Week 6

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Week 6

  1. 1. White Collar Crime <ul><li>Includes crimes committed both by and against corporations or businesses. </li></ul><ul><li>Also incorporates political crimes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ex. Watergate, Iran-Contra </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More difficult to research and prosecute due to partial government complicity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HMOs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firearm companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tobacco </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Just wear sunscreen” </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Professions and the law <ul><li>Most organized professions control legal aspects of that profession </li></ul><ul><ul><li>political action committees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AMA, APA (Psychiatric) and ADHD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also businesses control actions of employees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complicity in guilt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Threats of employment repercussions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>occasional threats of violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Karen Silkwood </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Medical “Science” <ul><li>Medicaid Fraud </li></ul><ul><ul><li>estimated $50-80 billion/year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2.4 million unnecessary surgeries/year </li></ul><ul><li>approx. 100,000 accidental deaths </li></ul><ul><li>Medical research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$$$ not empiricism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FenPhen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hwang Woo-suk Cloning Controversy </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Crimes at the consumer level <ul><li>“ Psst, wanna buy some speakers?” </li></ul><ul><li>Airline Training schools </li></ul><ul><li>“ God says send in your money” </li></ul><ul><li>Telemarketing scams </li></ul><ul><li>Scams that prey on victims of telemarketing scams </li></ul><ul><li>“ You won a prize, call this number” (long distance charges may apply) </li></ul><ul><li>Keys on the roof </li></ul><ul><li>Ponzi Schemes (send me your $100 and put your name on this list) </li></ul><ul><li>Sell junk to your friends </li></ul><ul><li>Pyramid schemes </li></ul>
  5. 5. Koscot Interplanetary, Inc. and Amway <ul><li>Koscot in the 1970’s was cosmetics company </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glenn Turner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay $2000+$5400 for supplies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earn bonuses for recruiting others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amway </li></ul><ul><ul><li>purchase household products from “sponsor” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>try to get others whom YOU can sponsor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actually sold stuff, thus avoided “pyramid” laws </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be wary off: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Up-front recruiting costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ridiculously priced products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mandatory minimum purchases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exaggerated income claims & rock and roll want adds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No buy-back policy </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Crimes by Big Business <ul><li>60% of business have been involved in criminal/civil actions </li></ul><ul><li>Oil, drug companies, and automobile industry are biggest offenders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>very lenient punishments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Government involved with Big Business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reagan and the EPA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HMO Patient’s Bill of Rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slush funds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the $73,100 toilet seat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Business seek to circumvent government power in order to make more $$$ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft and Anti-Trust law </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Safety and Money <ul><li>Companies regularly balance the costs of recalling an unsafe product versus simply paying off lawsuits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ pre-owned”flood vehicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firestone & Ford </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The “slightly combustible” Ford Pinto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brown and Williamson Tobacco </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The DC-10 Cargo door~~~346 deaths in France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GE covers up engine flaws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cordis’ pacemakers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cholesterol inhibitor kills rats </li></ul></ul><ul><li>20 million injuries, 30,000 deaths from defective products </li></ul>
  8. 8. Safety and Money Part 2 <ul><li>Killer IUDs sold overseas </li></ul><ul><li>Depo Provera malignant tumor research </li></ul><ul><li>“ NuSalt” salt substitute </li></ul><ul><li>Pesticides exported to other countries, products imported to US </li></ul><ul><li>Do you KNOW what goes into hamburger meat? </li></ul><ul><li>Nestle’s killer baby formula sent to Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Returned spoiled meat turned into processed food~~~(sold as “Windsor Loins”) </li></ul><ul><li>Safety laws can be violated by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>changing the product name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>changing the formula by adding a few inert ingredients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>manufacturing outside of the US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>import ingredients separately and assemble </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Environmental Crime <ul><li>Three-Mile Island </li></ul><ul><ul><li>faked safety tests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Companies circumvent US environmental law through illegal toxic waste dumping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dumping medical wastes in international waters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chemical recombination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>companies tend to oppose all environmental legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>claim it will hurt the consumer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>make token efforts to look good (Miami sugar farmers) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>argue humans more valuable than nature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>count on short term goals </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Environmental Crime Part 2 <ul><li>Hospital disposal of amputated limbs in public trash </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure to Hepatitis B on the job </li></ul><ul><li>Allied Chemical defrauds the Army and the EPA </li></ul><ul><li>Radioactive dumping at sea </li></ul><ul><li>Mercury run-off in Rhode Island </li></ul><ul><li>Pig waste spills in Pennsylvania </li></ul><ul><li>Companies will attempt to avoid links by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dumping in international waters/ 3rd world countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>using 3rd party dumping companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>showing inspectors to “dummy sites” </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Crimes against Employees <ul><li>OSHA limits exposure of employees to hazards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meatpackers work right after surgery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asbestos welding gloves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>building fumes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exposure to arsenic, cyanide=negligent homicide, but fined only $25,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety measures on machines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Businesses have been fighting new OSHA regulations on grounds it would “hurt consumers” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>including measures to avoid carpal-tunnel syndrome and tendonitis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>better ventilation for ALL office buildings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>better regulation of exposure to neuro and cytotoxins on the job </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>better regulation of exposure to carcinogenic substances </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Industrial War Crimes <ul><li>Standard Oil sells gasoline to the Nazis through Switzerland post 1941 </li></ul><ul><li>Swiss banks and the Nazis </li></ul><ul><li>American Insurance companies and Jewish war dead </li></ul><ul><li>Ford trucks in WWII </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Espionage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM has lost billions to French and Japanese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>typewriter repair men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>television transmitters and phone bugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French considered to be worst offenders </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Lenient Punishment <ul><li>Most laws are recent, including fraud, anti-trust, false advertising, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Libertarianism and laissez-faire </li></ul><ul><li>“ Trickle-down” economy </li></ul><ul><li>Less publicity…violators often own stock in media </li></ul><ul><li>intermingling between business and politics </li></ul><ul><li>white-collar criminals do not fit stereotypes of criminals </li></ul><ul><li>corporate law allows for many legal delays….ex. IBM </li></ul>
  14. 14. Cyber Crime <ul><li>Crimes committed in the context of computer/internet environment </li></ul><ul><li>Takes numerous forms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>circumvention of trade law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>false advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>circumvention of pornography laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>solicitation of minors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>viruses & trojan horses </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Circumventing Trade Laws <ul><li>By use of internationally based web-sites, US trade regulations can, in part, be circumvented. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Particularly laws regarding controlled substances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some products may not be sold in US, but is ok to sell from out of US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some products ok to sell in US, so as do not advertise as “medicine”…ok though in other countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germanium~~~cures cancer, AIDS and the common cold, so long as you are not too attached to your kidneys. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GHB recipes </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. False Advertising <ul><li>Caveat Emptor on the internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>selling of false merchandise on EBay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>violations of copywrite law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>File-Sharing Programs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get-Rich-Quick Schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diet-Plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ How to get rid of junk E-mail” E-mail </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some of these seek Credit Card numbers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will charge you a large fee for useless product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>make charge then disappear altogether </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Circumvention of Pornography Law <ul><li>Porn regulations in US are fairly lenient, nonetheless there ARE some regulations. However, these can be violated through use of international web sites. </li></ul><ul><li>Depictions of nude children </li></ul><ul><li>Depictions of children engaged in sexual behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Bestiality and “bizarre” sex not typically encountered within US porn industry </li></ul><ul><li>Sites include those in Netherlands, Sweden, Ukraine, Japan and Russia </li></ul>
  18. 18. Child Pornography <ul><li>Sites featuring nude children difficult to prosecute </li></ul><ul><li>Sites involving child porn typically are international </li></ul><ul><li>However private groups often exchange hardcore child porn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>may involve webs of exchange, photos of own children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>also engage in marketing child porn literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>primarily a support structure for pedophiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may legitimize actions of pedophiles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pedophilic support groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NAMBLA </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. “ Innocent Images” <ul><li>1995 FBI raids 120 homes of AOL users to prosecute child porn ring in US </li></ul><ul><li>included photographs of individuals aged 2-13 either posed nude or engaged in sex acts </li></ul><ul><li>probe began because 10-y.o. George Burdynski abducted by suspected pedophile </li></ul><ul><li>12 arrested in total </li></ul><ul><li>attempts to regulate Internet transmission hampered by both international concern and 1st amendment </li></ul>
  20. 20. Pedophiles on the Web <ul><li>Pedophiles may search for youth victims on web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MySpace.com </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allows them a safe environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allows pedophiles to be more aggressive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows for seduction before meeting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may use offers of gifts or money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may use ruse to get child alone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minors themselves less supervised </li></ul><ul><ul><li>may lack maturity to deal with sexual overture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High risk, as perpetrator would have little previous attachment to victim </li></ul>
  21. 21. Cyber Hoaxes <ul><li>Little Girl Dying of Cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft will buy you a new computer </li></ul><ul><li>Bud Frog Virus alert </li></ul><ul><li>Elfbowling virus alert </li></ul><ul><li>Your account is about to be disconnected… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gets your password! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IM charge chain letter </li></ul><ul><li>Coca-Cola toilet bowl hoax </li></ul><ul><li>Gas pump HIV hoax </li></ul>
  22. 22. Viruses <ul><li>A virus which disrupts or destroys normal computer functioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>often replicates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some new ones mutate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hackers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>highly intelligent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>passive-aggressive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>underachievers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>find cyber vandalism to be amusing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>However, others use viruses for the purpose of doing harm </li></ul>
  23. 23. Viruses Part 2 <ul><li>Melissa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>uses Outlook to send itself to everyone you know--makes E-mail look innocent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>destroys boot sector, deletes Windows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>David Smith </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jerusalem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>activates every Friday 13th </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>deletes all files used that day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LoveBug </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deletes certain types of files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linked to Manila </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Trojan Horses <ul><li>Appears like valid executable file </li></ul><ul><li>Contains hidden code which does damage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>may upload saved passwords, credit card numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may display objectionable graphics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may destroy files </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Web-site links </li></ul><ul><ul><li>may lead you to bogus web-sites which provide information to site user that will give them access to your accounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may appear in junk e-mail as potentially interesting (though typically porn or get rich quick) links </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Protections from viruses and THs <ul><li>Do not open e-mail from unknown sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Certainly do not follow links! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not download files! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keep updated virus scans open </li></ul><ul><li>Be suspicious of language which seems “canned” </li></ul>

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