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  2. 2. I Would Like To Begin By Requesting An Indulgence From You... <ul><li>Not surprising for a retired professor from a small, Midwest Catholic University… </li></ul><ul><li>To Introduce The Presentation Through A “Set” Of (Perhaps Mundane) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Propositions , Implications , & Deductions </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Fundamental Proposition #1... <ul><li>1. Desired Organizational Outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>~ e.g., Increased Revenues / Enhanced Profitability ~ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stem From Individual & Group Work Products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Throughout The Company </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These, In Turn Are … </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Outcomes Accomplishments Behaviors
  4. 4. <ul><li>Individual Or Collective Employee Actions </li></ul><ul><li>Leads To Proposition # 2: … </li></ul>2 . The Byproducts Of... ~ I.e., Individual Results &/Or Group Accomplishments ~ Outcomes Accomplishments Behaviors
  5. 5. <ul><ul><li>The Fundamental Cornerstone Of Desired Work Outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3a. Getting Enough Of The Right Activities From Employees = Critical Prerequisite To Attainment Of Prized Results </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accordingly, Proposition 3 : </li></ul></ul></ul>3. Human Behavior Is... “ Behavior” Is An Organization’s Most Precious Commodity Whichever “They” May Be?
  6. 6. 4. Interventions … <ul><ul><li>Will Be Most Effective When They Target & Improve These Right ‘Outcome-Critical’ Behaviors … But Which Behaviors??? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5. Which Behaviors Qualify As “Right” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depends On The Desired Outcome </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Early On, “We” Outlined… <ul><ul><li>A General Way Of Thinking About The Targeting Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plus Provided Some Specific Criteria To Guide It’s Selection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>We Described Targeting As A Process Of : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Identifying Which Behaviors ~ Out Of Potentially Large Number Of Worker Activities ~ Are Relevant To The Prized Goal & Then… </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. B. Selecting One Or More ... <ul><ul><li>Of These To Be The Focus Of Improvement Efforts… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A Disclaimer: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Admittedly, Both Identification & Selection Complicated By The Kinds Of Temporal & Hierarchical Relationships That Exist Between An Outcome & The Various Behaviors Upon Which “It” May Depend … </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>This Is Tantamount To Acknowledging That... </li></ul>
  9. 9. 6. Individual Results Almost Always <ul><ul><li>Depend On The Emission Of Multiple Behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sales Outcomes = Good Examples Of This “Many-To-One” Relationship </li></ul><ul><li>A ‘Sale’ Usually Can Be Traced Back To Variety Of Behaviors Including … </li></ul>
  10. 10. ~ Acquiring/Qualifying Prospects As Potential Customers <ul><li>~ Achieving One Or More Meetings </li></ul><ul><li>`Via Telephone Or ‘In Person’ </li></ul><ul><li>~ Presenting / Discussing Certain Kinds Of Information During These Meetings </li></ul><ul><li>~ Offering Prospect Opportunity To Make A Buying Decision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~ And So On </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Almost Always, Targeting… <ul><li>Involves Selection Of One Or A Subset Of These Behavior Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On The Presumption That… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improving One Or More “Key” Action(s) Will Lead To More Of The Desired Organizational Result </li></ul>
  12. 12. These ‘Kinds’ Of Behaviors = “ Special Status ” <ul><li>All Are Part Of A PRIMARY SEQUENCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>That Is... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They Are Directly Responsible For Establishing The Conditions Necessary For The Desired Result </li></ul>
  13. 13. Possible Analogues: <ul><li>“ Great” Lectures = More Likely </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If Delivered From Prepared & Recently Reviewed Notes, If Practiced, If Critiqued, If Interactive, If Contain Audio/Visual Materials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Useful Research Results More Probable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If Derived From Behaviors Involved In Carefully Planning & Designing Experiments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Fruitful” Therapy Sessions More Likely </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If Preceded By Review Of Patient’s Case History </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. In These Examples, The Relationship Between Prized Accomplishment & Selected Target <ul><li>Are In Direct Line/Sequence With One Another </li></ul><ul><li>Logical </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively Obvious </li></ul><ul><li>Baselines Believed To Be ‘Improve-able’ </li></ul><ul><li>Seemingly Pivotal To Success … </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All Of Which Define … </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>RELEVANCE, Primary (?), Direct (?)… </li></ul>????????????????? Outcome Accomplishment
  15. 15. <ul><li>Visible , Expected </li></ul><ul><li>Crucial , Critical </li></ul><ul><li>Foremost , </li></ul><ul><li>Obvious , </li></ul><ul><li>Direct , </li></ul><ul><li>Essential/Pivotal , </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Or … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uptime ??? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not To Be Confused With Usage In Manufacturing Settings </li></ul></ul></ul>Possible Synonyms For “Primary” Targets
  16. 16. Admittedly, The Intended Result ~ e.g., The Customer’s Decision To Buy ~ … <ul><ul><li>Depends On Additional Agreement Behaviors NOT Fully Controllable By The SP … HOWEVER , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When A Sale Does Occur, It Can … </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Precipitate Other, Secondary Behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For Example, Activities Involved In ... </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. ~ Order Fulfillment <ul><li>~ Documentation </li></ul><ul><li>~ Follow-Up Actions , Etc. … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>None Of Which Contribute Directly To Sales In Same Way As Primary Behaviors </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Other Examples Of Secondary Task Behaviors <ul><li>Completing Call Reports </li></ul><ul><li>Timely Input Of Client Product Expectations To Manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Supplying Critical Information To Other Support Personnel </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Again, None Of These Activities Contribute Directly To Sales In Same Way As Primary Behaviors </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Secondary Behaviors & Teaching ? Better Lectures &… <ul><li>Journal Reading </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tutorial Help / Additional Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Updating Notes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection/Preparation Of Audio-Visual Supports </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Although Not In Direct Sequence Leading To Prized Outcome , </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These Actions Support The Matriculation &/Or Perpetuation Of The Desired Performance(s) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Possible Synonyms For “Secondary” Behaviors <ul><li>Indirect , </li></ul><ul><li>Support , </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitative , </li></ul><ul><li>Mundane , </li></ul><ul><li>Non-visible , </li></ul><ul><li>Auxiliary , </li></ul><ul><li>Minor , </li></ul><ul><li>Derivative , </li></ul><ul><li>Oblique , &/Or … </li></ul><ul><li>Down- &/Or Off-time ??? </li></ul>
  21. 21. Secondary Behaviors Also Have Special Status <ul><li>They Do Not Contribute To The End Result In Same Way As Primary Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>This = Important Distinction Since </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary & Secondary Tasks Often Stand In Mutually Exclusive &/Or Reciprocal Relation To One Another </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. That Is… <ul><li>The Performance Of One Type Usually Precludes The Concurrent Occurrence Of The Other … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>YET... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Very Little Mention Of Them In The OBM Literature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All Of Which Leads To A Deduction </li></ul></ul>When One Is ‘Happening,’ The Other Can’t
  23. 23. Time Devoted To Execution Of ... <ul><ul><li>Secondary Task Behaviors Can Limit Time Available For Occurrences Of Primary Behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thus … </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Inefficient Performances Of Secondary Task Activities May RETARD Primary Task Progress Significantly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thereby Depressing Opportunities For Desired Results </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Yet, Most Common OBM Targeting Strategy By Far … <ul><li>Has Been To Select Primary Behaviors For Intervention As Means Of Improving … </li></ul><ul><li>Sales </li></ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Service Efficiency/Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing Throughput </li></ul>
  25. 25. Possible Assumptions Underlying This Strategy <ul><li>1. Task-Related Behaviors That Are NOT In ‘Direct’ Sequence With Outcomes Either Are Seen As Relatively Unimportant </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Will Take Care Of Themselves In The Course Of Improving Primary Task Performance </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>~ Important Mandatory Secondary Tasks Exist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>& Where … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>~ Their Performances Do Not Automatically Improve As Primary Behavior Targets Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indeed … May Explain Why Targeting Primary Behaviors Sometimes Has Led To ... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Only Modest Improvement Or </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even None At All </li></ul></ul>These Assumptions NOT Applicable In Situations Where … See Our OBMNet Paper
  27. 27. Present Study = An Opportunity… <ul><ul><li>To Explore More Fully Role Of Secondary Task (ST) Performances In Contributing To Overall Sales Success, E.g., PT Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Context: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Out-Bound TM Sales Environment Where Usual Primary Behaviors Exhibited By Reps (TMRs) Involved … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiation & Conduct Of Out-Bound Sales Calls Interspersed With </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Various Necessary Secondary Tasks </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. The Organization <ul><li>Upper Midwest Distribution Firm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Primary Outcome Was To Secure As Many Orders As Possible For Truck-Repair Parts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outcome = 50% Sales Increase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales Flat Prior 2 Yrs.; Co. Had Tried Many “Motivational” Strategies To Remedy </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Warehouses Were... <ul><ul><ul><li>Located Throughout Continent in order to Reduce Delivery Time (Shades Of JIT) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sales Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single Outside SP => Primary Responsibility For Large A ccounts (e.g., Ryder) … BUT … As Noted ... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary Thrust = TELEMARKETING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TM Department Divided By U.S. Regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Staffed & Scheduled accordingly </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Each TMR given <ul><li>Territory </li></ul><ul><li>Terminal </li></ul><ul><li>Catalogs </li></ul><ul><li>Phone </li></ul><ul><li>Daily “Call” Sheet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Of 3 Call Types </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Desk/Booth </li></ul>
  31. 31. Secondary Tasks Included … <ul><li>Order Fulfillment </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Follow-Up </li></ul><ul><li>A Careful Job Analysis + Preliminary Observations Suggested That … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary Task Performance Was Especially Poor & Inefficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Result … </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. TMRs Spent Far More Time Than Needed Completing Post-Sales Tasks <ul><ul><li>Left Too Little Time For Critical Pre-Sale Primary Behaviors … Especially </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Call Initiation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Thus ... </li></ul>
  33. 33. Instead Of Exclusively Focusing On Call Initiation (A PT Behavior) … <ul><li>Present Study Involved Interventions Aimed Primarily At Secondary Tasks </li></ul><ul><li>This Permitted Determination Of Whether Primary Behaviors Would Increase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If Released From Inhibition Exerted By Inefficient Secondary Task Performances </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Actually, A “Bit” More Complicated <ul><li>‘ Freeing’ Up Time Does Not Guarantee That Employees Spontaneously Will Devote More Effort To Needed Primary Task (PT) Activities … </li></ul>
  35. 35. More Time Due To Efficient ST Performances Instead Could Result In More … <ul><li>Gossiping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended Breaks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unauthorized Calls …. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>THUS … </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>A Secondary Target Selected </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased (Cold) Call Attempts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To Summarize: </li></ul>ST Behaviors PT Behavior(s) First Then Next
  36. 36. Project Designed To Evaluate Predictions That… <ul><li>1. Free Time Could Be Increased By Deploying Interventions That … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contingent On Timely Emission Of ST Activities That, In Turn, Should … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Allow For Effectiveness Of An Intervention Directed At Increasing Call Attempts (Dialings) </li></ul>
  37. 37. This, In Turn, Should Result In… <ul><li>3. More Daily Calls &… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accordingly, In … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. More Sales/TMR/Mo </li></ul><ul><li>N.B., TMRs Historically Completed All Prescheduled Client & Prime-Prospect Calls … So… </li></ul>
  38. 38. Increased Numbers Of Calls Really Meant <ul><li>More Daily ‘Cold’ Dialings / Calls </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 rd Authorized Call Type </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Subjects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Of 53 Persons Employed At Various Times Throughout Study, 33 Remained Constant For All Interventions (24 Mo) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6 Males </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avg. Age 30.12 Y </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avg. Education = 13.6 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avg. Length Of Co. Employment = 17 Mo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Salaried – No Commissions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 39. 3 Challenges To Our Plan <ul><li>1. Identification Of All Potentially Legitimate ST Activities & </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Way To Know Whether/Not Each Emitted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Development Of A Credible Way Of Measuring The Efficiency With… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which These ST Activities Were Emitted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>That Also Intervention Sensitive </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 40. 3. Development Of 2 nd Measure That <ul><li>If Changed, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Credibly Capitalized On Freed Time By “Channeling” Effort Toward Emission Of More PT Behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenge # 1 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification Of All ST Activities </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. The Focus Group <ul><li>Select TMRs & The RSMs I dentified All Activities That Might Be Needed For </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparing & Following Up On Each Call Type </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resulted In Very Long List </li></ul>
  42. 42. List Thereafter Repeatedly... <ul><ul><li>Combined, Refined & Pruned </li></ul></ul><ul><li>R ESULT : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>52 “ST” Activities = Candidates For Legitimate Occurrence In Connection With The 3 Call Types </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Challenge # 2 : Development Of A Measure That... <ul><li>A. Credibly Reflected ST Performance & </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Was Intervention Sensitive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focus Group Next Estimated “ Fair Average Times ” For Each Activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provided Means To Convert Activity To Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disparities Handled By Averaging RSM & TMR Estimates </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. RESULT: <ul><li>“ ST” A CTIVITIES C HECKLIST .…. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T he Tracking Instrument </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Underwent Several, Ongoing Refinements </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 45. 3-Step Scoring Procedure
  46. 46. Step 1 : From The ST Activities List... <ul><ul><li>“ Earned S econdary T ask T ime ” ( EST) = Number Of Times Each Activity Emitted X Time Alotted & Totaled </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Step 2 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7-h Work Period - ( EST + 20-m Break Time + Total Legitimate Phone Time ) = W asted T ime (WT) / TMR / Shift </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Step 3 : Calculating S econdary T ask E fficiency (STE) <ul><ul><li>STE = { EST /( WT + EST )} X 100 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>References Available Portion Of Given Shift That Was “Earned” By Emission Of Legitimate “Secondary” Activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>100% Meant That All Available Non-Phone Time Was Occupied By Legitimate S econdary- T ask A ctivities </li></ul>
  48. 48. An Example <ul><li>Worksheet: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total Time (7 h) = 25,200 s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Break Time = 1,200 s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PT (supplied by computer) = 11,052 s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Available Time = 12,948 s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Checklist STT {(5,890 sec) / Available Non - PTT (12,948 sec) } x 100 = </li></ul><ul><ul><li>45.49% S ECONDARY T ASK E FFICIENCY ( STE ) </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. 2 Crosscheck Procedures <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TMRs Tallied On Daily ST Activity List </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1. RSMs Did 1500+ Crosschecks Of Sets 10 Randomly-Chosen Activities/TMR/wk </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agreement Ratios With TMR Self-Reports </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avg. Agreement Ratio = 89% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>< 7% Below 80% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>> 500 = 100% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. GM Crosschecked Scoring Of RSMs & STE Efficiency Calculations </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>250 Over Study = < 1% Imperfect Agreement Ratios </li></ul></ul></ul>Unpredictable Crosschecks & Elimination Of Threat
  50. 50. Challenge # 3 : 2nd Measure To... <ul><li>Guide Appropriate Usage Of “Freed Time” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I.e., To Direct Efforts Toward Making More Sales </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cold Call Efficiency : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CCE = { CCC /( CCC + PCC )} X 100 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>P otential C old C alls = WT/180 s </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Summary Of The Measures <ul><li>STE </li></ul><ul><li>CCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plus Measures That Referenced Accomplishments / Results & The Prized Organizational Outcome </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dialings </li></ul><ul><li>Completed Cold (& Total) Calls </li></ul><ul><li>Monthly Sales/TMR </li></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>OUTCOME </li></ul><ul><li>Higher Order Accomplishment </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Order Accomplishment </li></ul><ul><li>PT Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>ST Behaviors </li></ul>Can Now Complete The BM Triangle... 50% More Sales Increase # Dialings STE Increase # Cold Calls CCE
  53. 53. Project Overview: 2 Phases <ul><ul><li>Acquisition & Maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acquisition : 11 1/2 m </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intervention Sequence Directed At Improving Efficiency Of Both Secondary &, Later, Primary Activities - </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maintenance : 12 m </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial Portion = Maintenance Of Changes Achieved In Phase 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Final Portion = Full Intervention Withdrawal </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Phase-1 Design <ul><li>Baseline , then </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention # 1 ( ST Behaviors: Intro To Checklist + Self Tally) </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention # 2 ( ST Measures : Intro To “Fair Standards” + Scoring) </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention # 3 (STE Posting) </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention # 4 (CCE Posting) </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention # 5 (Unplanned) </li></ul><ul><li>Two Social Interventions (Performance Development; Sales Review) ON ... </li></ul><ul><li>Region X Region Basis </li></ul>Bsln Int#1 Int#2 Int#3 etc... { TC “Components” Int#4 Multiple Baseline & Components Analysis
  55. 55. Region Variable = NS Average Secondary Task Efficiency (% STE )
  56. 56. Baseline Information <ul><li>ST List Similar To One Already In Use … Thus, No Resistance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Fresh” ST Lists Handed Out Daily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TMRs Given Only Enough Information To Make Tally Marks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scored By PD & RSMs During Baseline Period </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Baseline Period = 50 d </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modest Changes To ST List = Statistically Inconsequential Changes In Daily Scores </li></ul></ul></ul>
  57. 57. --- Task Clarification --- 1 st & Last 5 Data Points
  58. 58. --- Task Clarification --- 1 st & Last 5 Data Points
  59. 59. --- Task Clarification --- 1 st & Last 5 Data Points
  60. 60. Intervention # 1 : ST-Behavior ( 30d) What/Why/Requirements? <ul><li>‘ Component’ Of BTC : Communicating, Defining, Discussing Behavioral Requirements Of Tasks, Missions, Purposes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Typed List </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each Item Defined </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Statement Of How Measured </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Statement(s) Of Purposes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Statement Of What Required Of Employee </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guarantees </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open Discussion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  61. 61. --- Task Clarification --- 1 st & Last 5 Data Points
  62. 62. --- Task Clarification --- 1 st & Last 5 Data Points
  63. 63. --- Task Clarification --- 1 st & Last 5 Data Points
  64. 64. Intervention # 2: ST-Measures (14 d) - 2 nd Component Of BTC <ul><li>New Checklist With Times Inscribed Next To Each Activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calculation Procedure Introduced & Trained </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effort Made To Help TMR “Connect” Relationship Between Numbers Of New Prospects & Magnitude Of Daily STE Score </li></ul>
  65. 65. --- Task Clarification --- 1 st & Last 5 Data Points
  66. 66. --- Task Clarification --- 1 st & Last 5 Data Points
  67. 67. --- Task Clarification --- 1 st & Last 5 Data Points
  68. 68. Intervention # 3: STE Performance Posting (53 d) <ul><li>Line Graph </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Located At End Of Aisle Behind Plexiglas Bulletin Boards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Daily, </li></ul><ul><li>Individual, </li></ul><ul><li>Consistently Updated, </li></ul><ul><li>Discussed, </li></ul><ul><li>Stated Non-Competitive, </li></ul><ul><li>Guaranteed Non-Aversive , </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>DAILY STE SCORE
  69. 69. --- Task Clarification --- 1 st & Last 5 Data Points
  70. 70. ??
  71. 71. --- Task Clarification --- 1 st & Last 5 Data Points
  72. 72. --- Task Clarification --- 1 st & Last 5 Data Points
  73. 73. Intervention # 4: CCE Posting (27 d) <ul><li>Separate Graph, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Daily, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used As Prompt ... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For TMRs To Use Free Time To Make More Cold Calls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Not Expected To Affect STE Scores, BUT Expected To Affect CCE , Dialings & Cold-Calls Scores </li></ul>
  74. 74. --- Task Clarification --- 1 st & Last 5 Data Points
  75. 75. 1 st & Last 5 Data Points
  76. 76. --- Task Clarification --- 1 st & Last 5 Data Points
  77. 77. --- Task Clarification --- 1 st & Last 5 Data Points
  78. 78. Intervention # 5: Unplanned Intervention (17 d) <ul><li>New Market </li></ul><ul><li>New Script </li></ul><ul><li>New Catalog </li></ul>
  79. 79. --- Task Clarification ---
  80. 81. --- Task Clarification ---
  81. 82. --- Task Clarification ---
  82. 83. Intervention # 6: Performance Development – 2 Stages (39 + 57d) : <ul><ul><li>Introduced To Counter Downward Trend In STE Scores Following The ‘Unplanned’ Intervention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage 1 : RSMs Trained In Coaching & Social-Skill Rudiments </li></ul><ul><li>Video Tapes Developed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-scored Using ST Checklist, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used To Teach RSMs How To Make In Vivo Observations Of Relevant TMR Behaviors </li></ul></ul>
  83. 84. RSMs Scored Tapes Until ... <ul><li>Protocols Identical To Those Developed By PIs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All Achieved 90% Scores </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Role-Playing Used To Teach Prompting , </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cueing, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On-Job Training, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouragement, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contingent Praise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RSMs Encouraged To Practice These Skills On TMRs During Stage 1 </li></ul>
  84. 85. --39 d --
  85. 89. Stage 2 (57 d): <ul><li>Systematic Application On Daily Basis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To TMRs Whose Scores Unimproved </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RSMs Used Checklists To </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Track Key Aspects Of TMR Transactions, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Record Notes To Use In Follow-Up Meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sales GM Aperiodically Monitored Checklists </li></ul>
  86. 90. -- 57 d -- -- Task Clarification --
  87. 94. Intervention # 7: Weekly Sales Reviews (30 d) <ul><li>Individual RSM/TMR Meetings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss Weekly STE & Monthly Sales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coaching/S R Continued </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused On Employees Whose Scores Were </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Highly Variable </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No Change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drifting Downward </li></ul></ul></ul>
  88. 95. --- Task Clarification ---
  89. 97. --- Task Clarification ---
  90. 98. --- Task Clarification ---
  91. 100. Correlations, Correlations Baseline ST Behaviors ST Measures ST Feedback Unplanned Intervention CC Feedback Performance Development Sales Review Maintenance ---Task Clarification---
  92. 101. Baseline ST Behaviors ST Measures ST Feedback Unplanned Intervention CC Feedback Performance Development Sales Review Maintenance ---Task Clarification---
  93. 102. Correlations, Correlations <ul><li>Predictions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlation Size & Controllable Factors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coefficients Should Be Highest Between: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. & 2. STE Vs. Dialings & </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dialings Vs. Cold Calls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>3. STE Vs. Calls, Then… </li></ul><ul><li>4. STE Vs. Sales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All Coefficients Averaged Via Quarterly Groupings Of Data </li></ul></ul>
  94. 103. Correlations, Correlations <ul><li>X r = .84 STE Vs. Dialings </li></ul><ul><li>X r = .84 Dialings Vs. Calls </li></ul><ul><li>X r = .73 STE Vs. Completed Calls </li></ul><ul><li>X r = .70 STE Vs. Sales </li></ul><ul><li>X r = .55 & .54 Dialings & Calls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vs. Sales </li></ul></ul>
  95. 104. Phase 2 : Maintenance Baseline ST Behaviors ST Measures ST Feedback Unplanned Intervention CC Feedback Performance Development Sales Review Maintenance ---Task Clarification---
  96. 105. Baseline ST Behaviors ST Measures ST Feedback Unplanned Intervention CC Feedback Performance Development Sales Review Maintenance ---Task Clarification---
  97. 106. Quotas Met During This Period Quotas NOT Met During Final Months Project Discontinued
  98. 107. OBM Net Paper “Promises” <ul><li>Feedback Gains Seemed To Vary Inversely With BTC Gains </li></ul><ul><li>BTC Effects Again Seemed Irreversible </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons Learned About </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When Things Don’t Go As Planned </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hybrid Intervention Was V ERY Effective </li></ul><ul><li>Common Objections To Praise </li></ul>
  99. 108. Top-Down Ambivalence & Praise <ul><li>Praise Seemingly Critical For… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fullest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most Enduring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational Change, Yet… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Much Organizational Resistance In Spite Of Being ‘Legal-Proof’ </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance Revolves Around 6 Common Themes (Complaints/Objections) </li></ul>
  100. 109. 1. ‘Equivalence’ Theme <ul><ul><li>Compensation & Praise Rely On Same Mechanism – </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Giving One Obviates Need For Giving The Other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often Gives Rise To The Statement: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Why Should I Praise When S(he) Is Already Paid To Perform” </li></ul>
  101. 110. 2. ‘Overstated-Worth’ Theme <ul><ul><li>Praise Will Be Taken By Recipient As Evidence Of An Elevation In Their Overall Worth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Praise Accordingly Will Lead To Increased Demands For More Wages, Promotions, Special Privileges, Etc…. </li></ul>
  102. 111. 3. ‘Complacency’ Theme <ul><ul><li>Recognition For Good Performance Calls Attention To Its Above-Average Nature , Thus Attenuating Motivation To Strive Harder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Praise Increases The Discriminative Value Of Fair-Day Standard, Thus Making Salient That Further Work Will Be Personally Superfluous </li></ul>
  103. 112. 4. ‘Overgeneralization’ Theme <ul><ul><li>Praise For Particular Performance Mistaken As Tacit Appreciation For Other Average Or Even Unworthy Performances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Surfaces When Mgr. Asked To Give Praise To Generally Sub-Performing Employee Who Also May Be A Discipline Problem </li></ul>
  104. 113. 5. ‘Manipulation’ Theme <ul><ul><li>Planned Mgr. Praise Is Exploitative & Artificial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unfair To Employee Because Effects Exceedingly Likely At Rediculously Low Organizational Cost </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Tangible Value To Worker = Negligible </li></ul>
  105. 114. 6. ‘Reinforcement Insufficiency’ Theme <ul><ul><li>Dispensing Praise Impossible In Environments Where Personal Recognition = Generally Absent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mgrs. Reluctant To Dispense Praise When They Do Not, Themselves, Receive Any </li></ul></ul></ul>