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Introduction to Information Management


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Introduction to Information Management

  1. 1. Introduction to Information Management Dr Sherif Kamel Department of Management School of Business, Economics and Communication
  2. 2. Information – “Concept” <ul><li>… Information as a fact </li></ul><ul><li>… Information as a tool </li></ul><ul><li>… Information as a way of living </li></ul><ul><li>… Information as a society </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Information Technology (IT) </li></ul><ul><li>Information Systems (IS) </li></ul><ul><li>Information (Digital) Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Information Society </li></ul><ul><li>Information Highway (Superhighway) </li></ul><ul><li>Information Forecast </li></ul>Types of Information Information Systems Information Technology
  4. 4. Information Systems (IS) v Information Technology (IT) <ul><li>Variations in the definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Growing impact of communication leading to ICT </li></ul>Management Information Systems (MIS) Information Systems Management (ISM) Business Information Technology (BIT) Business Information Systems (BIS)
  5. 5. How Different People….? <ul><li>perceive information </li></ul><ul><li>interpret information </li></ul><ul><li>use information </li></ul><ul><li>acquire information </li></ul><ul><li>disseminate information </li></ul>
  6. 6. Information Definitions <ul><li>There are too many definitions for information </li></ul><ul><li>Information as a definition ranges from narrow and uninformative to broad and unspecific </li></ul><ul><li>There is a need to differentiate between… </li></ul>Data Information Knowledge
  7. 7. The Age of Access <ul><li>Markets are giving way to networks </li></ul><ul><li>Everything is becoming a part of the service economy </li></ul><ul><li>Access becoming a way of life </li></ul>Customer Customer =
  8. 8. Definition <ul><li>Information is knowledge communicated concerning… </li></ul>Fact Issue Incident Subject Event
  9. 9. It is all about… <ul><li>Information dissemination (intelligence, communication) </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge acquisition (through investigation, instruction, studies) </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange of information </li></ul><ul><li>Input-Processing-Output </li></ul><ul><li>Information-Decision Life Cycle </li></ul>
  10. 10. Information, Data and Knowledge <ul><li>Information is processed, analyzed or investigated data </li></ul><ul><li>Information is knowledge derived from data </li></ul><ul><li>Information is data placed within a context </li></ul><ul><li>Information is the amount of uncertainty reduced when a message is received </li></ul><ul><li>Information is a difference that makes a difference </li></ul>
  11. 11. Information and Different Disciplines Psychology Management Science Organizational Behavior Mathematics
  12. 12. Information Systems (IS) – Sub Systems <ul><li>Management Support Systems (MSS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision Support Systems (DSS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert Systems (ES) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial Intelligence (AI) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive Information/Support Systems (EIS/ESS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enterprise Information Systems (EIS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Base Management Systems (DBMS) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Office Automation Systems (OAS) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Information for Business <ul><li>Status/forecasts </li></ul><ul><li>Type (qualitative/quantitative) </li></ul><ul><li>Market trends/projections </li></ul><ul><li>Decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Channels (direct/Indirect) </li></ul><ul><li>Communication (formal/informal) </li></ul><ul><li>Technical/managerial </li></ul>
  14. 14. Characteristics of Information <ul><li>Pertinent (relevant) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must relate to business at hand and to matters important to the individual and help realize objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Timely </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be timely to realize maximum effect to its context of application </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accurate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be extremely accurate to be able to predict the future </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduced Uncertainty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves a difference that makes a difference </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Element of surprise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Informing something that was not known before </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. MIS definition <ul><li>The effective design, delivery and use of information systems in organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Development and implementation of information systems in organizations </li></ul>Peter Keen Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  16. 16. Organizational Components of IS People Databases Departments and Units Information Systems and Procedures Activities and Projects
  17. 17. IS levels in the Organization <ul><li>Organizations are composed of information systems at different levels entailing various levels of systems analysis and design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top management (senior/executive) level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle (tactical) level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational (first-line) level </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Types of Information Systems Personal Information Systems (Example – Sales) <ul><li>Sales representatives assigned to specific products or geographical areas should not be operating independently; they need to coordinate their efforts to avoid duplications </li></ul><ul><li>Assign customers to sales representatives through follow-up calls and scheduled contacts </li></ul>Personal Information Systems
  19. 19. Types of Information Systems Workgroup Information Systems (Example – Telemarketing) <ul><li>Telemarketing with prospective customers need to be well coordinated to avoid duplications </li></ul><ul><li>One-to-one marketing versus broadcast marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Working on shifts and rotation basis </li></ul>Workgroup Information Systems
  20. 20. Types of Information Systems Enterprise Information Systems (Example – University) <ul><li>Revenue generation system integrates the revenue generation activities of all departments across the enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>Information flows across different departments pending security levels </li></ul><ul><li>It includes a variety of interrelated systems according to the organization’s activities </li></ul>Enterprise Information Systems
  21. 21. It is important to note that… <ul><li>Information systems are effective if only they facilitate the goals and objectives of the people who use them, this could be observed by the degree of facilitation realized in… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Information Systems Ethics <ul><li>Copyright issues </li></ul><ul><li>Misuse of information/information systems </li></ul><ul><li>Use of organizational resources for personal issues </li></ul><ul><li>Non-conformity with information systems security measures </li></ul><ul><li>Passing IS accessibility levels without permission </li></ul>
  23. 23. Technological Transformations Timeline <ul><li>1951 – computers were used in business (UK) </li></ul><ul><li>1960s – network concepts started to rise </li></ul><ul><li>1975 – first mass-production of computers </li></ul><ul><li>1978 – first spreadsheet program (VisiCalc) </li></ul><ul><li>1979 – first word processing program (WordStar) </li></ul><ul><li>1984 – Macintosh </li></ul><ul><li>1989 – Emergence of electronic mail </li></ul><ul><li>1990s – growth of the world wide web </li></ul><ul><li>Late 1990s – mobile technology arrives </li></ul>
  24. 24. It all started in 1838 <ul><li>On 6 January, Samuel Morse invented the telegraph system (New Jersey) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It used electric impulses to transmit encoded messages over a wire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morse code (dots and dashes represented letters and numbers) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>From Telegraph (1838) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To…Phone (Alexander Graham Bell-1876) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To…Facsimile (Alexander Bain-1843) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To…eMail (Ray Tomlinson-1970's) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Electro Wireless Key
  25. 25. ICT4D <ul><li>The telephone has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication, the device is inherently of no value to us </li></ul><ul><li>Western Union internal memo, 1876 </li></ul><ul><li>I think there is a world market for maybe five computers </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Watson, chairman of IBM, 1943 </li></ul><ul><li>Computers in the future may weigh as little as 1.5 tons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular Mechanics, 1944 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>640K ought to be enough for anybody </li></ul><ul><li>Bill Gates, 1981 </li></ul><ul><li>But what . . . is it good for? </li></ul><ul><li>IBM Engineer commenting on the microchip , 1968 </li></ul><ul><li>There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ken Olson, Chairman and Founder of DEC, 1977 </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. The World Today <ul><li>Economics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Productivity is people-bound with more than 15% of senior management working during holidays, global implications over 1 trillion US dollars annually </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Globalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition around the clock through wireless connectivity – over 82 billion emails exchanged every 24 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Demographics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 2008, only in the US, there will be over 6 million IS/IT related vacant jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tourism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 60% reservations are done online, all eTickets starting January 2007 </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Capital Expenditure in IT <ul><li>Worldwide businesses spend around 1 trillion US dollars per year on IT (software, hardware and services) </li></ul><ul><li>An additional 2 trillion US dollars are spent on telecommunication services </li></ul>
  28. 28. InformationWeek
  29. 29. CIO Insight
  30. 30. ClickZ