SwE 2642 Professional Practices and Ethics


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  • Three aspects: 1. freedom from intrusion 2. control of information about oneself 3. freedom from surveillance Warren and Brandeis The Right to Privacy Harvard Law Review, December 15, 1890. Brandeis was a law student, and they were complaining about cameras small enough to take surreptitious pictures. http://www.swiss.ai.mit.edu/classes/6.805/articles/privacy/Privacy_brand_warr2.html
  • In a small town or a close community, your neighbors know a lot. Your employer and the companies you do business with learn a lot about you. We give up privacy for the benefit of dealing with strangers. Government knows a lot about you. Generally privacy is a good ting. Tension between privacy and law enforcement: privacy allows the guilty to hide. Westin's factors to be balanced: pp. 36-37.
  • Personal information includes not only "sensitive"information, but anything that can be identified with an individual. Includes images.
  • "matching" is combining information from different databases. "Profiling" means using data to determine the characteristics of people likely to engage in certain behavior. Consider profiling and advertising: Sell baby carriages to young people and cemetary plots to older people.
  • Privacy act of 74 Restricts Feds tocollecting relevant and necessary info Requires notice of record systems Allows access to records and correction of inaccuracies Requires security procedures Prohibits disclosure without consent. (With several exceptons) Computer matching and privacy act requires a review process before matching; does not prohibit matching.
  • Purpose: To provide for Congressional representation Census of 1890: automation, Hollerith, etc. But also allowed comprehensive analysis. 1942: Census used to find Japanese Americans for internment. WWI: names for draft 1980 Census: find zoning violoations of single-family zones.
  • "Who shall guard the guardians?" -- Rhetorical question Juvenal: 1st century AD Roman poet and satirist.
  • Fourth amendment requires probably cause
  • PATRIOT act, especially, weakened probably cause. Much personal information is outside our control. HIPAA makes some medical information available to law enforcement. Until recently, courts had held that searches were illegal if there was an "expectation of privacy." So, not only homes, but cars, etc.
  • http://supct.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/99-8508.ZS.html
  • Olmstead: Supremes think wiretaps are OK because there is no physical intrusion. Katz: Reversed Olmsteam Supremes have interpreted expectation of privacy in a restrictive way. E.g. there should be no expectation of privacy of information voluntarily shared with a bank.
  • SwE 2642 Professional Practices and Ethics

    1. 1. SwE 2642 Professional Practices and Ethics August 29 Chapter Two: Privacy and Personal Information
    2. 2. About Assignment 1– Due Wed. Questions? Professionals must stay current & this assignment lets you learn about that Don’t forget that I may be asking for your reference list and article summaries as we go along the course.
    3. 3. Try Hornet Connect http://connect.spsu.edu sduggins Same as email password [email_address]
    4. 4. Try Hornet Connect http://connect.spsu.edu
    5. 5. September 5… … is not Labor Day, and we will have a class meeting. Group 8 will present Examples supporting Chapter Two. Please email me your slides and put your name on the slides.
    6. 6. Health and Medicine Computer-aided imaging Monitoring Computer-enhanced instruments Drugs Designing Dispensing Patient records Telemedicine
    7. 7. Assistive Technology Screen readers Speech controls, speech to text Nerve or brain implants Aids in locating things Locating people
    8. 8. Automation Automation of repetitive or dangerous tasks Improvements in product quality Assembly Inspection Automation and jobs
    9. 9. Identifying, Sensing and Tracking Scanners For checkers Self-scanning Smart cards Sensors and active ID tags
    10. 10. Reducing Paper Use and Waste On-line storage Good points Less good points Office automation increases paper use
    11. 11. Observations Imagining life without computers War and Peace The Brooklyn Bridge Automobiles, airplanes, ships
    12. 12. Data and Privacy <ul><li>What data are collected about individuals? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the effect of computers on this? </li></ul>
    13. 13. Aspects of Privacy <ul><li>The right to be let alone Mr. Justice Louis D. Brandeis </li></ul><ul><li>The right to control information about oneself </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom from surveillance </li></ul>http://www.swiss.ai.mit.edu/classes/6.805/articles/privacy/Privacy_brand_warr2.html
    14. 14. What are the Limits of Privacy? <ul><li>What are the limits? </li></ul><ul><li>Your neighbors and friends </li></ul><ul><li>Companies and enterprises </li></ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>Is privacy a good thing? </li></ul>
    15. 15. Privacy and Personal Information <ul><li>What is personal information? </li></ul><ul><li>What is not? </li></ul>
    16. 16. The Risks of Technology <ul><li>To what extent does technology threaten privacy? </li></ul><ul><li>Invisible information gathering </li></ul><ul><li>Data leakage </li></ul><ul><li>Matching and profiling (What is profiling, anyway?) </li></ul><ul><li>Location and technology </li></ul>
    17. 17. Surveillance <ul><li>Is “Big Brother” watching you? </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutional restrictions </li></ul><ul><li>Databases </li></ul><ul><li>The Privacy Act of 1974 </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 </li></ul>
    18. 18. The Census <ul><li>Purpose of the Census </li></ul><ul><li>Census of 1890 </li></ul><ul><li>Use (and abuse?) of Census data </li></ul><ul><li>Other “fishing expeditions” </li></ul>
    19. 19. Unauthorized Uses of Information <ul><li>Quis custodiet ipsos custodes? (Who will guard the guards themselves?) – Juvenal </li></ul><ul><li>Abuses by those authorized to have access </li></ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>Private businesses </li></ul>
    20. 20. The Fourth Amendment <ul><li>About the Bill of Rights </li></ul><ul><li>The Fourth Amendment: “the right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects… </li></ul>
    21. 21. The Weakening of the Fourth Amendment <ul><li>The USA PATRIOT Act </li></ul><ul><li>HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) </li></ul><ul><li>The notion of “expectation of privacy” </li></ul>
    22. 22. Technology and Surveillance <ul><li>Satellite surveillance </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal imaging (Thermal imaging is a “search” that requires a warrant. Kyllo v. United States) </li></ul><ul><li>Toll collection </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase records </li></ul><ul><li>Cell phones </li></ul>
    23. 23. The Supreme Court and the Expectation of Privacy <ul><li>Olmstead v. United States (1928) Wiretaps </li></ul><ul><li>Katz v. United States (1967) </li></ul><ul><li>Restrictive interpretation on expectation of privacy </li></ul>
    24. 24. Electronic Searches <ul><li>Metal detectors </li></ul><ul><li>Bomb-sniffers </li></ul><ul><li>Backscatter X-Ray machines </li></ul><ul><li>Trade-offs of security and privacy </li></ul>
    25. 25. Your Picture <ul><li>Security cameras </li></ul><ul><li>Face recognition systems </li></ul><ul><li>CCTV cameras in England and Canada </li></ul>
    26. 26. Fighting Terrorism <ul><li>What techniques should we use </li></ul><ul><li>Profiling ? </li></ul><ul><li>Surveillance ? </li></ul><ul><li>Photographs and fingerprints ? </li></ul><ul><li>Where did security break down? </li></ul>
    27. 27. Databases and Marketing How much “junk mail” do you get? Why? How is data mining (comparison of databases by private industry) like database matching by government? How is it different? Why were people opposed to DoubleClick’s matching project?
    28. 28. Children and the Web Are children exposed to potentially dangerous situations because of Internet interactions? Is it ethical for an FBI agent to pose as an eleven year old girl on the Internet? “ On the Internet, nobody knows you’re a dog.” What about collection of personal information from children by businesses? Cartoon by Peter Steiner, reproduced from page 61 of July 5, 1993 issue of The New Yorker, (Vol.69 (LXIX) no. 20)
    29. 29. The Social Security Number Social Security Number as ID number Matching Access to information Identity theft The SSN as a national ID number?
    30. 30. National ID Cards Benefits of a national ID card fewer cards to carry(?) harder to forge deter identity theft And the down side? “ Your papers, please!” Do you need an ID to work? What about the “Real ID” law? (Passed in 2005; implementation by 2008.)
    31. 31. Health Information Medical databases are replacing paper records Are databases easier or harder to protect? What are the legitimate uses of medical records? Medical records and payment for health care. Medical records and sensitive conditions.
    32. 32. Laws about Medical Privacy HIPAA: Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (Administrative Simplifications) Privacy protections Security requirements And also… standardization of identifying codes … government access without a consent requirement
    33. 33. National Health Insurance Can Medicare patients see a “private” doctor? Should there be a national medical record database? Would a national health card turn into a de facto national ID card?
    34. 34. Public Records <ul><li>Property ownership records </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage licenses </li></ul><ul><li>Bankruptcy records </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal records </li></ul><ul><li>What is the effect of computers? </li></ul><ul><li>Aircraft flight plans </li></ul><ul><li>Judges’ financial disclosures </li></ul>
    35. 35. Public vs. Anonymous <ul><li>Should any record available “publicly” be available anonymously? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you decide? </li></ul><ul><li>For on-line records, how do you verify the identity of the person requesting the record? </li></ul>
    36. 36. “Black Boxes” and Surveillance <ul><li>Many new cars have event data recorders </li></ul><ul><li>GPS sensor / recorders </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE Spectrum reports that 25% of rental cars now have GPS devices </li></ul>
    37. 37. RFID Tags <ul><li>Passive radio devices that respond to queries from scanners </li></ul><ul><li>128-bit code (about 3  10 38 codes; enough to identify just about everything on earth!) </li></ul><ul><li>Required by Wal-Mart for cartons, pallets in 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Scenario: You visit an anti-war protest with a friend. Later, at the airport, a government database identifies your sweater as having been at the protest. </li></ul>
    38. 38. About Assignment 2 <ul><li>You will be asked to pick one of five current issues. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Black boxes” for cars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RFID tags and surveillance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read ID </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New warrantless wiretapping law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ phishing” scams </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You will research the issue you pick and follow the directions in the assignment. Note if you pick “phishing”, there are different instructions. </li></ul>
    39. 39. Telemarketing How has the Federal “do not call list” changed the telemarketing business? Is telemarketing a free-speech issue? Why are charities, surveys and political candidates exempt?
    40. 40. Electronic Mail Do you use a business e-mail account? Is it monitored in any way? How do you know? Is spam a free-speech issue?
    41. 41. Children and the Web Are children exposed to potentially dangerous situations because of Internet interactions? Is it ethical for an FBI agent to pose as an eleven year old girl on the Internet? “ On the Internet, nobody knows you’re a dog.” What about collection of personal information from children by businesses? Cartoon by Peter Steiner, reproduced from page 61 of July 5, 1993 issue of The New Yorker, (Vol.69 (LXIX) no. 20)