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  • Tom Gillpatrick, Ph.D. Juan Young Professor of Marketing ...

    1. 1. Tom Gillpatrick, Ph.D. Juan Young Professor of Marketing & Executive Director, FILC Master International Management Program School of Business Administration Portland State University Global Marketing 3 December 2003
    2. 2. Selected Issues of Global Marketing Strategies IV. Global Communication Issues - Global advertising & culture - Global budgeting - Creative strategy - Global media - Global regulations - Agency selection & coordination - Global IMC and other promotion - Marketing and the internet
    3. 3. Week Seven Objectives 12-3-03 <ul><ul><li>P1: Global Marketing Communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion Goals/Objectives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion Flows </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion Mix </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P2: Global Communications Issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P3: Guest Speaker: Jim Thayer, President OSS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Overseas Strategic Services) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Case Discussion: Motorola China Experience </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Basic Promotional Goal Shift the Demand function Price Quantity D1 D2
    5. 5. Marketing Communications & Managing Customer Response <ul><li>Promotion Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build Awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcement or Change Attitudes or Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increasing Customer response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop measures to evaluate effectiveness </li></ul></ul>Market Based: Promotion Strategies
    6. 6. The Dual Role of Marketing Communications Investing in the Enablers of Growth Product Price/ Cost Place Promotion Processes People/ Climate ... Keeping the engine running ... Tactical ... Share of the market ... While changing the fan belt ... Putting the pitch before the product (Strategic) ... Share of mind ... Making the latent blatant Positioning “ Sales over night” “ Brand over time”
    7. 7. Hierarchy of Effects Model Awareness Knowledge Liking Preference Conviction Purchase Implications for promotion mix <ul><li>Media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publicity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales Promotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Selling </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Promotion Flows Manufacturers Distributors Retailers Consumer response
    9. 9. Communication Tasks <ul><li>Market- ID target market, PLC </li></ul><ul><li>Message- content, structure,format, source </li></ul><ul><li>Media/channels </li></ul><ul><li>Mix- promotion mix- IMC, push/pull </li></ul><ul><li>Money- budget </li></ul><ul><li>Measures </li></ul>
    10. 10. Customer Response Strategies Pull Customer-Push Communications Customer-Pull Communications Push <ul><li>Customer </li></ul><ul><li>Preference </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Attraction </li></ul><ul><li>Distributor </li></ul><ul><li>Push </li></ul><ul><li>Merchandising </li></ul><ul><li>Mktg.-Effort </li></ul>Communications Mix Advertising Sales Promotion Catalogs Direct Marketing Telemarketing Electronic Marketing Public Relations <ul><li>Customer </li></ul><ul><li>Loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Search Eff. </li></ul><ul><li>Market </li></ul><ul><li>Coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul><ul><li>Stock-outs </li></ul>
    11. 11. Customer Response Index Aware (63%) Unaware (37%) Don’t Comprehend (46%) Comprehend (54%) Interested (23%) Intentions (32%) Action (10%) CRI .3% 2% 5% 26% 29% 37% 100% No Action (90%) No Intentions (68%) Not Interested (77%)
    12. 12. Causes of Poor Customer Response Poor Response Marketing Problem Underlying Cause Low Awareness Poor Comprehension Low Interest Low Intentions Low Purchase Level Marketing Communications Marketing Communications Product Positioning Product Positioning Distribution and In-Store <ul><li>Poor Media Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient Frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Poor Ad Copy </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient Frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Poor Ad Copy </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>High Price </li></ul><ul><li>Poor Ad Copy </li></ul><ul><li>Weak Value Proposition </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Low-cost Trial </li></ul><ul><li>Not Readily Available </li></ul><ul><li>Not Available </li></ul><ul><li>Hard to Find In-store </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient In-store </li></ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul>
    13. 14. The International Communications Process Message translated into appropriate meaning Marketer with a product Information source Competitive acti-vities, other sales-people, confusion and so on Evaluation of communications process and measure of action by receiver Advertising Media and or personal sales force Action by consumer responding to decoded message Encoded message interpreted into meaning Noise Feedback Message channel Decoding Receiver Encoding Cultural Context A Cultural Context B
    14. 15. A Model of the International Mass Communications Process Producer/ marketer/ advertiser Sets objectives and advertising budget Mass Media Carries the message Advertising agency Develops message (encoding) and selects media Opinion leaders, individuals Receive the message and interpret (decoding) Individuals Think, feel and act (hierarchy of effects) Coordination and control Generate feedback on effects Sender’s cultural setting Receiver’s cultural setting
    15. 16. The Four Components of Global Advertising The Four Components of Global Advertising 1. Message and Creative 2. Media 3. Strategy 4. Organization
    16. 17. Global Advertising is Most Powerful When: Global Advertising is Most Powerful When: • the image communicated can be identical across countries • the symbols used carry the same meaning across countries • the product features desired are the same • the usage conditions are similar across markets
    17. 18. Advertising Intensity in Selected Nations
    18. 19. Text Overview <ul><li>1. Global Advertising and Culture </li></ul><ul><li>2. Setting the Global Advertising Budget </li></ul><ul><li>3. Creative Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>4. Global Media Decisions </li></ul><ul><li>5. Advertising Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>6. Choosing an Advertising Agency </li></ul><ul><li>7. Coordinating International Advertising </li></ul><ul><li>8. Other Forms of Communication </li></ul><ul><li>9. Globally Integrated Marketing Communications (GIMC) </li></ul>
    19. 20. Introduction <ul><li>There are many cultural challenges that advertisers face in global marketing. </li></ul><ul><li>Global advertising encompasses areas such as advertising planning, budgeting, resource allocation issues, message strategy, and media decisions. Other areas include: local regulations, advertising agency selection, coordination of multi-country communication efforts and regional and global campaigns. </li></ul>
    20. 21. 1. Global Advertising and Culture <ul><li>Language Barriers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language is one of the most formidable barriers in global marketing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three types of translation errors can occur in international marketing: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simple carelessness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple-meaning words </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Idioms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Other Cultural Barriers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul></ul>
    21. 22. 1. Global Advertising and Culture (contd.) <ul><ul><li>Cultural traps/cultural dimensions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geert Hofstede’s cultural grid can be used to assess the appropriateness of comparative advertising campaigns (see Exhibit 14-2). The five cultural dimensions include: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power distance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uncertainty avoidance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individualism </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Masculinity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long-termism </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 23. 2. Setting the Global Advertising Budget <ul><li>Companies rely on different kind of advertising budgeting methods which include: See Exhibit 14-3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Percentage of Sales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitive Parity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective-and-Task Method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource Allocation </li></ul></ul>
    23. 24. Creative Challenges of Global Advertising Legal and Tax Considerations Language Limitations Cultural Diversity Media Limitations Production and Cost Limitations
    24. 25. Media Usage in Various Countries * * 1995
    25. 26. 3. Creative Strategy <ul><li>The “Standardization” versus “Adaptation Debate” </li></ul><ul><li>Merits of Standardization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scale Economies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistent Image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global Consumer Segments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creative Talent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-Fertilization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Barriers to Standardization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural Differences </li></ul></ul>
    26. 27. 3. Creative Strategy (contd.) <ul><ul><li>Advertising Regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market Maturity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Not-Invented-Here” (NIH) Syndrome </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Approaches to Creating Advertising Copy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Laissez Faire ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Export Advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global Prototype Advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prototype Standardization </li></ul></ul>
    27. 28. 3. Creative Strategy (contd.) <ul><ul><li>Regional Approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pattern Standardization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modular Approach </li></ul></ul></ul>
    28. 29. 4. Global Media Decisions <ul><li>Media Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Media infrastructure differs from country to country </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Media Limitations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The major limitation in many markets is media availability. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recent Developments in the Global Media Landscape: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing commercialization and deregulation of mass media </li></ul></ul>
    29. 31. 4. Global Media Decisions (contd.) <ul><ul><li>Shift from radio and print to TV advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise of global and regional media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing spread of interactive marketing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing popularity of text messaging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved TV-viewership measurement </li></ul></ul>
    30. 33. Global Marketing Communications <ul><li>In the U.K., all advertising is allowed if not specifically forbidden. </li></ul><ul><li>In Germany, everything is forbidden if not specifically allowed. </li></ul><ul><li>In Italy, everything is allowed, even if forbidden, and </li></ul><ul><li>In Belgium, nobody knows what’s forbidden. </li></ul>Angela Mills
    31. 34. 5. Advertising Regulations <ul><li>The major types of advertising regulations include : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advertising of “Vice Products” and Pharmaceuticals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparative Advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content of Advertising Messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advertising Targeting Children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Advertising Regulations : Issues of local languages, tax issues, and advertising rates. </li></ul></ul>
    32. 35. 5.Advertising Regulations (contd.) <ul><li>Strategies to deal with advertising regulations : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep track of regulations and pending legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Screen the campaign early on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lobbying activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenge regulations in court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapt marketing mix strategy </li></ul></ul>
    33. 36. Regulations Regarding Premiums, Gifts and Competitions in Selected Countries
    34. 37. Regulations Regarding Premiums, Gifts and Competitions in Selected Countries
    35. 38. Regulations Regarding Premiums, Gifts and Competitions in Selected Countries Source: Jean J. Boddewyn, Premiums, Gifts, and Competitions, New York: (International Advertising Association, 1988. © 1988 International Advertising Association Source: Jean J. Boddewyn, Premiums, Gifts, and Competitions, New York: (International Advertising Association, 1988. © 1988 International Advertising Association
    36. 39. 6. Choosing an Advertising Agency <ul><li>In selecting an ad agency, the international marketer has several options : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Work with the agency that handles the advertising in the firm’s home market. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Pick a purely local agency in the foreign market. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Choose the local office of a large international agency. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Select an international network of ad agencies that spans the globe. </li></ul></ul>
    37. 40. 6. Choosing an Advertising Agency (contd.) <ul><li>When screening ad agencies, the following set of criteria can be used : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Market coverage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality of coverage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expertise with developing a central international campaign </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creative reputation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scope and quality of support services </li></ul></ul>
    38. 41. 6. Choosing an Advertising Agency (contd.) <ul><ul><li>Desirable image (“global” versus “local”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size of the agency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflicting accounts </li></ul></ul>
    39. 42. 7. Coordinating International Advertising <ul><li>Global or pan-regional advertising approaches require a great deal of coordination. The following mechanisms can help: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monetary Incentives (cooperative advertising) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advertising Manuals (brand book) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead-Country Concept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global or Pan-Regional Meetings: Six guidelines to implement a global or pan-regional advertising approach include : </li></ul></ul>
    40. 43. 7. Coordinating International Advertising (contd.) <ul><ul><ul><li>(1). Top management must be dedicated to going global. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(2). Use a third party (e.g., the ad agency) to help sell key managers the benefits of a global advertising approach. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(3). A global brief based on cross-border consumer research can help persuade managers to think in terms of global consumers. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    41. 44. 7. Coordinating International Advertising (contd.) <ul><ul><ul><li>(4). Find product champions and give them a charter for the success of the global marketing program. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(5). Convince local staff that they have an opportunity in developing a global campaign. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(6). Get local managers on the global marketing team -- have them do the job themselves. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    42. 45. 8. Other Forms of Communication <ul><li>Sales Promotions : Sales promotion refers to a collection of short-term incentive tools that lead to quicker and/or larger sales of a particular product by consumers or the trade. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rationales explaining the local character of promotions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Economic development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Market maturity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural perceptions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trade structure (pull vs. push promotions) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    43. 46. 8. Other Forms of Communication (contd.) <ul><ul><ul><li>Government regulations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Direct Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Event Sponsorships </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Shows : When attending an international trade show, the following guidelines might prove useful: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide on what trade shows to attend at least a year in advance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare translation of product materials, price lists, selling aids. </li></ul></ul>
    44. 47. 8. Other Forms of Communication (contd.) <ul><ul><li>Bring plenty of literature. Bring someone who knows the language or have a translator. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Send out, ahead of time, direct-mail pieces to potential attendees. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find out the best possible space, for instance, in terms of traffic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan the best way to display your products and to tell your story. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do your homework on potential buyers from other countries. </li></ul></ul>
    45. 48. 8. Other Forms of Communication (contd.) <ul><ul><li>Assess the impact of trade show participation on the company’s bottom line. Performance benchmarks may need to be adjusted when evaluating trade show effectiveness in different countries since attendees might behave differently. </li></ul></ul>
    46. 49. Market Facilitators The Company The Competition The Customer Government Institutions Interest Groups Advertising Agencies Securities Analysts Market Research Firms Business Journalists PR Firms Trade Journalists Distributors suppliers of Complementary Products & Services Consultants Trade Associations OEM’s VAR’s
    47. 50. Brand Management Wheel Adapted from P. Temporal “Advanced Brand Management: from Vision to Valuation” Promotions Word of Mouth Scholarships and Endorsements Advertising Product Performance and Development HR, Employee Morale, Brand Culture Service Standards and Behavior Public Relations Channel management, CRM, Internet Packaging Physical Premises Corporate Events BRAND STRATEGY
    48. 51. 9. Globally Integrated Marketing Communications (GIMC) <ul><li>Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IMC coordinates different communication vehicles – mass advertising, sponsorships, sales promotion, packaging, point-of-purchase displays, so forth. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Globally Integrated Marketing Communications (GIMC): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GIMC is a system of active promotional management that strategically coordinates global communications in all of its component </li></ul></ul>
    49. 52. 9. Globally Integrated Marketing Communications (GIMC) <ul><ul><li>parts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both horizontally (country-level) and vertically (promotion tools) are used in GIMC. </li></ul></ul>
    50. 53. Strategic Matrix Interpretation Source: Asia Market Intelligence Areas w/ no clear image position Areas/Priorities for image correction Reasons for current franchise – must be maintained Increased salience of such existing strengths can significantly enhance positioning Relative Importance Relative Performance LOW MEDIUM HIGH Opportunities (Increase salience) Lower Priority Weaknesses (Enhance) Potential Opportunities (Increase salience) Low Priority Lower Priority Core Strengths (Maintain) Competitive (Enhance) Threats (Remedy) STRONG AVERAGE WEAK
    51. 54. AMI’s Pinpoint™ Analysis Beverage Market Example Source: Asia Market Intelligence Attractive Packaging Growing Brand Always Fresh Buy Best High Quality Good Tasting Easy in Pubs Modern Promoted in Bars Good Advertising Trendy Easy to drink International standards Hear a lot about brand Younger Strong Special Occasion Locally made Expensive Good value Easy shop IMPORTANCE PERFORMANCE LOW MEDIUM HIGH STRONG AVERAGE WEAK
    52. 55. Emotional Brand Relationship Process Adapted from P. Temporal “Advanced Brand Management: from Vision to Valuation” Togetherness/partnership Awareness Information Respect Friendship Trust Loyalty
    53. 59. Marketing to the New Asia <ul><ul><li>“ Typical” Japanese: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is the extent of staff understanding? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does it affect decision-making? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are the insights still valid? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More sophisticated marketing research: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to understand markets better? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does research account for: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reticent focus groups? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Middle-of-the-road responses to surveys? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should marketing research resources be increased given: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growing heterogeneity of the Japanese market? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Competition for segments? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    54. 60. Distribution of Consumer Advertising and Sales Promotion Expenditures in Asia (by percentage) 100.0 64.6 25.1 6.6 4.1 28.8 35.2 3.6 5.9 6.9 4.4 2.8 2.0 9.6 0.2 1989 100.0 64.2 24.4 6.7 4.2 28.9 35.6 3.5 5.9 6.9 4.5 2.7 2.2 9.9 0.2 1990 100.0 66.0 25.1 6.5 4.5 29.9 33.9 3.9 6.2 6.5 4.4 3.2 2.1 7.6 0.1 1986 100.0 65.7 25.0 6.5 4.4 29.8 34.1 3.9 6.1 7.0 4.3 3.0 2.1 7.7 0.2 1987 100.0 66.3 25.5 6.7 4.3 29.8 33.5 3.8 5.8 7.0 4.3 2.7 2.1 7.8 0.2 1988 <ul><li>Total Advertising and Promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising in the Four Mass Media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Newspapers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magazines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TV </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sales Promotions Expenditures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inserts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outdoors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>POP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone Directory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhibitions, visuals, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Media Advertising Expenditures </li></ul>Media 100.0 63.8 23.8 6.8 4.2 29.3 36.0 3.5 5.9 6.9 4.6 2.8 2.5 9.7 0.2 1991 100.0 63.6 22.3 6.7 4.3 30.3 36.2 4.1 5.9 6.9 4.9 2.7 2.9 8.8 0.2 1992
    55. 61. New Rules of Communications <ul><ul><li>Current advertising: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is the extent of Mood over Message? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of cognitive messages – does balance need to be shifted? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advertising by a non-Japanese firm: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How can Mood be utilized? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other distinctively Japanese features to address? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who are best advertising partners? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Given changes in industry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Given new marketing challenges </li></ul></ul></ul>
    56. 62. Shifting Realities of Marketing Strategies Unarticulated Articulated Customer Needs <ul><li>Customer-driven: </li></ul><ul><li>Customization of products and services </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing interactions drive new product development </li></ul>Line extensions and modifications; R&D drives new products Product and Service Offerings Customized segments of one Mass Market Segmentation Co-producer Passive Consumer Relationship with Customers New Model Old Model
    57. 63. Shifting Realities of Marketing Strategies Integrated, interactive customized marketing communication, education and entertainment Advertising and PR Communication Value-based pricing – models and emergence of consumer-determined pricing Fixed prices and discounting Pricing New Model Old Model
    58. 64. Shifting Realities of Marketing Strategies Leadership and innovation in target segment Market Participation Strategic Intent Integrated global supply chain including global delivery; just-in-time Inventory Supply chain Direct (electronic) distribution and rise of third-party logistics services Traditional retailing and direct marketing to segments Distribution New Model Old Model
    59. 65. Shifting Realities of Marketing Strategies Marketing finesse Marketing power Competitive advantage Global Domestic and international Geographic scope New Model Old Model

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