Lecture 13 (Unit/exam overview )

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Lecture 13 (Unit/exam overview )

  1. 1. OVERVIEW OF MARKETING RESEARCH 450.305
  2. 2. Myths about MR <ul><li>ITS ABOUT COLLECTING DATA! </li></ul><ul><li>No, its about transforming data into information to aid business decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>ITS ALL ABOUT STATISTICS! </li></ul><ul><li>No, a lot of important research is conducted without even involving numbers! </li></ul><ul><li>ITS ALL ABOUT TELEMARKETING! </li></ul><ul><li>Definitely not! MR does not involve selling! </li></ul><ul><li>ITS ALL ABOUT THOSE ANNOYING PHONE SURVEYS! </li></ul><ul><li>No, that is just one or many techniques used! </li></ul>
  3. 3. MR provides information to… Information Used to identify and define market opportunities and problems Generate, refine, and evaluate marketing action Monitor marketing performance Improve understanding of marketing as a process
  4. 4. The MR Context <ul><ul><li>Where does MR fit within business operations? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Essentially, MR is directly related to the marketing practices of a company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeds into the marketing plan – product, pricing, promotion and distribution strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. product development and optimisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., promotional value propositions </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. MR Suppliers & Services LIMITED SERVICE Branded Products and Services Data Analysis Services Analytical Services Coding and Data Entry Services Field Services FULL SERVICE Syndicate Services Standardized Services Customized Services Internet Services RESEARCH SUPPLIERS EXTERNAL INTERNAL
  6. 6. Ethics <ul><ul><li>MR involves 4 stakeholders: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(1) marketing researchers, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(2) the clients, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(3) the respondents, and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(4) the public. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An ethical issue or dilemma arises when the interests of these stakeholders are in conflict and when one or more of the stakeholders are lacking in their responsibilities” (Malhotra, p 24) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Code of ethics – MRSA </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Step 1: Determine the problem <ul><ul><li>Definition of the decision problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determine if problem is a symptom or a true problem, then precisely specify the decision problem </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specification of the research question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The most critical step in the marketing research process </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reformulate in scientific terms and restate the initial variables (how, what, where, when or why ) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition of the research objective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide the guidelines for determining which other marketing research steps must be undertaken </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate the information benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assess the expected benefits to be derived </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>PHASE I: Establish the research parameters Step 1: Marketing Research Determine the problem Step 1 :
  8. 9. Management Decision Problem Vs. Marketing Research Problem <ul><li>Management Decision Problem Should a new product be introduced? </li></ul><ul><li>Should the advertising campaign be changed? </li></ul><ul><li>Should the price of the brand be increased? </li></ul>Marketing Research Problem   To determine consumer preferences & purchase intentions for the proposed new product. To determine the effectiveness of the current advertising campaign.   To determine the price elasticity of demand and the impact on sales and profits of various levels of price changes.
  9. 10. Task 2 : Specify the Research Question <ul><ul><li>Once marketing research problem is identified – we need to develop specific research questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How, when, where, who and why statements </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exploratory applications </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Or develop hypotheses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Statements about possible relationships between two or more market factors </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes the precise variables or constructs to be measured </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generally based on already existing data – used to confirm!! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Step 2: Assess Data Needs <ul><ul><li>Determine the data needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the data needed to execute the research </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assess what types of information sources would be most appropriate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine whether the data can be collected at all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate data availability and quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can the specific research question be addressed with existing data? Secondary data </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does the question require new, firsthand data?Primary data </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>PHASE I: Establish the research parameters Step 2: Marketing Research Assess the data needs
  11. 12. Uses of Secondary Data <ul><li>Save time and costs if relevant – e.g., case studies </li></ul><ul><li>Often the starting point </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Better define the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Develop an approach to the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate an appropriate research design (for example, by identifying the key variables) </li></ul><ul><li>Answer certain research questions and test some hypotheses </li></ul><ul><li>Interpret primary data more insightfully </li></ul><ul><li>MUST EVALUATE SECONDAR DATA – E.G., PURPOSE, ACCURACY, TIME, METHODOLOGY, ETC </li></ul>
  12. 13. Step 3: Select research design PHASE II: Design the research Step 3: What is a research design? A master plan of the methods and procedures that should be used to collect and analyse the data needed by the decision maker. EXPLORATORY, DESCRIPTIVE AND CAUSAL DESIGNS Which research design is best? Depends on the research objectives and the specific data requirements! Marketing Research Select the research design
  13. 14. PHASE II: Design the research Step 3: Marketing Research Select the research design Exploratory Descriptive Causal Qualitative Quantitative Quantitative Focus groups Depth interviews Projective techniques Surveys Observation Experimental; field vs. lab Research design Research method Research technique
  14. 15. PHASE II: Design the research <ul><ul><li>Descriptive/causal  Quantitative research methods: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusive, structured approach </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis is on measurement and quantification of numbers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Surveys, observation (can be qual) and experiments (causal only) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploratory  Qualitative research methods: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open-ended, unstructured flexible approach </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on understanding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus groups, IDIs, projective techniques </li></ul></ul></ul>Step 3: Marketing Research Select the research design
  15. 16. Step 3: Select research design PHASE II: Design the research Step 3: Qualitative Research To gain a qualitative understanding of the underlying reasons and motivations Small number of non-representative cases Unstructured Non-statistical Develop an initial understanding Objective Sample Data Collection Data Analysis Outcome Quantitative Research To quantify the data and generalize the results from the sample to the population of interest Large number of representative cases Structured Statistical Recommend a final course of action Marketing Research Select the research design
  16. 17. When to Use Qualitative Research Method <ul><li>Interested in obtaining some preliminary insights into the motivational, emotional, attitudinal and personality factors that influence marketplace behaviours </li></ul><ul><li>E.g., identifying drivers/barriers of acquisition and choice of custom license plates </li></ul><ul><li>In the process of correctly identifying a business problem or opportunity situation or establishing information requirements </li></ul><ul><li>E.g., identifying issues of customer dissatisfaction in telecommunication services </li></ul><ul><li>In the process of building theories and models to explain marketplace behaviours or relationships between two or more marketing constructs </li></ul><ul><li>e.g., identifying those factors influencing brand loyalty in the shoe retail environment </li></ul><ul><li>Developing reliable & valid scale measurements for investigating specific market factors, consumer qualities and behavioural outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>E.g., important service quality or store attributes to include as items in a questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>Trying to determine the preliminary effectiveness of their marketing strategies on actual marketplace behaviours </li></ul><ul><li>e.g., reactions to new advertising campaign or repositioning strategy. E.g Betts & Betts  Betts </li></ul><ul><li>Interested in new-product or service development or repositioning current product images </li></ul><ul><li>E.g., understanding attitudes and behaviour of grocery purchases and identifying interest in buying groceries over the internet </li></ul>… When decision makers or researchers are:
  17. 18. When to use Quantitative Research <ul><li>Quantitative research is often used for the following outputs for this study: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Describing market characteristics (e.g., attitudes, usage, etc) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relative importance of factors on some dependent variable such as satisfaction, take-up </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demand/preference estimates for existing and potential products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demand/preference changes at various price points (price elasticity) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of key target segments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Market sizing </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 19. A Classification of Qualitative Research Procedures Malhotra, Fig. 5.2 i.e., the purpose of the project is not disguised i.e., the purpose of the project is disguised Direct (Non disguised) Indirect (Disguised) Focus Groups Depth Interviews Projective Techniques Qualitative Research Procedures
  19. 20. A Classification of Observation Methods by Mode of Administration Malhotra Fig. 6.3 Observation Methods Personal Observation Mechanical Observation Trace Analysis Content Analysis Audit
  20. 21. A Classification of Survey Methods Malhotra, Fig. 6.1 Traditional Telephone Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing Mail Interview Mail Panel In-Home Mall Intercept CAPI and Executive E-mail Internet Survey Methods Telephone Personal Mail Electronic
  21. 22. Types of Errors in Survey Research Methods Random sampling errors versus Non-sampling errors Sampling error Error associated with the sampled data results due to some form of natural random chance or random fluctuations in the data estimates. The statistically measured difference between the actual sampled results and the estimated true population results. Non-sampling or systematic error All errors that enter survey research design that are not related to the sampling method or sample size.
  22. 23. A Classification of Experimental Designs Figure 7.1 Pre-experimental One-Shot Case Study One Group Pretest-Posttest Static Group True Experimental Pretest-Posttest Control Group Posttest: Only Control Group Solomon Four-Group Quasi Experimental Time Series Multiple Time Series Statistical Randomized Blocks Latin Square Factorial Design Experimental Designs
  23. 24. A Classification of Experimental Designs Figure 7.1 Pre-experimental One-Shot Case Study One Group Pretest-Posttest Static Group True Experimental Pretest-Posttest Control Group Posttest: Only Control Group Solomon Four-Group Quasi Experimental Time Series Multiple Time Series Statistical Randomized Blocks Latin Square Factorial Design Experimental Designs
  24. 25. Step 4: Determine sampling <ul><ul><li>If secondary data is relevant, no sampling is necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If primary data is sought, sampling is important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consideration must be given to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The defined target population, a subset of the population selected for investigation, using either: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A census—includes every element </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A sample—a randomly selected sub-group of elements </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If a sample is used, then the researcher must consider: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Probability sampling—a known, non-zero chance of selection </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non-probability sampling—no known sampling error </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>PHASE II: Design the research Step 4: Marketing Research Determine the sampling plan
  25. 26. Classification of Sampling Techniques Malhotra 2004, Fig. 11.2 Probability Sampling Techniques Systematic Sampling Stratified Sampling Cluster Sampling Other Sampling Techniques Simple Random Sampling Sampling Techniques Nonprobability Sampling Techniques Convenience Sampling Judgmental Sampling Quota Sampling Snowball Sampling
  26. 27. Determining Appropriate Sample Sizes <ul><ul><li>Three factors play a role in determining the ‘right’ sample size: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The variability of the population characteristic. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The level of confidence desired in the estimate. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The degree of precision desired. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Step 5: Determine measurement <ul><ul><li>Determine the dimensions of the factors being investigated and measure the variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The second most important step in the research process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Key aspects include: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operationalise – determine dimensions and then elements </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What level of information is needed from a variable?  scales required, rate or rank/compare? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Validity and reliability required – face? Construct? Content? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Questionnaire design </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>PHASE II: Design the research Step 5: Marketing Research Determine the measurement issues
  28. 29. Levels of Scales <ul><ul><li>There are four levels of scales of interest to a research team: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nominal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ordinal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interval </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ratio </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These scales differ in terms of 4 properties: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assignment/naming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Order </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Origin </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Principles of Questionnaire Design Cavana et al 2001 Content & purpose of question Sequencing Wording & language Type & form of question Biases in question Classification data Wording Administration Testing Questionnaire Ch 9 Principles of measurement General Appearance
  30. 31. Step 6: Design data collection <ul><ul><li>Determine whether to use questioning or observation techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Questioning allows the researcher to collect a wider array of data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pertains to current behaviour and state of mind </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Questionnaires are the preferred collection method </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pertains to observable or measurable actions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Professional observers or mechanical devices are used </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>PHASE II: Design the research Step 6: Marketing Research Design the data collection forms
  31. 32. Step 7: Prepare data <ul><ul><li>Perform procedural activities that occur before data analysis: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Code the data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Editing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enter the data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clean the data </li></ul></ul></ul>PHASE III: Execute the research Step 7: Marketing Research Prepare the data
  32. 33. Step 8: Analyse data <ul><ul><li>Select the data analysis technique most suited to the task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refer to your objectives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Differing procedures allow the researcher to: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tests of differences </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tests of associations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refer to summary sheets for when to use each technique and interpretation of output </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>PHASE III: Execute the research Step 8: Marketing Research Analyse the data
  33. 34. Step 9: Communicate results <ul><ul><li>Create and communicate information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transform the results and findings into a narrative interpretation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A research report and presentation: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integrates several pieces of the results into an understandable report </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The decision maker can then create an actionable plan to address the initial decision problem </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The report might include: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Executive summary </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem definition and objectives </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Methodology, results and findings </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limitations of the study </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>PHASE IV: Communicate the research results Step 9: Marketing Research Transform the analysis results into information
  34. 35. Example short-answer exam questions <ul><ul><ul><li>Draw a diagram which shows the tasks involved in the first stage of the marketing research process? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Task 1: Define the decision problem  Task 2: Specify the research question  Task 3: Establish the research objectives  Task 4: Evaluate the benefits of the expected information </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is the difference between a marketing research question and a hypothesis? Provide an example of each? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MR questions are statements of how, who, what, when and why, typically used in exploratory applications – e.g., What are the key factors influencing satisfaction? Hypotheses are testable and “if-then” statements about possible relationships between two or more variables/constructs – e.g., H1: the higher the service quality, the higher the satisfaction. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide an example of an open-ended question? Develop a close-ended question. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., How would you describe your experience at UWA so far? (open-ended) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overall, has your experience at UWA been positive – yes/no/don’t know response. (closed-ended) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Offer a clearly focussed problem statement in the broad area of pricing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., do we increase our prices? Do we decrease our prices? What is the optimum price we can set before demand drops? What is the price-elasticity of our product? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 36. Example short-answer exam questions <ul><ul><ul><li>What is one situation when it may be more appropriate to use qualitative rather than quantitative research? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When there is a need to understand the reasons behind people’s behaviour (e.g., car choices) and little is known in the area. The findings can then be used as items in a questionnaire to quantify. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is one difference between qualitative and quantitative research? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Qualitative research relies on unstructured questioning with the human-as-an instrument, whereas quantitative research typically relies on precise measurement and structured questions. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What kind of analysis should be done when a researcher is interested in comparing male and female attitudes towards UWA and why? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Independent sample t-test, because the DV is metric (assuming attitudes is measured on an interval scale) and there are two independent categorical groups (males and females). A t-test would compare the mean attitude ratings between males and females. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long answer: </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. Example long-answer exam questions <ul><ul><ul><li>For the following scenarios, recommend whether you would use observation or a survey technique? Justify your answer. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For the following scenarios, recommend whether you would use qualitative or quantitative research is more appropriate. What technique would you use and justify your answers. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For the following scenarios, would you recommend a probability or non-probability sampling technique? Justify your answer. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Management wants to know whether awareness and attitude towards Nike impacts on purchase. Interpret the analytical findings below and write down what it means. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Below are the outputs of bivariate regression analysis where purchase intentions is the dependent variable and income is the independent variable. Interpret the analytical findings below and write down what it means. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Critique the following set of questions and make suggestions for improvements. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 38. Example long-answer exam questions <ul><ul><ul><li>For the following scenarios, recommend whether you would use observation or a survey technique? Justify your answer. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For the following scenarios, recommend whether you would use qualitative or quantitative research is more appropriate. What technique would you use and justify your answers. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For the following scenarios, would you recommend a probability or non-probability sampling technique? Justify your answer. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Management wants to know whether awareness and attitude towards Nike impacts on purchase. Interpret the analytical findings below and write down what it means. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Below are the outputs of bivariate regression analysis where purchase intentions is the dependent variable and income is the independent variable. Interpret the analytical findings below and write down what it means. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Critique the following set of questions and make suggestions for improvements. </li></ul></ul></ul>

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