Click the arrow to continue
The Cognitive Theory
A Closer Look
• According to Learning-Theories.com this theory
“replaced behaviorism in the 1960’s”.
• The Cognitive Theory differs from the Behavioral
Theory in which, this theory involves active thinking.
• It also centers around exploration of the inner mental
• The Cognitive Theory suggests that people not only
learn visually but mentally as well.
• This theory also based on the idea that knowledge is
based on and directly associated with prior
knowledge. For example, a student can spell words
because he or she can recognize letters and letter
For this theory there are four major contributors:
Allan Paivio (1925-Present)
Allan Paivio is widely
known for his dual
Basically, Allan Paivio
believed that people
learn in two distinct
His theory identified
three of the following
Allan Paivio Continued…
The representational sub process holds that
“verbal and nonverbal communications are
directly influenced.” (262).
The referential sub process concludes that verbal
systems are triggered by nonverbal sources of
The associative sub process suggests that “text
based systems and graphic representations can
trigger mental associations.” (262).
Robert Gagne (1916-2002)
Robert Gagne contributions to
this theory were heavily
influenced by the behaviorist
and information processing
He established goals for
educators and learning
outcomes for the students.
He believed that students were
directly effected by internal and
He also put a great deal of
emphasis on teachers. In other
words, he encouraged teachers
to teach mastery learning, of
learning content in order for
students to advance to more
Gagne’s learning outcomes for
students are shown on the right.
Benjamin Bloom (1913-1999)
Benjamin Bloom along with a team of
psychologists classified “learning behaviors to
better understand how knowledge is absorbed”.
Bloom categorized this information into three
separate parts: cognitive, affective, and
The cognitive domain is “the student’s intellectual
ability” (265), the affective domain, defines the
“student’s emotions, interests, and attitudes”
(265), and psychomotor domain defines the
student’s physical ability and motor skills (265).
Benjamin Bloom Continued…
Bloom developed six
levels within the
cognitive domain. The
levels progress from
simple to complex with
the goal of increasing
These six levels are
referred to as Bloom’s
Bloom believed that all
students posses the
ability to succeed.
Taxonomy is linked with
mastery learning (265).
Howard Gardner (1943- Present)
developed the theory of
He conducted extensive
research of exceptional
students, as well as those
who had suffered brain
trauma. He used his
original findings to
conclude that “people use
a variety of eight
intelligences” (263) to
construct their view and
understanding of the
Howard Gardner agreed
that instructional methods
should vary in style so
that the intelligences of all
Under this theory
Teachers use: Students use:
language to convey information.
visual representations to trigger
Plan lessons to improve internal
Appeal to multiple intelligences,
those that involve technology and
those that do not.
Use previous knowledge as a
building block to introduce difficult
material, and promote mastery
Take in consideration the ability of
the student, his or her attitude and
emotional state, and motor skills to
Plan curriculum activities that
appeal to their students.
The material they have
previously learned as an aid to
understand new material.
Their intelligence to
comprehend the material they
are being asked to assess.
Their external forces to process
the information internally.
What they already know, their
interests, attitudes, emotional,
motor skills, physical ability, and
awareness to help them get
through the learning process.
Master one skill before
advancing to a more difficult
My Teaching Style
For my own teaching style, I think that this theory
would a great asset. Not only is this theory diverse in
how students learn , I think that it does a phenomenal
job of covering each learning style. For students who
are visual, technology could be used to present a
entire lesson or even part of a lesson. The use of
technology is beneficial because it would appeal to
both visual and audio learners.
This theory would also be great for my teaching style
because it incorporates the talents, interests, and
abilities of the student. As an educator my desire is to
present the lesson to each of my students in a way
that he or she can personally understand.
Furthermore, this theory complements my teaching
style because it involves using previous knowledge as
a tool to review, further mastery learning, and present
Active Learning as a Means to Enhance Higher Order
Thinking Skills. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Apr. 2014.
Cognitivism. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Apr. 2014.
Jenny's lesson plan. N.p., 28 June 2011. Web. 12 Apr.
Multiple Intelligence Projects. N.p., 5 Feb. 2013. Web. 12
Shelly, Gary B., Glenda A. Gunter, and Randolph E.
Gunter. Teachers Discovering Computers Integrating
Technology in a Connected World. 7thth ed. Boston:
Course Technology, 2012. 261-66. Print.
Teorie duálního kódování. N.p., 2008. Web. 12 Apr. 2014.