page00 24.htm- Slee, P. (2010). The PEACE pack. Retrieved 3 April 2013, from http://www.kidsmatter.edu.au/primary/programs/peace-pack• Journals• - Wier, K. (2011). The exercise effect. American Pyschological Association, 42(11), 48.•• Duggan, T. (septem 2011). Do Sports help Improve Leadership. Sports and Recreation, 12(6), 35-37•• Forgione, M. (september 22, 2010). Why Kids benefit from playing sport. Los Angeles Times